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verb by the word instances in the same manner, and in effect make so many distinct sentences :
how many instances have we of chastity! how many instances have we of fidelity! how many instances have we of devotion!' They must therefore be separated from one another by a point. The same may be said of the adjuncts, education of their children,' &c. in the former part of the next sentence: as likewise of the several subjects, • the making of war,' &c. in the latter part; which have in effect each their verb; for each of these is an achievement by which men grow famous.'
As sentences themselves are divided into simple and compounded, so the members of sentences may be divided likewise into simple and compounded members: for whole sentences, whether simple or compounded, may become members of other sentences by means of some additional connection.
Simple members of sentences closely connected together in one compounded member, or sentence, are distinguished or separated by a comma : as in the foregoing examples.
So likewise, the case absolute; nouns in opposition, when consisting of many terms; the participle with something depending on it; are to be distinguished by the comma: for they may be resolved into simple members.
When an address is made to a person, the noun, answering to the vocative case in Latin, is distin. guished by a comma.
Examples : • This said, He form'd thee, Adam; thee, O man, Dust of the ground.' * Now morn, her rosy steps in th' eastern clime Advancing, sow'd the earth with orieut pearl.' Milton. Two nouns, or two adjectives, connected by a single copulative or disjunctive, are not separated by a point; but when there are more than two, or where the conjunction is understood, they must be distinguished by a comma.
Simple members 'connected by relatives, and comparatives, are, for the most part, distinguished by a comma : but when the members are short in comparative sentences; and when two members are closely connected by a relative, restraining the general notion of the antecedent to a particular sense: the pause becomes almost insensible, and the comma is better omitted.
Examples: Raptures, transports, and ecstasies, are the rewards which they confer: sighs and tears, prayers and broken hearts, are the offerings which are paid to them.'
Addison, ibid. • Gods, partial, changeful, passionate, unjust, Whose attributes were rage, revenge, or lust.' Pope.
What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion?'
A circumstance of importance, though no more than an imperfect phrase, may be set off with a
comma on each side, to give it greater force and distinction.
Example: • The principle may be defective or faulty; but the consequences it produces are so good, that for the benefit of mankind, it ought not to be extinguished
Addison, ibid. A member of a sentence, whether simple or compounded, that requires a greater pause than a comma, yet does not of itself make a complete sentence, but is followed by something closely depending on it, may be distinguished by a semicolon.
Example: • But as this passion for admiration, when it works according to reason, improves the beautiful part of our species in every thing that is laudable; so nothing is more destructive to them, when it is governed by vanity and folly.'
Here the whole sentence is divided into two parts by the semicolon ; each of which parts is a compounded member, divided into its simple members by the comma.
A member of a sentence, whether simple or: compounded, which of itself would make a complete sentence, and so requires a greater pause than a semicolon, yet'is followed by an additional part making a more full and perfect sense, may be distinguished by a colon.
Example: "Were all books reduced to their quintessence, many a bulky author would make his appearance in a penny paper: there would scarce be any such thing in nature as a folio : the works of an age would be contained on a few shelves : not to mention millions of volumes that would be utterly annihilated.'
Addison, Spect. No. 124.
Here the whole sentence is divided into four parts by colons: the first and last of which are compounded members, each divided by a comma; the second and third are simple members.
When a semicolon has preceded, and a greater pause is still necessary; a colon may be employed, though the sentence be incomplete.
The colon is also commonly used, when an example, or a speech, is introduced. · When a sentence is so far perfectly finished, as not to be connected in construction with the following sentence, it is marked with a period.
In all cases, the proportion of the several points in respect to one another is rather to be regarded, than their supposed precise quantity, or proper office, when taken separately.
Besides the points which mark the pauses in discourse, there are others which denote a different modulation of the voice in correspondence with the sense.
The interrogation point,
The interrogation and exclamation points are sufficiently explained by their names; they are indeterminate as to their quantity or time, and may be equivalent in that respect to a semicolon, & colon, or a period, as the sense requires. They mark an elevation of the voice.
The parenthesis encloses in the body of a sentence a member inserted into it, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the construction. It marks a moderate depression of the voice, with a pause greater than a comma.
BENEFITS RESULTING FROM THE STUDY OF THE
LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES.
To have a just idea of the benefits arising from the training up of youth in the knowledge of languages, arts, history, rhetoric, philosophy, and such other sciences as are suitable to their years; and to learn how far such studies may contribute to the glory of a kingdom; we need only take a view of the difference which learning makes, not only between private men but nations.
The Athenians possessed but a small territory in Greece, but of how large an extent was their reputation? By carrying the sciences to perfection they completed their own glory. The same school sent abroad excellent men of all kinds, great orators, famous commanders, wise legis. lators, and able politicians. This fruitful source diffused the like advantages over all the politer arts, though seemingly independent of it, such as music, painting, sculpture, and architecture. It