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of the first objects which attract notice are the numerous places of burial, which are observed on the declivity of Mount Prion: they consist of excavations in the side of the hill, arched with stone work. It is here that tradition informs us, Timothy was buried; and it is to this place that superstition assigns the story of the Seven Sleepers. We surveyed with pleasure the stadium; but nothing at Ephesus was so interesting as the remains of the theatre; it was here, that the multitude collected by Demetrius and his craftsmen excited the uproar which threw the whole city into confusion. The situation of the building affords illustration of that remarkable occurrence. The theatre, like other ancient structures of the same name, is seated on a steep declivity; the seats having been formed in successive tiers on the slope of a lofty hill, and the whole building being open to the sky: I have no doubt that upward of twenty thousand persons could have conveniently seated themselves in the theatre of Ephesus. Before them, they had a view of the most striking description: across the Market Place, and at no great distance they beheld that splendid temple, which was one of the seven wonders of the world, and which was dedicated to the great goddess Diana, whom all Asia and the world worshipped: there can be little doubt that Demetrius would avail himself of the sight of this splendid object to inflame to the highest pitch the passions of the multitude: we may imagine their eyes fixed on this famous temple and their hands directed toward it, while they all, with one voice, about the space of two hours, cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians! The very situation of the theatre would add to the tumult: on the left-hand, and at no great distance, are the steep and rocky sides of Mount Corissus; forming a natural and lofty rampart, which completely shuts out all prospect in that quarter: the shouts of twenty thousand persons striking against this mountain, would be echoed with loud reverberations, and not a little augment the uproar. The high situation of the theatre on Mount Prion, accounts also for the ease with which such an immense multitude was assembled: from every part of Ephesus on that side, the inhabitants would have a view of the people rushing into the theatre, and taking their seats on that lofty elevation; and would, of course, themselves run with impetuosity, to see and hear the cause of the assembly. Under these circumstances, it is by no means matter of wonder, that the attention of the town clerk was excited, and that he felt himself called on to interpose his authority.

From the theatre we passed into the

"Agora," or Market Place. This public place was just below the theatre; and it was here that the law proceedings were going forward, to which the town clerk referred Demetrius and his companions.

From Ephesus to Laodicea.-At Ghuzelhissar, capital of the Pachalic of Aiadeen. This is a place of considerable importance. Mr. Pascali, the English vice-consul, gave me the following information concerning it. The number of houses he estimates at 12,000: one hundred camel-loads of grain are daily consumed by the poor: the Mosques are 16 or 18: the Greeks and Armenians have each a church: the Jews are 3000, and possess ten synagogues, of which five or six are publick; and there are eight or ten European families. Yusuff Pacha who has distinguished himself so much of late by his defence of Patrass, presides over this district; a Mutselim resides at Ghuzel-hissar, in character of his representative.

April 2. We visited the hill which hangs over the town, and which exhibits various remains of ancient Tralles. From this elevation, a most magnificent view presents itself: beneath is the large town of Ghuzel-hissar, adorned with all its mosques and minarets : around, extending to an immense distance, is the beautiful plain of the Maander, with the river pursuing its mazy course through the midst : beyond, are majestic mountains. I wonder not at the Turkish name of the town, Ghuzel-hissar, or "Beautiful Castle."

The Turkish village of Schiosque is three hours and a half from Ghuzel-his

sar.

Who ever expected to find England in Asia Minor! and yet the fine cultivation and the excellent road still seem to persuade us that we are in our native country. We spent the night in a large coffee house, surrounded, as usual, by smoking Turks. In one respect I cannot but wish that the labouring orders in England were on a level with Mussulmans: it would be happy indeed for them if they were as free from habits of intoxication: experience proves that coffee is incalculably better for the population of a country than intoxicating liquors.

At Sarakeny. We were agreeably surprised to find here Panaretos, bishop of Philadelphia: he was engaged in making a tour of his diocese, and had already spent a few days at Sarakeny. When we first called on him, he was engaged in the performance of evening prayers with some of his attendants: it was to us a subject of surprise and sorrow, to observe the manner in which the service was conducted: the hundreds of "Kyrie eleesons" are repeated with a celerity which is perfectly amazing: in fact, you hear, in general, nothing more than "lee

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us to state them definitely to the publick; and till this is done, we shall not go into much detail. We state, however, in general, that we believe there is no doubt that the services of more than one missionary of promising talents may readily be secured, if the necessary funds for their support can be obtained. And will they not be obtained? Is there not Christian liberality enough among the wealthy members of the Presbyterian church, to furnish promptly the amount that will be needed? We trust there is: and we call earnestly on those whom God has prospered in their worldly circumstances, to enable the Board to embrace the opportunity now offered in providence, for commencing operations, which, under the Divine blessing, may extend the pure gospel through the larger part of our own continent, where it has never yet been published.

The Treasurer of the Trustees of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church acknowledges the receipt of the following sums for their Theological Seminary at Princeton, N.J. during the month of January last, viz.

Of Rev. John W. Scott, a quarter's rent for Contingent Fund
Of Dr. W. Darrach, in part of his subscription procured by Rev. J. Breckin-
ridge, for the same fund

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$87 50

10 00

7 50 15 00

$120 00

150 00

950 00

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70 00

$1290 00

Of Rev. Dr. E. S. Ely, from Messrs. Towar & Hogan, the second half of the premium for the privilege of printing 1000 copies of the Confession, &c. $15-one half is for this fund

And the premium for a second thousand, $30-half

Amount received for the Contingent Fund
Of Mrs. Jane Keith, of Charleston, S. C., for a particular student
Received also of Mrs. Keith, per F. Kohne, Esq., on account of her Scholar-
ship

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Of Rev. Dr. A. Alexander, from Rev. James Campbell, of Beaufort, S. C., in full of his subscription for the Scholarship of the Senior Class of 1823 Total received for the Seminary

The Treasurer has also received in aid of the operations of the Board of Mis-
sions, viz.

Of Rev. John Moodey, per Mr. W. Snodgrass, a donation from the Missionary
Society of Middle Spring, Pennsylvania

Of Silas E. Weir, Esq., from Mr. John Kennedy, forwarded by Rev. M. L.
Fullerton, collections at their meetings on Monday evenings, in Hagars-
town, Md.

And the half of the above premiums paid by Messrs. Towar & Hogan

$10 00

25 00 22 50

Amount $57 50

Diew of Publick Affairs.

EUROPE.

BRITAIN.-The latest London date which we have seen was of the 5th of December, that day included. Great anxiety was experienced to learn the decision of the Turkish Sultan, after hearing of the destruction of his fleet at Navarino-That decision, however, was not known. The following is a summary of the intelligence and rumours which had reached London on the 5th of December.

Despatches from the British ambassador at Constantinople, dated the 6th of Nov. reached London on the 30th, but had not been published. The private accounts from that place, in the French and German papers, were to the 10th of November. It ap pears from these, that the intelligence of the destruction of the Turkish fleet, reached Constantinople on the 1st of that month. The news caused great consternation, but the Porte had not resorted to any acts of violence against the European residents, and the ambassadors remained there at the last date. Further advices were hourly expected.

Among the rumours in circulation, was one that orders had been given to seize all ships of the allied powers in the Turkish empire, but the Courier considers the report as unfounded. The following are extracts from the private accounts.

Constantinople, Nov. 7.

"The receipt of the intelligence of the battle of Navarino agitated the Sultan to such a degree that no person, not even his most confidential advisers, could obtain access to him for twelve hours afterwards.

The Reis Effendi was, however, at length admitted, and on the 3d the dragormans appeared in great consternation; he asked them why they had acted against all faith, and then added, that the Porte exceedingly regretted having listened for a moment to their insinuations, or the promises of the allied ambassadors. It is said that the treaty with the allied powers, as well as the convention of Akerman, has been declared null and void, and that the Porte has determined to break off all communication with the ambassadors. They have, however, expressed their conviction, that they, as well as the other Franks, resident in the Turkish capital, ought to be protected by the rights of nations, and had accordingly assured them of their safety. This fact was communicated to the Austrian ambassador.

Every moment an order is expected from the Sultan, commanding a general armament to be formed, and the standard of the prophet to be hoisted on the Mosque of St. Sophia."

Another private letter from Constantinople of the same date (Nov. 7,) says, “Since the first of this month, when the burning of the Turkish fleet at Navarino was known, an indignation not to be described, has prevailed among the Turks. Tranquillity, however, prevails, and we look forward with impatience to the decision of the Sultan, after the great divan on the 5th. The ambassadors of the three powers are still here, but no intercourse is held with them, and the Austrian ambassador is in constant negotiation with the Reis Effendi. The Reis Effendi, answered the ambassadors of Prussia and Holland, who offered to express their condolence on the event, that the Porte would take a step suitable to its dignity.

The conduct of the Porte to the ambassadors has been hitherto entirely conformable to the law of nations, and seems to be a pledge that the Porte, even in the worst case, does not design any thing violent towards them. It is generally believed that the Sultan's decision will be of a warlike nature, and that a general arming in the whole empire will be ordered."

All accounts agree that both at Constantinople and Smyrna, after much fear and agitation, the European and Christian residents had become tranquil, under assurances, which we hope may not prove deceptive, that in any event their personal safety should not be hazarded. It seems that the result of the grand Turkish Divan, which was held on the 5th of November, was not disclosed, and that the ambassadors of the allied powers were there on the 7th. Our own impression is, that the Turk will bluster but not fight.

We may as well mention here as elsewhere, that by advices received in Philadelphia, direct from Gibraltar, to the 30th of November inclusive, it appears that Admiral Codrington arrived at Malta with the British squadron, on the 7th of November, and that part of the squadrons of De Rigny and De Heiden were hourly expected. Prepara. tions were making at Malta for the reception of the whole of the wounded sailors of

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the combined fleet. We have seen Admiral Codrington's General Order, published
on board the Asia on the 24th of October, before leaving the bay of Navarino, in which
he commends in the highest terms the conduct of the whole of the combined squadron,
in the bloody action of the 20th, and returns thanks to his colleagues De Rigny and
De Heiden, and to their officers and crews.
sixty men of war there remains only one frigate and fifteen smaller vessels in a state
He says, "Out of a fleet composed of
ever again to be put to sea."

It appears that under the same date (October 24th) the admirals of the combined fleet addressed a letter to the "Corps Legislatif" of Greece, in which they censure, in the most severe and pointed terms, the countenance given by the Greek authorities to the depredations of their piratical cruisers. They conclude with the following strong and menacing language-"There remains for you no pretext. The armistice by sea exists, on the part of the Turks, de facto. Their fleet exists no more. Take care of yours-for we will also destroy it, if need be, to put a stop to a system of robbery on the high seas, which would end in your exclusion from the law of nations. As the present provisional government is as weak as it is immoral, we address these final and irrevocable resolutions to the legislative body. With respect to the prize court which it has instituted, we declare it incompetent to judge any of our vessels without

our concurrence."

We observe in the British papers no information of any importance, except what relates to the controversy with the Turks. An apprehension of war had produced a trifling depreciation of stocks, but no change in the price of articles of commerce.

FRANCE. The king of France has conferred high military honours, not only on his own Admiral the Chevalier de Rigny, but on the British and Russian Admirals, and on all the captains of the combined fleet, who were concerned in destroying the Turkish fleet on the 20th of October.-The result of the elections for the chamber of deputies had disappointed the court party grievously. It appears, indeed, that there is a majority on the side of the court, but their opponents are numerous and influential and of the eight deputies from the city of Paris, every one is a decided liberaland when this was known the city was illuminated. General La Fayette is again elected. Report says that his son is also chosen, but this is not certain. It is believed that the French ministry will be changed. Royer Collard, an eminent liberal and a distinguished orator, has been chosen a member of the French Academy, in place of the Marquis de la Place, deceased.-Commerce in France is said to languish.

SPAIN. In a circular, a copy of which (sent by the Spanish minister at Madrid to the Governor of Hispaniola) we have seen, it is stated that the rebellion in Spain is entirely subdued, and that great tranquillity is now enjoyed, not only at Madrid, but in the kingdom generally. This is doubtless an exaggerated representation of the quiet state of Spain. An article from Barcelona, of the date of the 10th of November, says, "the scaffolds are permanently in use at Tarragona, the executioners are busied there," and after mentioning by name five distinguished officers who had suffered death, it is added-"This severity will not accomplish its proposed object; for, as many of those executed submitted on the faith of an amnesty, it will inspire distrust into the other rebels, who will prefer dying with arms in their hands to perishing on the scaffold." Spain is yet in a very unquiet state, and utterly unable to satisfy the pecuniary claims both of Britain and France.

PORTUGAL. The papers received in this city from Gibraltar, contain a letter dated at Vienna, October 19th, 1827, from Don Miguel to his sister, the present regent of Portugal, in which he apprizes her of his resolution to assume the regency of that kingdom, agreeably to the appointment of their august brother, and requesting her to make known this determination, and his "firm resolve to put down the factions which may, under any pretence, attempt to disturb the tranquillity of the country." It seems now to be understood, that Don Miguel is, as he avows in this letter, really disposed to carry the new constitution of Portugal into effect, and that on this account the old royalists are decidedly hostile to him.

AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA.-These two great powers profess to be neutral, in the present controversy with the Turk. This character, whatever be their real wishes, they have motives enough to preserve; and their retaining it enables them to mediate, as they are said to be doing, between the Sultan and the ministers of the combined powers.

GREECE AND TURKEY.-The relation which these countries are hereafter to sustain to each other, time alone can unfold. What relates to the destructive war in which they have recently been engaged, we have mentioned under other articles. We may add, that accounts which have some appearance of authenticity, state, that Ibrahim Pacha, since the naval battle of Navarino, continues his unrelenting devastations in

Greece; and that, on the other hand, Lord Cochrane has landed three thousand Greeks on the island of Scio, and murdered all the Turks there, except about 400, who have shut themselves up in a fortress which they are still able to hold.

RUSSIA. A St. Petersburgh article of Nov. 3d, says "News have just arrived that the important fortress of Erivan had surrendered to the Russian troops, and that the garrison, consisting of 3000 men, with Hassan Khan, the commander, were prisoners of war."

From ASIA and AFRICA We have nothing to report for the present month, except that it appears, by a letter from an officer of a British ship at Sierra Leone, that the English colony at that place is about to be removed to the island of Fernandez Po, which, says the letter, "is represented by some as a terrestial paradise, possessing the delightful varieties of all the climates of the globe." The cause of this removal is the sickliness of Sierra Leone. The death of the late Governor, Sir Neil Campbell, is announced.

AMERICA.

BUENOS AIRES.-It appears that the states which compose what are denominated the UNITED PROVINCES, have refused to make themselves, in their collective capacity, a party to the war with the emperor of Brazil. This notwithstanding, the Provinces of Cordova and Buenos Ayres have entered into a treaty for prosecuting the warCordova to furnish a regiment of 6000 effective men, and Buenos Ayres to furnish pay and provisions. One account states that Lavaleja will probably soon have under his command, an army of nearly 12,000 men; and there is a rumour that he is likely to declare himself independent. We rather believe that both parties are exhausted and tired of the war, and that there will not be much more fighting.

BRAZIL.-The late session of the Brazilian Cortes has terminated by an adjournment. The emperor, on the 18th of November, had not given his sanction to an act passed by the Cortes to equalize the duty on foreign commerce. On the 10th of November, an army of 3000 men sailed from Rio, to reinforce the army in Rio Grande. An expedition to the Bay of San Blaz, on the coast of Patagonia, had wholly failed, by the wreck of the vessels in a storm. The currency of Brazil was greatly depre ciated. A change of ministry was expected; and a personal quarrel had taken place, and acrimonious language had passed, between the Emperor and a Mr. Gordon, the British resident-The Emperor had purchased a fine house, which was in the occupancy of Mr. Gordon, who refused to leave it when required.

COLOMBIA. The last accounts represent Bolivar as having carried all his measures, and as possessing irresistible influence. A dreadful earthquake was experienced at Bogota, on the 16th of November. It lasted for twenty-four hours; the trembling was horrible, and from Bogota to Ibague, not a single church or brick house was left standing. The Liberator's house was one of the few that remained uninjured. The discontent and difficulties in Guyaquil had been happily terminated.

MEXICO. The tranquillity of this great republick has long been disturbed by the collision of two powerful parties; and for some time past, the agitation has been increased, by the question relative to the expulsion of the old Spaniards. The Congress of the Union had endeavoured to mediate between the incensed legislatures of the individual States and the Spaniards-but without success. The legislature of Vera Cruz adopted a law on the 4th of December ult. for the expulsion of all unmarried Spaniards under fifty years of age, within thirty days from the publication of the decree within the places of their residence severally, but with an allowance to remove all their property, and with the faith of the State pledged for the safety of that which they might leave in the hands of their agents.

UNITED STATES.-The Congress of our union has hitherto been less agitated by party differences, relative to the next presidential election, than was at first apprehended-We wish we could say that party views had no influence whatever on national questions. For ourselves, we belong to no party, unless to belong to none, constitutes a party. On every question, whether in Congress or the cabinet, we sincerely wish that all regard to any consideration but the good of our dear and common country, as it may be affected by the contemplated measure, could be kept entirely out of view. A number of laws have already been passed by Congress, and others are in progress. At the close of the session, we shall probably give the titles of those which relate to national concerns.

Several communications omitted this month, shall appear in our next.

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