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IN CONVENTION, Feb. 27, 1868.
Resolved, That there be printed, in addition to the number already printed, a sufficient num. ber of copies of the debates, documents and journals, to furnish each of the members with three copies; and also one copy each to the Mayor and the members of the Common Council of the city of Albany, and one copy each to the State Law Libraries at Rochester and Syracuse, the law libraries of the several judicial districts, the Law Institute, the Astor Library, and the New York Historical Society in the city of New York, and the Young Men's Associations of the cities of Albany and Troy.
LUTHER CALDWELL, Secretary.
dimidishes their own happiness, that roguery, in in this stage is cheered by the occasional visits every case, is a losing game. When we have of a teacher who gives him plain and practical dove this, and when we have placed the means instruction and who encourages every germ of of obtaining an honest living in their hands, we effort which he may put forth to attain to a better may reasonably expect that our work will be understanding of his duties, and to a better regu. . accomplished, and that our criminals will be relation of his conduct. He is in this stage under a torted to society better men and useful citizens. very rigid coercion, but there is still considerable Again, we bave the large class whose crimes are scope left to him for the exercise and discipline attributable to feebleness of the will. In these of his volitions. He can violate the rule wbich cases tbe indication is to strengthen its power. imposes silence. He may fail to accomplish bis The space penetrating power of the sailor's and appointed daily task. He may waste the material the bunter's eye is enlarged by the constant upon which he is set to work. He may use abuuse of the organ; the muscles of the ballet sive language to his keeper or teacher. He may dancer's legs and of the blacksmith's arms are neglect personal cleanliness, and in several other enlarged and streugthened by constant exercise; ways he may mapiiest a défiant and unsubdued the brain of the philosopher is enlarged in volume spirit. An accurate set of daily marks is kept and in power by habitual and vivid thought, and showing the exact progress of the prisoner in self. such is the universal law of nature. It is as truo control which it is the main object of this stage in the moral as in the physical world, and a of imprisonment to cultivate. When the prisoner course of moral gymnastics will be found as enters the solitary cell he learns that the duration eficient in invigorating the affections as physical of his imprisonment will be determined by his Evo pastics are in increasing the force of the obtaining a certain number of marks. Every day Duscles. The method to be adopted in these of perfect good behavior adds to the amount of cases is not to subject the prisoner to a rigid ex. the marks. Every day of misconduct not only terual coercion, which supersedes all necessity of gives uo addition to the sum of marks, but in Folitiga on his part, and which actually paralyzes proportion to its malignity the marks already the small amount of will power that he actually accumulated are taken away. In this way the possesses, but he will be subjected at first duration of this penal stage is fixed by the prison. to small spd nicely-graduated temptations, er himself. If disposed to be rebellious, he can which, if yielded to, is met with immediate and indulge in his disposition as long as he likes, if he jast punishment. As the prisoner gradually ac- desires to protract his term of discomfort, bis quires the mastery over himself, under this pro.keeper is quite patient and allows him to do so, cess, the temptations are increased and the process but after a while, when he sees one after another is continued until at last the power of resisting who entered the prison passing into higher and teaptation is fully acquired. The practical modes lees pedal stages of imprisonment, the most hard. by #bich these objects are accomplished were eped and rebellious finally yield and set them. originally suggested by Captain Maconchie, but selves in good earnest for the first time to cultivate Efte greatly improved and simplified by Sir babits of obedience and self-control. When these Walter Croiton, uuder whose auspices the system habiis are acquired, and not until then, he passes
as brought into operation in the Irish prisons. into the second stage Here he is situated, Tbe result in these prisons has for a series of in many respects, like the prisoners in our State years been so successful and so truly reformatory, prisons, he is confined in a solitary cell at night, even when applied to the very worst of men, that but during the day he works in association with it bas overcome all opposition and has commended other prisoners. The utmost attention is paid in itself to the approval of all thinking men. Sir this stage to his moral and intellectual training. Walter has recently been transferred to England, He is supplied with books of an interesting and where, under the full sanction of the gov- instructive character. The utmost care is taken erbredt, he is gradually introducing the system to ascertain the weak points of his character, #bich bas proved to be so successful in Ireland. which havo led him into crime, and the main The Irish system, as this is called, may be briefly stress of the instruction and discipline is directed described as follows: There are certain general to strengthen and vivify these weak faculties. features in the plan which are applicable to all Competent teachers are employed to instruct him prispers of all kinds, classes and idiosyncrasies, in all those matters which will it him to acquit but these are modified with respect to intensity himself well in the battle for life by honest and and curation, so as to adapt themselves to the reputable methods. Tuis stage is divided into specialties and individualities of each particular three classes, and the prisoner, on emerging from case. Every part of it is carefully adjusted to the penal stage, enters the third and lowest class. cultivate babits of self-control on the part of the His continuance in each of these classes is gradu. prisoner; his treatment is exactly determined by ated by his own progress; he must remain in Dis own conduct, and he is thus, to a very con- each until he has acquired the amount of knowl. siderable extent, made the arbiter of his own fate. edge and the system of habits which that class is Every prisoner passes through four separate designed to inculcate. If he is loug in doing stages, each stage being divided into steps. The this, his stay is long. If he does it quickly, he first stage is in the highest degree penal, and is soon rises into a higher class and remains in this an object of great dread to all classes. Each until he has fully acquired all that the discipline prisoner is confined in perfect solitude in a sepa of that class is intended to accomplish, when he rate cell. He is kept constantly to the hardest enters the first or highest clase, where the same Lator, dressed in the coarsest raiment and fed on process is repeated. The powerful influence of the most unjavory food. Yet his solitude even|Hope is thus brought into exercise. He bas &
definite object constantly before him, knowing been most thorough, and all classes are convinced