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Society are at 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The officers of the Society for the year 1916-17 are as follows:
President, J. G. Phelps Stokes; Treasurer, Mary R. Sanford; Secretary, Leroy Scott; Organizing Secretary, Harry W. Laidler.
Undergraduate Chapters are located in the following
Albion, Amherst, Barnard, Bates, Beloit, Berkeley Divinity, Brown, California, Carnegie Inst. Technology, Chicago, Cincinnati, City College, (N. Y.), Clark, Čolorado, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, East Tennessee Normal, Emory and Henry, George Washington, Grinnell, Hamline, Harvard, Howard, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Iowa State, John Marshall Law, Johns Hopkins, Kansas Agricultural, La Crosse Normal, Los Angeles Osteopathic, Mass. Inst. Technology, Miami, Michigan, Middle Tenn. Normal, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, New York Dental, New York Law, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oberlin, Ohio State, Ohio Wesleyan, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Radcliffe, Randolph Macon, Rich mond, Rutgers, Simmons, Simpson, South Carolina, Springfield, Syracuse, Temple, Trinity, Union Theological, Utah, Valparaiso, Vassar, Virginia, Washington (Wash.), Washington-Jefferson, Washington and Lee, Wisconsin, Yale.
Alumni Chapters exist in Buffalo, Central California, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, New York, Portland, Schenectady, Seattle, St. Louis, Springfield, Washington, Wilkes-Barre.
11. THE CHRISTIAN SOCIALISTS.
The Christian Socialist movement of the '80s and '90s, led by such men as W. D. P. Bliss, R. T. Ely and George D. Herron, was non-Marxian and unconnected with the Socialist Party of that time. Since 1900, however, Christian Socialism has stood for the movement within the Socialist Party of those who believe that only by means of the Socialist Commonwealth can Christian principles be applied in society.
The chief organization at present is the Christian Socialist Fellowship, a revival of the society existing several years ago under that name. The organ is the Christian Socialist, published at Chicago by the chief executive, Rev. Irwin Tucker. The Christian Socialist League is an organization belonging to the Episcopal Church, its organ being The Social Preparation and its national secretary, Rev. A. S. Byron-Curtis, of Newark, N. J.
It is important to note that Christian Socialism does not represent a special variety of either Christianity or Socialism, but a union of the two.
12. DIRECTORY OF PARTY OFFICIALS.
I. Socialist Party.
National Executive Secretary:
Adolph Germer, 803 W. Madison St., Chicago.
Representatives on International Socialist Bureau:
Morris Hillquit, 30 Church Street, New York.
Meyer London, House of Representatives, Washington,
National Executive Committee:
Victor L. Berger, 528 Chestnut Street, Milwaukee, Wis.
Anna A. Maley, 140 East 19th Street, New York.
John Spargo, Old Bennington, Vermont.
John M. Work, 1217 Rosedale Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESI-DENT OF THE U. S. IN 1916:
Allan L. Benson, Yonkers, New York.
George R. Kirkpatrick, 66 N. 11th Street, Newark, N. J.
State Secretaries Socialist Party.
Alabama-John Hauge, Robertsdale.
Alaska-Chas. Canty, Valdez.
Arizona-Alice Eddy, 33 South Fourth Ave., Phoenix.
California-T. W. Williams, 629 Wesley Roberts Bldg., Los Angeles.
Connecticut-Martin F. Plunkett, 23 Wallace Bldg., Wallingford.
Dist. of Columbia-J. Webb Richman, 811 E St., N. W., Washington.
Illinois-John C. Kennedy, 803 West Madison St., Chicago, Ill.
Louisiana-J. R. Jones, Georgetown.
Maine-Fred E. Irish, 57 Chestnut St., Bath, Me.
Maryland-Karl Hartig, 1463 Andre St., Baltimore.
Massachusetts-James Oneal, 14 Park Sq., Room 7, Boston.
Michigan-John Keracher, 512 Dix Ave., Detroit.
Minnesota-W. A. Stafford, 1317 Western Ave., Minneapolis.
Mississippi-Ida M. Raymond, R. R. No. 3, Jackson.
Missouri-Otto Vierling, 966 Chateau Ave., St. Louis.
Montana-Albert F. Meissner, Room 34, Silver Bow Block, Butte.
Nebraska-G. C. Porter, Morrill.
Nevada-Justus E Taylor, P. O. Box 6, Reno.
New Hampshire-Fred E. Irish, 57 Chestnut St., Bath, Me.
New Jersey-Milo C. Jones, 124 Market St., Newark.
New Mexico-Mrs. DeRoy Welsh, Norton.
New York-U. Solomon, Room 941, 41 Union Sq., New York City.
North Carolina-B. T. Tiller, Asheville.
North Dakota-H. R. Martinson, Box 717, Minot.
Ohio-O. G. Van Schoyck, 101 N. High St., Columbus.
Oklahoma-H. M. Sinclair, Room 414,, Scott Thompson Bldg., Oklahoma City.
Oregon-Victor J. McCone, Arion Hall, 2311⁄2 Oak St., Portland.
Pennsylvania-Robert B. Ringler, P. O. Box 285, Reading.
South Carolina-Wm. Eberhard, 257 King St., Charleston.
Tennessee-L. R. Robinson, 2609 E. 13th St., Chattanooga.
Utah-C. T. Stoney, 713 First Ave., Salt Lake City.
Washington-D. E. Katterfeld, Box 491, Everett.
West Virginia-Edwin Firth, 1513 Seventh Ave., Huntington.
II. Socialist Labor Party.
Arnold Petersen, 45 Rose Street, New York, N. Y. National Treasurer:
William A. Walters, 45 Rose Street, New York, N. Y.
"Socialism is a theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society, increase of wealth, and a more equal distribution of the products of labor, through the collective ownership of land and capital, and the public management of all industries."
"Socialism is any theory or system of social organization which would abolish entirely, or in greater part, the individual effort and competition on which modern society rests, and substitute for it co-operative action; would introduce a more perfect and equal distribution of the products of labor and would make land and capital as the instruments and means of production, the joint possession of the members of the community."
Webster's International Dictionary.
"Socialism: A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society, with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. In popular usage, the term is often employed to indicate any lawless, revolutionary social scheme."
Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition.
"Socialism is that policy or theory which aims at securing by the action of the central democratic authority a better distribution, and in due subordination thereunto a better production of wealth than now prevails."
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIALIST AND LABOR MOVEMENTS
Dark as the present may be, we have yet no cause to despair for the future of the International. The International lives because it must live!
Next year it will be just seventy years since the first International of Labor, with its program, The Communist Manifesto, was born. But it was only the spirit of the International that was born at that time, not its body, for the International Workingmen's Association, the first international confederation of the revolutionary labor movement, was not organized till 1864. Twelve short years of struggle and effective labor were to be its lot. Then it died of the strife that Bakunin and his followers had roused. Thirteen years later it once more arose stronger and more alive than ever. In the meantime a great proletarian movement had been created, a movement that made war upon capitalist society not only in theory but in the hard practice of daily conflicts.
The first congress of the Second International was held in Paris on July 14, 1889, the hundredth anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, and was attended by 400 delegates from twenty countries. Then followed the International Congresses of Brussels (1891), Zurich (1893), London (1896), where the great anarchist discussion was held, Paris (1900), with the debate on ministerialism, Amsterdam (1904), Stuttgart (1907), Copenhagen (1910), and Basel (1912), the special Peace Congress. The Congress which was to have been held in 1914 in Vienna and which was transferred to Paris shortly before the date set was not held on account of the war.
The war had come, and with it almost automatically the International Socialist Bureau was at a standstill. Emile Vandervelde, its chairman, became a member of the Belgian national defense ministry, and the Bureau itself was transferred to The Hague and placed under the supervision of the Dutch socialists, with Camille Huysmans as secretary. Special conferences were held since the war began. Socialists from the Allied countries met in London, of Germany and Austria in Vienna, of the neutral nations in Copenhagen; the Italian and Swiss socialists also held a conference. These gatherings voted in favor of peace programs all based on opposition to all schemes of annexation and war indemnities and urging the creation of an international board of arbitration in the interests of permanent peace.
An important conference, attended by representatives of various groups, was held at Zimmerwald, Switzerland, in September, 1915, when, for the first time since the outbreak of the war, delegates from the nations fighting one another came together. Forty Socialist representatives of the political and industrial organizations of twelve countries, including Germany and France, were present. The British delegates were unable to attend owing to the difficulties of getting out of England.
This Conference addressed a manifesto to the Socialists of all countries in which all wars were declared wars of aggression, the so-called "civil peace" in the belligerent countries was denounced and the Socialists called upon to wage a relentless opposition to the continuation of the war. The Zimmerwald Conference was followed by another at Kiental, Switzerland, held in April, 1916.
A conference of the Socialist parties of the neutral nations affiliated with the International Socialist Bureau was held at The Hague on July 30 and August 1 and 2, 1916. It was attended by delegates from Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Argentina, and the United States (Algernon Lee). The resolutions adopted advocated free trade between all countries and the freedom of the seas, condemned proposals for a trade war, placed the ultimate responsibility for the war upon the capitalist system, urged a continued struggle for parliamentary government in politically backward countries, declared that a decisive defeat on either side was undesirable and that the present situation was favorable for peace negotiations, and also that the autonomy of nationalities must be realized through democratic decentralization of political institutions.
The following is an account of the Socialist and Labor Movements in the various countries of the world as far as it was possible to prepare under the present conditions of exchange of information.
An Empire, and a so-called constitutional Monarchy, but the government dissolves the Parliament so often and rules without it for such long periods that the "constitution" is mostly "out of order." The Parliament was dissolved in 1913 and since then has never been called together or a new election been ordered. The Parliament-the Reichsrath-is composed of two Houses, the Upper House (Herrenhaus) and the Lower House (Abgeordnetenhaus). The Herrenhaus is partly hereditary and partly nominated by the Emperor, and has about 270 members. The Lower House is elected for six years by manhood suffrage, every male citizen over 24 years of age with a twelve months' qualification having a vote. There are 516 members, who are paid $5.00 per day's attendance. A considerable part of Austria is industrially very highly developed, while the rest has remained purely agrarian. The