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be affected by the proceedings, in the state paper, and in a paper printed in the county where the land is situated, once in each week for one month previous to the presentation of such petition.

6. In case any party to be affected by the proceedings is an infant, idiot, or of unsound mind, and has no general guardian or committee, the court shall appoint a special guardian or committee to attend to the interests of such person in the proceedings; but, if a general guardian or committee has been appointed for such person in this state, it shall be the duty of such general guardian or committee to attend to the interests of such infant, idiot, or person of unsound mind and the court may require such security to be given by such general or special guardian or committee, as it may deem necessary to protect the rights of such infant, idiot, or person of unsound mind; and all notices required to be served in the progress of the proceedings may be served on such general or special guardian or committee.

7. In all cases not herein otherwise provided for, service of orders, notices, and other papers in the special proceedings authorized by this act, may be made as the supreme court shall direct.

§ 15. On presenting such petition to the supreme court as aforesaid, with proof of service of a copy thereof, and notice as aforesaid, all persons whose estates or interests are to affected by the proceedings may show cause against granting the prayer of the petition, and may disprove any of the facts alleged in it. The court shall hear the proofs and allegations of the parties, and if no sufficient cause is shown against granting the prayer of the petition, it shall make an order for the appointment of five disinterested and competent persons, who reside in the county where the premises to be appraised are situated, commissioners to ascertain and appraise the compensation to be made to the owners or persons interested in the real estate proposed to be taken in such county for the purposes of the company, and to fix the time and place for the first meeting of such commissioners. The parties whose lands are to be appraised, or their attorneys, may, in case they appear, name six such persons, and the company a like number, provided they do so, and the court shall appoint two of the commissioners from each of the six so named, in case there is no legal objection to such appointment, and the other commissioner shall be appointed by the court in its discretion.

§ 16. The commissioners shall take and subscribe the oath prescribed by the twelfth article of the constitution. Any one of them may issue subpænas, administer oaths to witnesses, and any three of them may adjourn the proceedings before them, from time to time, in their discretion. Whenever they meet, except by the appointment of

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the court or pursuant to adjournment, they shall cause reasonable
notice of such meetings to be given to the parties who are to be
affected by their proceedings, or their attorney or agent. They shall
view the premises described in the petition, and hear the proofs and
allegations of the parties, and reduce the testimony, if any is taken by
them, to writing; and after the testimony is closed in each case, and
without any unnecessary delay, and before proceeding to the examina-
tion of any other claim, a majority of them, all being present and act-
ing, shall ascertain and determine the compensation, which ought
justly to be made by the company to the party or parties owning or
interested in the real estate appraised by them; and in determining
the amount of such compensation they shall not make an allowance
or deduction on account of any real or supposed benefits which the
parties in interest may derive from the construction of the proposed
railroad. They, or a majority of them, shall also determine and
certify what sum ought to be paid to a general or special guardian or
committee of an infant, idiot, or person of unsound mind, or to an
attorney appointed by the court to attend to the interest of any
unknown owner or party in interest, not personally served with notice
of the proceedings, and who has not appeared, for costs, expenses and
counsel fees. They shall make a report to the supreme court, signed
by them or a majority of them, of the proceedings before them, with
the minutes of the testimony taken by them, if any. Said commis-
sioners shall be entitled to three dollars for their expenses and services
for each day they are engaged in the performance of their duties, to
be paid by the company.

8 17. On such report being made by said commissioners, the com-
pany shall give notice to the parties or their attorneys to be affected
by the proceedings, according to the rules and practice of said court,
at a general or special term thereof, for the confirmation of such
report, and the court shall thereupon confirm such report, and shall
make an order, containing a recital of the substance of the proceedings
in the matter of the appraisal, and a description of the real estate
appraised for which compensation is to be made; and shall also direct
to whom the money is to be paid, or in what bank, and in what man-
ner it shall be deposited by the company.

§ 18. A certified copy of the order so to be made as aforesaid shall be recorded at full length in the clerk's office of the county in which the land described in it is situated; and thereupon, and on the payment or deposit by the company of the sums to be paid as compensation for the land, and for costs, expenses and counsel fees as aforesaid, and as directed by said order, the company shall be entitled to enter

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apon, take possession of, and use the said land for the purposes of its incorporation, during the continuance of its corporate existence, by virtue of this or any other act; and all persons who have been made parties to the proceedings shall be divested and barred of all right, estate and interest in such real estate, during the corporate existence of the company as aforesaid. All real estate acquired by any company under and pursuant to the provisions of this act, for the purposes of its incorporation, shall be deemed to be acquired for public use. Within twenty days after the confirmation of the report of the commissioners, as provided for in the seventeenth section of this act, either party may appeal, by notice in writing to the other, to the supreme court, from the appraisal and report of the commissioners. Such appeal shall be heard by the supreme court at any general or special term thereof, on such notice thereof being given, according to the rules and practice of said court. On the hearing of such appeal, the court may direct a new appraisal before the same or new commissioners in its discretion; the second report shall be final and conclusive on all the parties interested. If the amount of the compensation to be made by the company is increased by the second report, the difference shall be a lien on the land appraised, and shall be paid by the company to the parties entitled to the same, or shall be deposited in the bank, as the court shall direct; and if the amount is diminished, the difference shall be refunded to the company by the party to whom the same may have been paid ; and judgment therefor may be rendered by the court, on the filing of the second report, against the party liable to pay the same. Such appeal shall not affect the possession by such company of the land appraised; and when the same is made by others than the company, it shall not be heard, except on a stipulation of the party appealing not to disturb such possession.

§ 19. If there are adverse and conflicting claimants to the money, or any part of it, to be paid as compensation for the real estate taken, the court may direct the money to be paid into the said court by the company,


determine who is entitled to the same, and direct to whom the same shall be paid; and may, in its discretion, order a reference to ascertain the facts on which such determination and order are to be made.

§ 20. The court shall appoint some competent attorney to appear for, and protect the rights of any party in interest who is unknown, or whose residence is unknown, and who has not appeared in the proceedings by an attorney or agent. The court shall also have power at any time to amend any defect or informality in any of the special proceedings authorized by this act, as may be necessary; or to cause

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new parties to be added, and to direct such further notices to be given, to any party in interest, as it deems proper; and also to appoint other commissioners in place of any who shall die, or refuse, or neglect to serve, or be incapable of serving.

§ 21. If, at any time after an attempt to acquire title by appraisal of damages or otherwise, it shall be found that the title thereby attempted to be acquired is defective, the company may proceed anew to acquire or perfect such title, in the same manner as if no appraisal had been made; and, at any stage of such new proceedings, the court may authorize the corporation, if in possession, to continue in possession, and, if not in possession, to take possession, and use such real estate during the pendency and until the final conclusion of such new proceedings; and may stay all actions or proceedings against the company on account thereof, on such company paying into court a sufficient sum, or giving security as the court may direct, to pay the compensation therefor when finally ascertained; and in every such case, the party interested in such real estate may conduct the proceedings to a conclusion, if the company delays or omits to prosecute the same.

8 22. Every company formed under this act, before constructing any part of their road into or through any county named in their articles of association, shall make a map and profile of the route intended to be adopted by such company in such county, which shall be certified by the president and engineer of the company, or a majority of the directors, and filed in the office of the clerk of the county in which the road is to be made. The company shall give written notice to all actual occupants of the land over which the route of the road is so designated, and which has not been purchased by or given to the company, of the route so designated. Any party, feeling aggrieved by the proposed location, may, within fifteen days after receiving written notice as aforesaid, apply to a justice of the supreme court, out of court, by petition, duly verified, setting forth his objections to the route designated; and the said justice may, if he considers sufficient cause therefor to exist, appoint three disinterested persons, one of whom must be a practical engineer, commissioners to examine the proposed route, and, after hearing the parties, to affirm or alter the same, as may be consistent with the just rights of all parties and the public; but no alteration of the route shall be made, except by the concurrence of the commissioner who is a practical civil engineer. The determination of the commissioners shall, within thirty days after their appointment, be made and certified by them, and the certificate filed in the office of the county clerk. Said commissioners shall each be entitled to three dollars per day for their

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expenses and services, to be paid by the person who applied for their appointment; and if the proposed route of the road is altered or changed by the commissioners, the company shall refund to the applicant the amount so paid.

§ 23. The directors of every company formed under this act may, by a vote of two-thirds of their whole number, at any time, alter or change the route or any part of the route of their road, if it shall appear to them that the line can be improved thereby; and they shall make and file in the clerk's office of the proper county, a survey, map and certificate of such alteration or change; and shall have the same right and power to acquire title to any lands required for the purposes of the company, in such altered or changed route, as if the road had been located there in the first instance; and no such alteration shall be made in any city or village, after the road shall have been constructed, unless the same is sanctioned by a vote of two-thirds of the common council of said city or trustees of said village; and in case of any alteration made in the route of any railroad after the company has commenced grading, compensation shall be made to all persons for injury so done to any lands that may have been donated to the company.

All the provisions of this act relative to the first location, and to acquiring title to land, shall apply to every such new or altered portion of the route.

§ 24. Whenever the track of a railroad constructed by a company formed under this act shall cross a railroad, a highway, turnpike or plank road, such highway, turnpike or plank road may be carried under or over the track, as may be found most expedient; and in cases where an embankment or cutting shall make a change in the line of such highway, turnpike or plank road desirable, with a view to a more easy ascent or descent, the said company may take such additional lands for the construction of such road, highway, turnpike or plank road on such new line as may be deemed requisite by the directors. Unless the lands so taken shall be purchased for the purposes afore. said, compensation therefor shall be ascertained in the manner prescribed in this act for acquiring title to real estate, and duly made by said corporation to the owners and persons interested in such lande. The same, when so taken, shall become part of such intersecting highway, turnpike or plank road, in such manner and by such tenure as the adjacent parts of the same highway, turnpike or plank road may be held for highway purposes.

§ 25. The commissioners of the land office shall have power to grant to any railroad company formed under this act, any land belonging to the people of this state, which may be required for the

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