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to express by them. It implies the correct and. happy application of them, according to that usage, in opposition to vulgarisms, or low expressions; and to words and phrases, which would be less significant of the ideas that we mean to convey. Style may be pure, that is, it may all be strictly English, without Seotticisms or Gallicisms, or ungrammatical irregular expressions of any kind, and may, nevertheless, be deficient in propriety. The words may be ill-chosen: not adapted to the subject, nor fully expressive of the author's sense. He has taken all his words and phrases from the general mass of English language; but he has made his selection among these words unhappily. Whereas, style cannot be proper without being also pure; and where both purity and propriety meet, besides making style perspicuous, they also render it graceful. There is no standard, either of purity or of propriety, but the practice of the best writers and speakers in the country.

When I mentioned obsolete or new-coined words as incongruous with purity of style, it will be easily understood, that some exceptions are to be made. On certain occasions, they may have grace. Poetry admits of greater latitude thau prose, with respect to coining, or, at least, newcompounding words; yet, even here, this liberty should be used with a sparing hand. In prose, such innovations are more hazardous, and have a worse effect. They are apt to give style an affected and conceited air; and should never be ventured upon, except by such, whose established

reputation gives them some degree of dictatorial power over language.

The introduction of foreign and learned words, unless where necessity requires them, should always be avoided. Barren languages may need such assistances : but ours is not one of these, Dean Swift, one of our most correct writers, valued himself much on using no words but such as were of native growth : and his language may, indeed, be considered as a standard of the strictest purity and propriety in the choice of words. At present, we seem to be departing from the standard. A multitude of Latin words have, of late, been poured in upon us. On some occasions, they give an appearance of elevation and dignity to style. But often, also, they render it stiff and forced : and, in general, a plain native style, as it is more intelligible to all readers, so, by a proper management of words, it may be made equally strong and expressive with this latinized English.

Blair.

INSTANCES TO SHOW THE NECESSITY OF ATTEND

ING TO THE EXACT IMPORT OF WORDS, IF WE
WOULD WRITE WITH PROPRIETY AND PRECI-

SION. AUSTERITY, severity, rigour. Austerity, relates to the manner of living; severity, of thinking ; rigour, of punishing. To austerity, is opposed effeminacy; to severity, relaxation; to rigour, clemency. A hermit is austere in his life; a casuist, severe in his application of religion or law; a judge, rigorous in his sentences.

Custom, habit. Custom, respects the action ; habit, the actor. By custom, we mean the frequent repetition of the same act; by habit, the effect which that repetition produces on the mind or body. By the custom of walking often in the streets, one acquires a habit of idleness.

Surprised, astonished, amazed, confounded. I am surprised, with what is new or unexpected; I am astonished, at what is vast or great; I am amazed, with what is incomprehensible; I am confounded, by what is shocking or terrible.

Desist, renounce, quit, leave off. Each of these words implies some pursuit or object relinquished, but from different motives. We desist, from the difficulty of accomplishing; we renounce, on account of the disagreeableness of the object or pursuit. We quit, for the sake of something which interests us more; and we leave off, because we are weary of the design. A politician desists from his designs, when he finds they are impracticable; he renounces the court, because he has been affronted by it; he quits ambition, for study or retirement; and leaves off his attendance on the great, as he becomes old and weary of it.

Pride, vanity. Pride, makes us esteem onr. selves; vanity, makes us desire the esteem of others. It is just to say, as dean Swift has done, that a man is too proud to be vain.

Haughtiness, disdain. Haughtiness, is founded on the high opinion we have of ourselves; disdain, on the low opinion we have of others.

To distinguish, to separate. We distinguish, what we want not to confound with another thing; we separate, what we want to remove from it. Ob

jects are distinguished from one another, by their qualities. They are separated, by the distance of time or place.

To weary, to fatigue. The contiøuance of the same thing wearies us ; labour fatigues us. I am weary with standing; I am fatigued with walking. A suitor wearies us by his perseverence; fatigues us by his importunity.

To abhor, to detest. To abbor, imports simply strong dislike; to detest, imports also strong disapprobation. One abhors being in debt; he detests treachery.

To invent, to discover. We invent things that are new; we discover what was before hidden. Galileo invented the telescope; Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood.

Only, alone. Only, imports that there is no other of the same kind; alone, imports being accompanied by no other. An only child, is one who has neither brother nor sister; a child alone, is one who is left by itself. There is a difference therefore, in precise language, betwixt these two phrases. • Virtue only makes us happy; and

Virtue alone makes us happy. Virtue only makes us happy, imports, that nothing else can do it. Virtue alone makes us happy, imports, that virtne, by itself, or unaccompanied with other advantages, is sufficient to do it.

Entire, complete. A thing is entire, by wanting none of its parts; complete, by wanting none of the appendages that belong to it. A man may have an entire house to himself; and yet not have one complete apartment.

Tranquillity, peace, calm. Tranquillity, respects

a situation free from trouble, considered in itself; peace, the same situation with respect to any causes that might interrupt it; calm, with respect to a disturbed situation going before or following it. A good man enjoys tranquillity, in himself; peace, with others; and calm, after the storm.

A difficulty, an obstacle. A difficulty, embarrasses us; an obstacle stops us. We remove the one; we surmount the other. Generally, the first expresses somewhat arising from the nature and circumstances of the affair ;. the second somewhat arising from a foreign cause. Philip found difficulty in managing the Athenians, from the nature of their dispositions; but the eloquence of Demosthenes was the greatest obstacle to his designs.

Wisdom, prudence. Wisdom leads us to speak and act what is most proper. Prudence prevents our speaking or acting improperly. A wise man employs the most proper means for success; a prudent màn, the safest means for 'not being brought into danger.

Enough, sufficient. Enough, relates to the quantity which one wishes to have of any thing. Sufficient, relates to the use that is to be made of it. Hence, enough, generally imports a greater quantity than sufficient does. The covetous man never has enough; although he has what is sufficient for nature.

To arow, to acknowledge, to confess. Each of these words imports the affirmation of a fact, but in very different circumstances. To avow, supposes the person to glory in it; to acknowledge, supposes a small degree of faultiness, which the

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