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assassin. The brilliant champion of the workers fell a martyr in the cause of peace during the first days of the European conflagration.
Jean Jaurès sprang from the middle class, but no one worked harder than he for the emancipation of the working class. He was well educated, and in his youth taught philosophy at Alli and Toulouse. Politics, especially radicalism, attracted him, and in 1885 he was returned to the Chamber as a Radical Republican. In 1889, after his defeat by a monarchist, he became a Socialist. In 1893 he announced himself as a socialist candidate and was elected by an overwhelming majority.
Jaurès was a man of extraordinary capacity for work. It is doubtful if he had an equal as an orator, and his abilities as a debater were hardly less remarkable. His activities were manifold, including speaking, writing, editing "L'Humanité," the Socialist Party organ,-leading strikes and taking part in party controversies, besides attending assiduously to his duties as deputy.
He was continually in the thick of party affairs, and even when he disagreed with the policy adopted by the party, he was altogether loyal. At the time of the Millerand controversy he opposed Bebel at the International Socialist Congress, in Amsterdam, contending that in a republic, compromise with other parties is possible. But when the vote went against him, he gracefully gave in to the decree of the Congress.
Jaurès was the leading figure at International Socialist congresses, and was recognized as one of the foremost Socialists of the world.
With the passing of Jaurès the International Socialist movement in general and the French movement in particular have sustained a great loss.
EDOUARD VAILLANT. (1840-1915.)
Edouard Vaillant, one of the last of the Old Guard, died after a long and fruitful life on Dec. 19, 1915. Born in Vierson in 1840, Vaillant at the age of 17 obtained the matriculation degree and that of Doctor of Science at 25. His activities extend back to the Franco-Prussian War, and to the exciting days of the Commune that followed. He took part in the Lausanne Congress of the old "International," and spread its principles among the workers. He was elected to Parliament in 1871, and served on the executive commission of the Commune. He had to flee Paris the same year, and when he returned after the Amnesty of 1880 he founded the Journal "Ni Dieu, ni Maitre." He was subsequently
elected to the Chamber many times. At the International Congresses Vaillant was a permanent figure.
The French government took official part in Vaillant's funeral. Viviani, Combes and others of the Cabinet were present. The President sent his representatives. The Socialist Parliamentary group as well as other socialists were there in large numbers.
Vaillant was violently opposed to war. He was famed for his discourses in the Chamber of Deputies in support of a limited period of army service. He favored a democratic militia instead of a standing army. He was co-author with Keir Hardie of the resolution that was to have been presented to the International Socialist Congress in 1914, calling for a general strike of workers in munition factories to prevent war.
Professor Richard T. Ely in "Socialism and Social
Reform," p. 19.
"Socialism is that contemplated system of industrial society which proposes the abolition of private property in the great material instruments of production, and the substitution therefor of collective property; and advocates the collective management of production, together with the distribution of social income by society, and private property in the larger proportion of this social income."
Professor Henry R. Seager, in "Principles of Economics," p. 613.
"Socialism proposes to substitute for private management of industry, state management and for private ownership of the instruments of production, collective ownership."
Professor F. W. Taussig, in "Principles of Economics," Vol. II, p. 443.
"Socialism proposes to do away with the system of private property, and especially with that system so far as it leads to great inequalities. It proposes, above all, to do away with the leisure class, and with incomes from interest and rent, to allow only incomes secured from labor."
Morris Hillquit in "Socialism; Promise or Menace," p. 72.
"Socialism demands the collective ownership and social operation of such industries as depend on the use of social tools and are organized on the basis of collective work; it is not concerned with purely individual pursuits or vocations."
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
WOMAN AND CHILD LABOR.
BY HELEN L. SUMNER.
The problems of woman's work and of child labor are entirely different. The evils connected with the gainful labor of women, except married women and mothers, are essentially the same as those connected with the gainful labor of men. They are primarily physical overstrain, bad working conditions, long hours, and low wages. The evils connected with the gainful labor of children, on the other hand, are primarily associated with the exposure of immature human bodies and minds to conditions which render impossible complete physical and mental development. Nevertheless, these two subjects are so frequently treated together, both in statistical studies and in legislation, that it is convenient to discuss them together here.
In discussing child labor most writers consider only the work of young children,-i. e., of those under 16 years of age. The younger the child undoubtedly the greater the evil of premature labor. But the problems of child labor are not by any means exclusively those connected with the labor of young children. Physiologically and legally young persons under 21 years of age are different from adults. The growth of the human body is not completed until some time between twenty and twenty-five years of age, and up to that time strength is needed, not only for repairing ordinary wastage as in the case of adults, but for physical and mental growth. During these years of growth the mind is plastic and nature indicates that labor should be primarily educational, preparatory for adult life, and only secondarily, if at all, gainful. Legally, too, all persons under 21 years of age are under certain disabilities as to their freedom of action, and are therefore held to be subject to special protection on the part of the state. For these reasons special consideration should be given to the group of young people from 16 to 20 years of age who are passing through the most critical stage of their industrial careers nominally under the guardianship of the state.
More Girls Employed.
In 1910, as shown in Table I, nearly one out of every four females ten years of age and over, or 23.4 per cent., were engaged in some gainful occupation. This was a decided increase over 1900, when less than one out of every five, or 18.8 per cent., were gainfully employed. This increase occurred
in every age group, but was most marked in the group of girls from 16 to 20 years of age, nearly two out of every five of whom were at work in 1910. A decided increase also took place, however, in the proportion of little girls at work. In 1910 about one out of every five girls 14 to 15 years of age and even of the girls 10 to 13 years of age, 8 per cent. were gainfully employed. The total number of girls under 14 years of age who were at work increased from 280,831 in 1900 to 350,140 in 1910.
Among the boys the proportion of gainful workers in 1910, as shown also in Table I, was decidedly higher than among the girls, and in general had increased since 1900, though not so much as among the girls. But in 1910 nearly four boys out of every five who were 16 to 20 years of age, more than two out of five of those 14 to 15 years of age, and 16.6 per cent. of those 10 to 13 years of age, were at work. The total number of boys under 14 years of age who were at work increased from 585,687 in 1900 to 609,030 in 1910.
The proportion of women and of children, both boys and girls, engaged in gainful occupations is evidently increasing. Even of the young children under 14, whose labor has been prohibited in most states and factories, both the number and the proportion at work have steadily mounted higher.
The increase in the proportion of females 10 years of age and over at work between 1900 and 1910, as shown in Table II, took place in all the various groups of the population, i. e. among the native white of native parentage, the native white of foreign or mixed parentage, the foreign-born white, the Negro, and the other elements. The increase was greatest, however, for the negro females, considerably more than half of whom were at work in 1910 as compared with about one-fourth of the native white females of foreign or mixed parentage, about one-fifth of the foreign born white females, and considerably less than one-fifth of the native white females of native parentage.
Women Workers in Agriculture.
As for the occupations of the women workers of the United States, Table III shows that the greatest increase in the proportion of female as compared with male workers has taken place in domestic and personal service, where it is accounted for largely by a change in classification adopted by the Census in 1910: in trade and transportation where new opportunities are continually opening to women; and in agricultural pursuits where a general increase has occurred throughout the whole United States. A large proportion of this increase in agricultural pursuits, however, was confined to the South, to the Negroes, and to girls 10 to 15 years of
age. The proportion which females form of the total force of gainful workers 10 years of age and over increased from 18.3 per cent. in 1900 to 21.2 per cent. in 1910.
A better classification of occupations is given in Table IV, which shows for all occupations and for the groups of occupations there given, the number of males and of females gainfully occupied in 1910 and the per cent. which the workers of each sex constituted of the total. In discussing this table the Census (Thirteenth Census, Vol. IV, Occupations, p. 57) says: "These figures show that in 1910 domestic and personal service was the only general division of occupations in which the women outnumbered the men, there being in this general division more than two women employed to each man. In professional service there were four women to every five men, a large proportion of the women being teachers. In clerical occupations one-third of the persons were women. In manufacturing and mechanical industries women constituted one in six, in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry one in seven, and in trade one in eight of the gainful workers; they constituted only 4 per cent. of the persons engaged in transportation, 3 per cent. of the persons engaged in public service, and but one-tenth of 1 per cent. of the persons engaged in the extraction of minerals."
Wives Who Must Toil.
Little is known concerning the gainful employment of married women, as the Census has not published the data which it has gathered upon this subject. The Bureau of Labor Statistics found in its investigation of woman and child labor in 1907 to 1909, however, "that of 27 industries studied only three were found in which the proportion of married women among those 20 years of age and over was under 10 per cent., and from this it ran up to two-fifths, and even in one industry to three-fifths." In the cotton, clothing, glass and silk industries the names of women and children were taken from the pay rolls of establishments and visits were made to the homes to secure data as to the amount and sources of the family income. Table V shows the extent to which the married women of these families were employed. Says the Bureau of Labor Statistics report: "When all the female employees of the separate industries were considered, it was found that about one-eighth were married, the proportion running up in single industries to two-fifths or over. When a number of families, selected on the basis of having at least one woman or child employed in a given industry, were studied, it was found that from something over oneeighth to one-fifth of the mothers were industrially employed. The two studies point to the same conclusion-that the