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AA, or BOULDER-AA, one of the larger rivers of AA, or GHULIGUENE-AA, a river of Russia, which, Livonia. It rises near Pebalk in the circle of Ven- rising in the gov. of Wilna, and flowing in a westerly den, and pursues a NE and then a NW course, for direction, forms the boundary between that gov. and about 50 m., to Lips where it suddenly bends to the Courland, and falls into the Baltic near the v. of BuSW; it then flows through the most beautiful and dindilihof, 30 m. S of Libau, after a course of 40 m. fertile district of Livonia, and passing the towns of AA, or WESTERWOLDER-Aa, a river of Groningen, Volmar on the r. bank and Venden on the l., falls formed by the junction of three streams, the first and into the gulf of Livonia at Zarnickaw, 12 m. NNE most eastern of which, called the Ruyten-Aa, rises of Riga. During the spring-freshes much timber in the Zwarte-meer, a small lake on the south-eastern and fuel are conveyed down this river; but in other borders of the prov. of Drenthe, and the two others, seasons the navigation is interrupted by rocks, rapids, known respectively as the Mussel-Aa and the Onstand sandbanks.-Its main tributary is the Schwartz- wolder-Aa, have their sources more to the N and W. bach, which, rising near Verro in the circle of Dorpat, The united streams pursue a northern course of about and flowing SW, joins it on the r. bank near Adzel. 35 m. to the Dollart-zee, into which the Aa flows at By means of this stream, which has a firm bottom, a a point about 8 m. S of Emden. For the last 3 m. canal-known as the canal of Verro—has been esta- of its course, this river forms the boundary between blished between Riga and the Peipús lake. By a Holland and Hanover. It may be regarded as formsingle lock, the Schwartzbach is united with Lake ing one of the principal drains of that vast extent of Vagoula or Pskovskoé near Verro, which communi- marshy ground which, under the name of the Bourcates by the Vo with the Peipús.

tanger-moor, stretches between the eastern borders of AA, or TREIDER-Aa, a principal river of Cour- Drenthe and of Groningen and the river Eins.— There land, formed by the junction of the Memel and the is another Aa in the prov. of Groningen, which joins Micha at Bauske. Flowing NW, through a low flat the Hunse at the town of Groningen. sandy country, it reaches Mitau, where it is crossed AA, or HOPSTER-AA, a small stream, which, rising by a floating-bridge of loose planks. Near Shlok it in the Teutoburgerwald, near Tecklenburg in Westturns abruptly to the NE, and, after running parallel phalia, flows NNW into the Ems, on the r. bank, to the shore of the gulf of Riga, falls into the sea 4 m. S of Lingen in Hanover, after a course of 30 m. about 7 m. NW of Riga, and “so near to the mouth AA, or Aade, a river of North Brabant. It rises of the Düna," says Granville, “that it mingles its on the frontiers of Limburg; flows on the W side of waters with that river before it loses itself in the sea.” | Helmont to a point about 10 m. to the N of that The Aa is navigable to Bauske, nearly 100 m. from town, where it abruptly turns WNW; and joining its mouth. In freshes it rises from 25 to 30 ft. above the Dommel at Bois-le-Duc, after a course of about its ordinary level.

35 m. forms the Dieze. Its tributaries are the Ley, AA, a river which, rising near Bourthes in the the Mierle, and the two Aas of Bakel and of Asten. dep. of Pas-de-Calais, flows NE towards St Omer, By means of the two latter streams it forms the wesafter passing which it pursues a N by W course se- tern drain of the great Peel marsh. The Sud-Wilparating the dep. of Pas-de-Calais from that of Nord, helm's canal runs nearly alongside of the Aa throughpasses Gravelines, and flows into the straits about 1} out its whole extent.-Another and smaller stream of m. below that town after a course of about 50 m. It the same name joins the Merk at Breda in this prov. has been made navigable to St Omer, a distance of 18 AA, or ENGELBERGER-AA, a stream, in the cant. m. At that town the canal of Neuf-Fossé connects of Unterwalden. It rises in the cant. of Uri, at the it with the town of Aire; and at Aire it becomes western foot of the Surenen pass, at an elevation of connected by the Canal de la Lys with the river Lys. 6,500 ft. above sea-level; flows along the northern base Farther down its course the Aä sends off on the I. a of the Titlisberg; passes Engelberg, and pursues a N canal to Calais, and on the r. one to Furnes, and an- course, passing Wolfenschiess, and to the E of Stanz; other to Dunkirk. These canals send off various and falls into the lake of Luzern at the v. of Buochs. branches; and the total extent of canal-navigation This stream receives numerous tributary mountain connected with the basin of the Aa is 176 kilometres torrents, including the picturesque Dätschbach, and or 110 miles nearly (Patria). The A. is a languidly the waters of the Trubsee, a small lake situated on the flowing stream, a great part of its lower course being Jochberg at an elevation of 7,160 ft. above sea-level. through low marshy grounds. The traffic upon it AA, or SARNER-Aa, another stream of Unterwalchiefly consists in the transport of coal, peat, wood, den, forming the drain of the western portion of that and stone.

cant. as the Engelberger-Aa of the eastern. It is


sues from the lake of Lungern on the Brunig, at an 72 machines with 77,704 spindles were at work in elevation of 2,500 ft. above sea-level, and flows NE by this gov. The tanneries of the district are also of N, through the lake of Sarnen, and past Alpnach, to importance; and coal and iron-mines are wrought the SW extremity of the lake of Luzern.--Its princi- within it.- The Rhenish railway from Cologne, by pal tributary the Melch or Melbach, which, flowing Duren, Aix-la-Chapelle, and from the latter place through the Melchthal, falls into it on the r. bank, to the Rhenish frontiers, intersects this gov. soon after issuing from Lake Sarnen.

AAGERUP, a town in Sieland, at the Sextremity AA, a stream, which, issuing from the Baldekersee of the Isefiord, 33 m. W of Copenhagen, on the road in the cant. of Luzern, enters the cant. of Aargau, and to Callundborg. flows through the Hallwylsee, whence it pursues a N AAHUUS, or Ahaus, a circle of the gov. of Munby W course past Lenzburg, to the Aar, which it ster, in the prov. of Westphalia, on the Aa, a tribujoins on the r. bank 6 m. below Aarau.

tary of the Yssel. Area 200 sq. m. Pop. in 1836, Besides the above-enumerated rivers, there are numerous 38,830. In 1815, the sovereignty of this district, minor streams bearing the name Aa, with or without a prefix, yielding a revenue of about 16,000 forins, or £1,350, in Saxony, Westphalia, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland, Iceland, and other parts of Europe. The word-which occurs under

was ceded to the king of Prussia.—The chief town various forms in different languages-has the general signifi

. of the same name, formerly the residence and propercation of running water, a stream, a river. Thus we have ab; ty of the prince of Salm-Kyrburg, but which passed by ach, aach, ar, and aw, bearing these meanings in Celtic and Old German ; ea in Anglo-Saxon ; aa or ace in Danish and

treaty of 8th Oct. 1825 to the Salm-Salm line, is 25 Icelandic ; eau in French ; and even aw, abi, and ab in the m. WNW of Munster. It has some linen and tobacco Persian and some other Oriental dialects. The frequent oc- manufactures. Pop. in 1842, 1,730. currence of these various modifications of the same word in the names of rivers is abundantly testified in the opening

AAIN. See Ain. pages of this Gazetteer.

AAKIRKEBYE, or AAKIRKE, a town near the AACH, a town of Baden, in the circle of Con- centre of the island of Bornholm. Pop. 450. It stanz, on a steep hill, between Stockach and Engen, possesses a handsome church, and is the seat of jusnear the Rudolfszeller-Aach, a small stream, which tice for the island. rises 4 m. N of Engen, at 2,720 ft. above sea-level, AALAND). See ALAND, and flows, by a S and SE course, into that arm of the AALBORG-pronounced Olborg, aa in Danish belake of Constanz called the Untersee near the v. of ing sounded like oa in our word oar-a Danish diocese, Rudolfszell.—Besides the R. Aach, there are other bailiwick, and town.—The diocese comprehends the two rivers in Baden bearing the name of Aach. One northern part of the peninsula of Jutland, the Lymof these, the Stockacher or Stockach, rises in some fiord and its islands, and the isle of Lessoë; and is marshes on the Nellenburger hills, and flows in a s situated between 56° 34' and 57° 44' N lat., and go and SE course, past Stockach, into the Ueberlinger 12' and 10° 41' E long. Its area is about 1,700 sq. arm of the lake of Constanz, on the borders of which m., or 2,600 including the surface of the Lymfiord. it spreads over an extensive marsh. The other, the The pop. in 1769 was estimated at 80,882; it is now Seefelder-Aach, rises near Linz, and flows into the 144,000. It contains 10 towns, 3 burghs, and 113 same arm of the lake a little to the NW of Meersburg: parishes; and is divided into the 3 bailiwicks of Aal

Besides the Aachs now described, there are numerous smail borg, Hiörring, and Thisted. The chief towns are streams bearing this name-or as it is frequently written Ach Säbye, Hiörring, Skagen, Thisted, Frederikshafn or throughout the German states, which our limits will not allow us to particularize.

Fladstrand, Ottebye, and Nyekiöbing. This portion AACHEN—now frequently written ACHEN, --one of Denmark consists of a large plain traversed by a of the five governments or administrative districts ridge of hills terminating in the promontory of Skainto which the prov. of the Rhine and Cleves is di- gen. The western shores are covered with moving vided. It has the circle of Cleves on the NE; those sands, and the interior presents little more than a of Dusseldorf and Cologne on the E; that of Cob- succession of marshes, forests, and lakes. During a lentz on the SE; Treves on the S; and the kingdom violent storm which occurred in 1825 the sea broke of Belgium on the W.--Its superficies is 1,634 sq. m. through the low dunes or sandhills which divide the The surface presents tracts of mountainous rocky W extremity of the Lymfiord from the ocean on the land interspersed with fertile valleys, hills and plains, W of Jutland, and thus converted the greater portion and rising gently towards the 's. Its principal of that dio. into an island. In the NE, and along the stream is the Roer, which, rising within its bounda- eastern coast, considerable elevations occur, among ries, traverses it from S to N in its progress towards which the Himmelsberg attains an alt. of 1,278 ft. the Meuse. Besides the city of Aix-la-Chapelle, this The air is humid, and the climate severe, but suffigov. contains the western portion of the duchy of cient corn is raised for the home consumption. Wood Juliers; portions of the duchies of Limburg and is scarce; peat forms the principal article of fuel. The Luxemburg, the county of Blankenheim and Gerol- fisheries on the W coast are productive; and the stein, the lordship of Reifferscheid, and the district of Lymfiord furnishes annually upwards of 120,000 tons Malmedy. It is subdivided into 11 circles, viz. Er- of herrings. The articles of export are corn, fish, kelens, Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Juliers, Düren, herrings, salted provisions, wool, cattle, and butter. Aix (town), Aix (country), Eupen, Montjoie, Schlei- The bailiwick of Aalborg comprehends the eastern den, and Malmedy.—The pop. in 1831 was returned part of the diocese, on both sides of the Lymfiord; and at 351,157; and at the close of 1840, at 385,388, of its area exceeds one-half of the whole land-surface of whom 370,322 were Catholics, and 12,699 Protestants. the dio. It is divided into eight herrads. In a period of 21 years, from 1816 to 1837, the in- The town of Aalborg, the capital of the bailiwick, crease of pop. in this gov. was 21:4 per cent. In and residence of the diocesan bailie and of the bishop, 1834, the number of elementary schools was 478, is situated upon the S side of the channel joining the attended by 26,394 boys, and 22,622 girls; of middle Lümtiord with the sea, in N lat. 57° 2', E long. 9° 55'. schools, 6'attended by 154 boys, and 409 girls. In It is an old town, and, after Copenhagen and Odensee, density of pop. A. appears to hold the fifth place the most opulent in Denmark. Pop. in 1834, 7,048; amongst the Prussian gov.-The important manufac- on Feb. 1, 1840, 7,500 [Weimar Almanach, 1844). Its tures are cottons and fine woollens; indeed this gov. manufactures consist of silk-stuffs, fire-arms, soap, may be regarded as the principal seat of the woollen fish-oil, and brandy. The harbour-which lies 5 manufactures of Western Germany. In 1837, of leagues from the Kattegat-is deep and safe, but the 181 wool-spinning machines, with 107,269 spindles, entrance of the channel is difficult, especially with being the total number within the Rhenish provinces, I an E wind, and cannot be effected by vessels drawing

more than 10 feet of water. From 400 to 500 ships AALUM-LIMARISH, or LAHM-AL-HIMAR, a rearrive annually, and about 100 coasters and fishing- markable hill on the E coast of the gulf of Sidra, in boats belong to it. In 1835, 8 British ships of a total N lat. 30° 34', E long. 19° 53', overlooking a very extonnage of 962 tons entered this port; in 1837,2 =201 tensive tract of country. To the S of this hill a chain tons; in 1839, none. Upwards of 110,000 tons of of lakes and swamps extends 2 days SE; to seaward grain, and 60,000 tons of herrings, are annually ex- | lies an island, m. in length, called Gara.-Beechey. ported from A. In 1813, 7,148 quarters of barley AAMADT, or AAMODT, a town in the bailiwick of and 600 of oats were exported, in Danish bottoms, to Hedemarken, on the r. bank of the Glommen, 75 m. Great Britain [Parl. Paper). There are five fairs NNE of Christiania. Pop. 2,729.— Gaspari. held here in the course of the year, of which the prin- AAMARA, a v. and mount in Nubia, in Beled-escipal is that of Pentecost. A. is a privileged port for Sudan, on the E bank of the Nile, in lat. 20° 42' N. the importation of foreign woollens and cottons [Com- It is surrounded by a large and only partially cultimercial Tarif ], and a post-route is being established vated plain [Bowring's Report on Egypt, p. 203.]— (1847] between it and Frederikshafn. The town is There is a small port of the same name on the coast surrounded by ditches, and divided into four quarters. of Tripoli, in a bay formed by Cape Rameda. Among the principal buildings are the castle, the re- AANSTOOT, or OTTERLOO, a large v. of Holland, sidence of the bailie, the cathedral, the episcopal in the prov. of Guelderland, 9 m. NW of Arnheim. palace erected in 1684 and containing a library of AAR. See ARROE. 10,000 volumes, an exchange, an hospital, a school- AAR,—sometimes written AARE,--a considerable of-navigation, and an academy founded in 1553. river in Switzerland, next in size to the Rhine and the

A. is said to derive its name from the number of eels which Rhone in that country, and the only large r. excluare caught in the neizhbourhood, the word signifying eel-town. sively Swiss. It has its three principal sources in the It was devastated by fire in 1530. In 1643 it was taken by the glaciers of the Grimsel, Schreckhorn, and Finster. Swedes. Having been given back at the peace of Bromsebroo, it was retaken by the Swedes in 1658, and again restored at Aarhorn, in the cant. of Berne, at an elevation of the peace of Roskild.

6,000 ft. above sea-level. Its source is thus described AALBUCH, a mountain of Würtemberg, in the by Coxe. “In less than half-an-hour [from a hut circle of the Jaxt; or rather an elevated table-land on the Grimsel] we entered a small plain skirted by on the r. bank of the Brenz, and separated by that high mountains, and entirely closed by a rugged river from the Hardtfeld; 60 sq. m. in extent; whose chain of Alps, over which tower the Finster-Aar and highest point, in N lat. 48° 44', E long. 9° 58', reaches Lauter-Aarhorns, and at whose feet stretches a gla2,345 ft. above the sea, and whose limits may be re- cier so entirely covered with earth and stones as to garded as lying between Aalen on the N, Heidenheim bear at a small distance the appearance of a sandhill. on the SE, and Weisenstein on the SW. It belongs From this glacier issues .a torrent roaring loud' of to the system of the Suabian Alps.

troubled waters, which is the source of the Lower AALBURG, a large and well-built v., 1} m. N by Aar, and joins in a few hundred paces, another W of Heusden, near the left bank of the Meuse. stream, called the Upper Aar, that falls from the

AALEN, a bailiwick of Würtemberg, in the circle Zinkeberg: the union of these torrents forms the Aar, of the Jaxt, situated from 1,200 to 2,200 ft. above the which rushes with great impetuosity over enormous sea, with an area of 80 sq. m. Pop. in 1833, 20,931. fragments of rock.”—[Travels in Switz.]-Meyer, who It contains one town, one burgh, and 190 villages and visited the sources of the Aar in 1812, describes the hamlets. It is watered by the Kocher, which flows glacier which gives birth to the Aar as being divided through it from S to NW; and produces vines, fruits, into two parts by a hill,--the higher portion towards and cattle, but little grain. It includes the barony of the S giving birth to the upper and principal branch Fugger-Nordendorf, with a pop. of 700.—The town of the Aar, and the lower towards the N to the lower of Aalen-formerly one of the free towns of the em- branch. It flows through the vale of Ober and Unter pire—is situated upon the Kocher, and its tributary Hasli; passes Meyringen; traverses, with a strong eurthe Aal, 7} m. S of Ellwangen, in N lat. 48° 47', Ě rent, the lakes of Brienz and Thun, becoming navilong. 10° 1'[Wærl's map]; at 1,430 ft. above the sea. gable on issuing from the latter, 1,875 ft. above seaIt has some linen and cotton manufactories, and brass level; passes the towns of_Thun, Bern, Aarberg, foundries. There are forests and large iron-mines in Buren, Soleure, Aarau, and Brug; and flows into the the neighbourhood. Pop. in 1833, 2,720 chiefly Lu- Rhine on its south bank, nearly opposite to Waldshut, therans.

after a course of about 150 m., the first half from SE AALSMEER, a v. on the E shore of the lake of to NW as far as its junction with the Saane, when it Haerlem, 73 m. SW of Amsterdam. Pop. 1,976. It is turns abruptly to the NE. At its embouchure it vies sarrounded by extensive orchards and market-gardens. in size and rapidity with the great river in which it AALST. See Alost.

loses its name; and its waters, which are of a silvery AALST, a v. in N Brabant, 3 m. N by W of Heus-hue, are for a long way distinguished from those of den. Pop. 650.—There is another v. of the same the Rhine, which are of a sea-green colour [Core): name in the same prov. A m. S of Eindhoven. At Handek, 9 m. from its source, it forms a beautiful

AALSUND, a small fishing v. and port of Norway cascade 100 ft. (Murray's Hand-book says 200 ft.on the Sundmoer or strait which separates the island the Encyclopedie Moderne [Paris 1846) 50 metres oi of Norvöe from that of Aspöe. It was founded in 164 English ft.-the Penny Cyclop., xix. p. 459, fol1824, and in 1833 had a pop. of 315. It is beautifully lowing Coxe, 150 ft.] in height. In its lower course situated amidst rocky scenery, and is generally visited it receives seven tributaries on its right, the chief of by steamers on the coasting-voyage from Trondhiem which are the Emm, the Reuss, and the Limmat; to Bergen, in lat. 61° 10' N.

and five from the left, including the Saane and the AALTEN, a town in the district of Zutphen, in Simmin. In fact, this river is the great drain of all Guelderland, on a branch of the Old Yssel, SW of the waters of the northern chain of the high Alps, Bredevoort. Pop. 3,524.

from Gadmenflüh on the E to the Dent-de-Jaman, in AALTERE, AELTRE, or Altre, a town in the the Canton-de-Vaud on the W,-a range of 70 m., prov. of E. Flanders, 14 m. SE of Bruges, and the comprising the well-known lofty peaks of the Finstersame distance NW of Ghent, at an equidistant point Aarhorn, Jungfrau, the Eiger, Gemmi, &c. Its eleon the railroad between these cities, and 27 m. from vation above sea-level at Handek is 4,783 ft; at Ostend. Pop. 4,678. The surrounding country is Hasli-em-Grund 2,083 ft; at Meyringen 2,024 ft; at tame and featureless.

Berne 1,725 ft; and at Aarberg 1,506 ft. Betwixt

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Thun and its embouchure its breadth varies from 100 come navigable in it. The Aar, increased by small to 600 ft. At Brug it is only 75 ft.

streams, here receives the Reuss and the Limmat beAAR, a small river of Germany in the principality low Brugg, and joins the Rhine on its l. bank opposite of Waldeck, rising 3 m. E of Winterberg, and falling Waldshut. The soil to the l. of the Aar is clayey, into the Eder on its left bank, 3 m. N of Frankenberg, and difficult to cultivate; on the r. it is light and fer. after a general SE course of 16 m.--Also a small river tile; and A. must be regarded as one of the most fertile in the duchy of Nassau, which, rising in the Taunus, of the Swiss cantons, exporting a surplus produce to pursues a N by E course through the Aargrund, a the neighbouring cantons in the shape of wheat, fruit, fertile wheat-district, and falls into the Lahn at Dietz. and vegetables. Vineyards are numerous, but the AARAFAT. See ARAFAT.

wine is of inferior quality. The forests—which ocAARAU, or Arau, the chief town of the cant. of cupy about one-fifth of the cant._abound in game, Aargau. It is situated upon a hill, on the r. bank of particularly boars and stags. In some places ironthe Aar-here 500 ft. wide-at an elevation of 1,210 ft. stone, and coal, turf, and masses of granite detached above sea-level; 204 m. ESE of Basle, and the same probably from the High Alps, occur. Several comdistance W of Zurich; in N lat. 47° 23', and E long. munes possess sulphurous and mineral springs, of 8° 2'. It is a large and well-built town, with a pop. which those of Baden and Schintznach are the most of 4,500, of whom about a twentieth part are Catho- celebrated. Saline springs exist near Oberhofen, Erlics. It has a good public library, a Protestant church, linsbach, and in some other places.-Commerce is acthe high cantonal school, a mechanics' institution, and tive and little encumbered with fiscal regulations. A. an orphan-house. Its manufactures of ribands, cut- exports---chiefly through the entrepots of Basle, Zulery, and silk and cotton goods, are considerable; and rich, and Geneva-grain, fat cattle, cheese, fruits, it possesses or recently possessed a vitriol-work and cotton- goods white and printed, hosiery, thread, cannon-foundry. A covered bridge here unites the ribands, flowered silks, silk-handkerchiefs, straw-hats two sides of the river. Coal and iron are found in the and bonnets, leather, cutlery, iron-ore, and sulphuric neighbourhood.—The treaty which terminated the acid. When Mr. Bowring drew up his “Report on war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons, in the Commerce and Manufactures of Switzerland,' in 1712, was concluded here; and here, too, were held 1836, there existed above 200 power-looms in this the general congresses of the cantons in 1797-8. cant. and their number was rapidly increasing. The

AARBERG, or ARBERG, a town on a rocky pro- most extensive of the manufactures is that of cotton; montory nearly surrounded by the Aar, in the cant next to it in importance is silk. The chief imports of Bern, on the road from Bern to Neufchatel, and are printed cloths, raw cotton and cotton-twist, raw from Lausanne to Soleure. The counts of Neufcha- silk, hemp and flax, tobacco, colonial productions, tel sold it, in 1379, to Bern. A. is “a clean little wine, iron, paper, and salt. An active transit-trade town” [Inglis], and an active commercial place, and formerly existed in this cant. by reason of its geograowes its prosperity to the great roads from Basle, So- phical position between France, Austria, Germany, leure, Neufchatel, and Lausanne, which concentrate Italy, and Piedmont; but this has greatly diminished at this point. Distance from Bern 9 m. NW. Pop. 864. of late years. The cant. is divided into 11 districts,

AARBURG, or ARBURG, a v. and fortified chatean viz. Aarau the chief place, Baden, Bremgarten, Brugg, in the cant. of Aargau, at the junction of the Wigger Kulm, Lauffenburg, Lenzburg, Muri, Rheinfelden, and Aar, 7 m. SW of Aarau. Pop. 1,500. This is Zofingen, and Zurzach; and these are subdivided into the only fortified place in the Swiss confederation, 18 circles. The pop. which was returned to the conand the federal arsenal is maintained here. The federation in 1803, at 144,095, at the close of the Aar is here crossed by a suspension bridge 184 ft. in year 1836 amounted to 182,755, of whom 5,965 were length. There is a copper foundry in the town and citizens of other cantons of the confederation, and the cotton manufacture is carried on in it to small 1,798 were foreigners. It would thus appear that in extent. It was from this place that Michael Du Crêt, point of density of population, A. holds the sixth place while confined as a state-prisoner in the castle in in the Swiss confederacy.—The government is a re1754, measured the elevation of some points of the presentative republic, at the head of which are two Alps.

burgomasters annually chosen by the great council. AARDENBURG, or ARDENBORG, a small town in the military force consists of 15,000 men, and its the prov. of Sieland, 3 m. SSE of Sluys, 84 ENE of contingent to the federal army is 2,410 men. The Bruges. N lat. 51° 16'. Pop. 1,400.

revenues drawn from various sources amount to about AARDEY, a name given to the W extremity of £44,000, one half of which is derived from state-prothe mountain-range intersecting the southern part of perty. The debt has sometimes amounted to half-aPrussian Westphalia, of which the E part is known year's revenue. In January 1840, 3 journals out of as the Haar or Haarstrang.- Ungewitter.

the 51 published in the confederation, were published AARE. See AAR.

in this cant. (Stat. Jour. iv. p. 129]. The reformed AARE'DH (EL). See NEJD-EL-'ARID.

church in A. is composed of 48 parishes and 2 deanAARGAARD, a v. on the W coast of Norway, in eries, under the inspection of an ecclesiastical council. about N lat. 64° 20', the point where the northern The Protestants of this communion were estimated road ends, and travellers embark for the North Cape. in 1837, at 79,800; the Catholics at 71,400. The

AARGAU, or ARGOVIE, anciently ARGOVIA, a cant. Jews—in number 1,700—have the free exercise of of Switzerland, situated between 47° 10' and 47° 36' N their religion in the communes of Endingen and lat., and 7° 55' and 8° 25' E long. It is bounded on the Lengnau.—Every district of 120 children must have N by the Rhine, which separates it from Baden; on the at least one primary and one superior school; and in E by the cantons of Zurich and Zug; on the W by every circle, or for every 15,000 or 20,000 souls, there those of Bern, Soleure, and Basle; and on the S by are from five to six secondary schools. In 1833, the Luzern. Its average length is about 21 m.; its breadth children attending school in this cant. were 1 in 5 of 19; its superficies, according to the Almanack de the population. Gotha,' 503 sq. m.-The mountains of A. rise from A, takes its name from the river Aar with the adjunct of 1,600 to 1,900 ft. above the level of the Aar, or gau, signifying a province or district. In the 5th cent. it made nearly 3,000 ft. above the sea, and are the eastern gundians, it subsequently came under the dominion of the

part of Germany. Conquered by Gondebald, king of the Bur. extremity of the Jura which extends through the Merovingian dynasty of the French kings ; and, in the latter northern portion of this cant. It is well-watered, its half of the 9th cent., in the reign of Charles the Fat, it was four of the chief rivers of Switzerland unite and be-cent. it was subject to the house of Hapsburg. It afterwards

upon by Rudolf ot Startlinguin. In the 11th and 12th


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became annexed to the cant. of Bern; and in 1418 was gua- its deep colour” [Irby and Mangles). Mount Hor is a ranteed to that cant., which held it till 1798, when, under French influence, it was made an independent cant, but of

mass of reddish sandstone, and reaches an alt. of 5,300 small dimensions, containing only 200 sq. m., and 66,800 inha- ft. above the sea. [Russegger's Reisen, &c.] bitants.-In 1803, it was raised to an equality with the largest AARON (ROCHER D'). See Sr Malo. cantons, by the acquisition of the whole of Baden and the Frickthal, and was made a member of the Swiss confedera

AARONSBURG, a post v. in Centre-county, Penntion.

sylvania, U. S., on one of the highest branches of AARHORN. See FINSTER-AARHORN.

Penn's creek, 89 m. NW of Harrisburg, and 204 m. AARHUUS, a Danish dio., situated between 55° from Washington. Pop. in 1840, 450. 51' and 56° 42' N lat., and go 10 and 11° E long., AARSCHOT. See AERSCHOT. comprehending the bailiwicks of Aarhuus and Ran- AARWANGEN, a large v. on the r. bank of the ders in the peninsula of Jütland, and the islands of Aar, in the cant. of Bern, 10 m. ENE of Soleure. Anholt, Hielm, Knoben, Nordves'rev, and Endelave. Cattle-fairs are held here. It was sold in 1432, by Its area amounts to nearly 1,400 sq. m., and is more the last baron of Grunenberg, to Bern. Pop. 1,900. diversified than any other part of Jütland. The AAS, a fortress in the gov. of Aggerhuus, 13 m. Gudenaa is the principal river. The chief lakes are S. of Christiania on the road to Moss.-There are the Kolind, the Mossõe, and the Juelsöe.—This dis- several v. of this name in Norway, and in Iceland. trict exports wheat, wool, horses, cattle, butter, skins, AAS, a town in the dep. of Basses-Pyrenées, artallow, salted pork, wax, and honey. There are 1 rond. of Oleron. There are some mineral wells here, towns and 304 parishes in the dio., with a pop. of and mines of iron and lead. about 90,000. The chief ports are Aarhuus, Horsens, AASGAARDSTRAND, a v. of Norway, in the Randers, and Ebeltoft. - The other principal towns district of Jarlsberg-Laurvig, on the gulf of Chrisare Mariager, Hobroe, Skanderborg and Greenaae. tiania. Pop. in 1833, 423. - The bailiwick of Aarhuus comprises the SW part AASNEÈ, a v. and pass in the Afghanistan prov. of the dio. Its area is nearly one-half of the whole; of Hurrund. The v. lies on the road from Vung to and it contains 2 towns, 134 parishes, and 45,000 in- Hurrund, in N lat. 29° 13'. habitants.

AASHWAH, a town of Khuzistan, on the route The city of Aarhuns, the capital of the above bish- from Bassa to Hawiza, 40 m. SE of Kornah. opric and bailiwick, is situated on a plain between AASTRUP, the most northern herrad or district che Kattegat and a small lake whose outlet forms a of N Jutland, in the bailiwick of Aalborg.--Also the port recently much improved, in N lat. 56° 9', E long. name of several small villages in Jutland. 10° 12'. [Danish chart, 1840.] It is not fortified, but AATYL, a Druse v. in the Hauran of Syria, 54 is surrounded by a stone-wall. It contains 3 public m. SSE of Damascus. It exhibits numerous remains squares, 34 streets, 3 churches, a college, an hospital, of ancient grandeur. Pop. 250.-- Robinson. and a town-house. The cathedral, which was begun AAZY (EL), A'si, or Assi, the modern name of in 1201, is 150 paces long, and 96 broad. The manu- the river Orontes. It is called El A'si, that is, the factures of A. consist of refined sugar, tobacco, lea- rebel,'" from its refusing,” says Abulfeda, “to water ther, spirits, and linen. The chief article of export the fields without being compelled by means of wa'is corn, of which from 60,000 to 100,000 tons are an- ter-wheels.” But Rosenmuller suggests that the nually exported. In 1843, 6,942 quarters of barley, Arabic name may be a corruption of its ancient 1,089 of oats, and 253 of wheat were exported, in 17 Greek name Axios. Danish bottoms, from this port to great Britain (Parl. ABAASIE, a town of the Gold coast of Africa, in Paper]. The harbour is small, and only admits ves- the Fantee territory, 30ʻm. NE of Anamaboe. sels of 7 feet draught. The shipping amounts to 46 ABABA, the Turkish name of the Salambria or vessels. The principal foreign trade is with the West Peneus river. Indies. There are three fairs held here annually. ABABAS, a native tribe of Brazil, inhabiting the Aarhuus is the chief point of communication between forests to the S of the Cordillera Geral intersected by North Jütland and the island of Sieland, at Callund- the three head-branches of the Curumbiara r. which borg, to which packet-boats sail daily from A., and falls into the Rio Guapore in S lat. 13° 15', W long. whence a road leads 50 m. due east to Copenhagen. 62° 30', on the western limit of Matto-Grosso. Pop., in 1834, 6,765; on 1st Feb. 1840, 7,800. The ABA'BDEH, ABABDE, or ABABIDEH, a people of old town of Aarhuus was situated 2 m. to the W of Eastern Africa, the descendants of the ancient Nuthe present town.-Eric Pontoppidan, bishop of Ber- bians, scattered throughout Nubia, and between the gen, well-known for his Natural History of Norway, borders of the valley of the Nile and the Red sea, but was born here in 1698.

located chiefly from the latitude of 23° to the western AARL-AN-DER-VEEN, a town of S Holland, border of Lower Egypt. The principal tribes are 12 m. SE of Leyden. Pop. 2,247.

found in the parallel of Kosaïr, and at Derau and AARLE, a v. of N Brabant, 3 m. NW of Helmont. Redesiyeh, nearly opposite Edfu; and bear the names Pop. 1,100. A half-yearly cattle-fair is held here. of El Fokará, El Meleikab, and El As-habat. Three

ÀAROE, a small Danish island, situated in the of their hordes, the Benwásýel, Mahazi, and Howeïtat, Little Belt, between Funen and the coast of Sleswig, have pushed farther northwards, and located themand belonging to the dio. of Hadersleben. It has an selves on the confines of Lower Egypt; and a numarea of nearly 2 sq. m. Its centre is in N lat. 55° 15' ber have settled in Upper Nubia, along the great 30”. This island must not be confounded with the road to Sennaar. Wilkinson says, “the Ababdeh larger island of Arroe, which is 23 m. to the SE. appear to be aborigines of the country, and are Arabs

AARON (HILL OF) [Arab. JEBEL HARU'N], a only in habit” [vol. ii, p. 386]. They are smalllofty mountain-ridge of Arabia Petræa, in the district limbed, but well-formed. Their complexion is very of Sherah or Seir, 15 m. SW of Shobek. On its high- dark, approaching nearly to black; their features, est and most rugged pinnacle-called by the Arabs however, are more European than Negro. They freNěbi Haron — is a small building supposed by the quently intermarry with the Nubians. Burckhardt natives to enclose the tomb of Aaron; and there seems represents them as cruel, perfidious, and superstitious. no reason to doubt that this is the Mount Hor men- “No oath,” says he, “binds an Ababde.” They tioned in Num. xxxiii. 38. “The dark ridge of speak the Arabic language, are fond of music and Mount Hor appears to be altogether composed of a poetry, and practise a kind of Pyrrhic dance. They sort of sparry fint, broken into masses, and seamed can bring a force of from 1,500 to 2,000 men into the with wide crevices, with scarcely any verdure to vary field. Their arms are a light spear, round shield,

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