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cans, or Indians, is followed by children more or less resembling their parents, and this offspring is perfectly capable of continuing the race.

"If there be any mode of accounting for the arrival of even a single male and female on this continent, we shall find no difficulty in understanding how so many nations became distributed over this vast region, nor can we, on an unprejudiced view of the whole subject, find any difficulty in believing that the myriads of human beings, that have lived from the beginning of time to the present hour, have all descended from two individuals. The history of the world, as presented to us by the most authentick records, or by the voice of universal tradition, leads us inevitably to conclude that from some point on the Eastern continent the human race originated, and gradually extended in various directions, subject to the influence of all accidents, of place, climate, disease, and facility or difficulty of procuring food: hence, notwithstanding that the connexion of many nations with the parent stock is entirely lost, there is not the slightest evidence that such nations are derived from any but the source we have stated; neither, when philosophically considered, is there any necessity that they should have originated in a different manner, since the cause is perfectly adequate to the effect; and where ons sufficient cause is given no other should be sought.

"Under the operation of different motives we find the scattered members of the human family removing by degrees from the centre towards the extremes of the old continent, and subsisting in such remote situations until the disposition or ability to return was entirely lost, and they became inured to the climate, however dreadfully inclement.

"Though the human race always remains specifically unchanged in every condition, yet the action of external causes is capable of producing considerable variations in the appearance of individuals, or tribes exposed to their influence. Thus we find those who reside in uniformly warm and spontaneously productive countries, of a slender frame, a relaxed and delicate habit, and of a sallow or tawny complexion. The natives of Africa, who are exposed to the most intense heat of the sun, are full framed, robust and vigorous, being endowed with short, crisped and coarse hair, and a skin whose colour shields them from the destructive fierceness of the solar rays. In the middle latitudes, where the means of subsistence are readily procured, and the vicissitudes of season are never remarkably severe, we find the human frame in

every variety of development, and distinguished by fairness and delicacy of complexion. But on leaving these favoured regions behind us, and visiting the far northern portions of the earth, we see man, like most of the other productions of nature, stunted and dwarfish, display. ing little or no mental energy, barely capable of securing the scanty subsistence allowed him by the rigours of his situa tion, and maintaining an existence scarcely superior to that of the whale or seal, the hunting of which constitutes his highest ambition, as their flesh and oil are his greatest luxuries.

"Since it is not only possible, but unquestionable, that the whole human race are varieties of the same species, most probably descended from one male and female, it remains for us to show in what manner the descendants of this stock may have reached America, and whether our observations can be supported by arguments drawn from the condition of the new world."

The volume before us, which is the first of a series yet to be published, is an interesting collection of facts; and though there are many inaccuracies in the style, it is, upon the whole, a very creditable performance. The plates are neat and well executed.

A SERMON ON PREDESTINATION--Preached in Milledgeville, August, 1826, by Joseph C. Stiles. Milledgeville: printed at the office of the Georgia Statesman, by S. Meacham, 1826. pp. 84.

Although this publication is called a Sermon, it fills 84 large octavo pages, closely printed. It appears, by notes prefixed, that the substance of it, and the substance only, had been delivered in two discourses, preached in the Baptist church at Milledgeville. It also appears, that the author had been in a sort compelled to preach on the topick of Predestination, by misrepresentations affecting his own character, as well as the doctrine itself. In our judgment, he has vindicated both in a masterly manner. There is a perspicuity, energy and point, in this discussion, which we confess we did not suppose that the subject would admit of.-Take it altogether, it exhibits talent of a superior order; and united, we are glad to say, with fervent piety and real liberality. We should indeed, for ourselves, wish to change the aspect of one or two minor points, and the language of a few expressions. But these affect not the main argument. The subject is placed fairly and strongly on its proper ground. The divine sovereignty, and the freedom and responsibility of the creature, are both shown to be conclusively taught, by the

united voice of reason and revelationand the method of reconciling these fully, is declared to be beyond the reach of the human intellect, in the present life; and

yet that this affords no just reason at all, why both these truths should not be readily and cordially received. We think this publication will do good.

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.

Burying Alive.--It was lately stated that, "on reopening a grave in Frithelstock church-yard, Devon, for the purpose of interring a relative of a former inhabitant, who had been deposited about 70 years, the coffin not being decayed, it was found necessary to take it out, in order to make the grave deeper; and that, on examining its contents, the skeleton of the occupier was found perfect, but with its face downwards, which gives reason to suppose that the defunct was buried alive, and, in struggling, had turned to the position in which it was found." On this paragraph The Liverpool Mercury remarks:-"We never knew an instance of this nature which rested upon that kind of testimony upon which alone any rational mind ought to believe it. For our own part, judging from the shape the coffin, we doubt whether any living person, confined in one of them, even if he could breathe freely, could turn himself. Independent, however, of this objection, there is another, which justifies us in doubting that any person, screwed down in a coffin, ever moved afterwards. Cases of trance and suspended animation have been too frequent to admit of doubt; and it is notorious that persons supposed to be dead, and laid out for interment, have recovered, and lived, too, for a long time afterwards. If a man, however, in a state of suspended animation, were once buried, and the earth, as usual, thrown over him, we contend, that if he recovered for a moment, that moment

of

would be his last, as he must instantly expire, for want of air to breathe. All the stories, therefore, of moans being heard from the graves, are, in our opinion, idle tales."

Sir W. Ouseley reclaims, in favour of the Oriental writers, a variety of popular fictions; such as, Pope's January and May, Boccacio's fourth story in the Decameron, Parnell's Hermit, the story of Santon Barsisa, several of the tales in the Gesta Romanorum, the story of Whit. tington, the induction to the Taming of the Shrew, &c; the praise of inventing which has been long usurped by Eu

ropeans.

Sugar from Potatoes.-L. Gall, a German, has published a pamphlet of 88 pages, to show the advantage of making sugar from potatoes. He says every farmer can make sugar in great or small quantities, and render the importation of foreign sugar unnecessary. Potatoes, he asserts, are better than beets for sugar, 100 pounds of the former giving 11 pounds of sugar, while the same quantity of the lat ter gives only 4 pounds.-Hamp. Gaz.

Captain Parry has commissioned the Hecla, at Deptford, the fitting out of which was to commence immediately for the voyage to Spitzbergen. Several officers had been appointed to her, one of whom (Lieut. Ross) would proceed with Captain P. in one of the boats over the ice, in the drawing of which Shetland ponies are to be employed, which will be taken on board at the Orkneys.

"Book of Nature."-The Lectures of Dr. Good, delivered in 1810, at the Sur

rey Institution, London, and which have lately been published in two octavo volumes, under the title of the Book of Nature, should be in every family. The work presents a systematic, but popular, survey, of the most interesting features of the general science of nature, for the purpose of elucidating what has been found obscure, controverting and correcting what may be proved erroneous, and developing, by new and original views and hypothesis, much of what yet remains to be more satisfactorily explained. In prosecuting what the author thus declared to be his design, he has been eminently successful.

Growth of a Sycamore.-In the year 1781, Mr. Joseph Smith, of Hadley, brought from Hockanum a sprout of button-ball or sycamore, not so large as his finger, and set it in the earth near his house, where it lived and flourished. He cut it down on the 12th instant, and found by measuring, that what was only a riding stick forty-five years ago, was now a tree in diameter about a foot from the ground, ninety-four feet in height, and four feet where it was chopped off.

Death from Charcoal.-An instance of

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Lehigh Coal,

99

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The coals in this instance were taken from the kitchen fire-place. That coals taken from a fire-place are not injurious, is a very common error, and one of the most dangerous kind, especially during the present season of extreme cold. This mistake arises from the ignorance which prevails in the community of the nature and results of combustion. Wood, Lehigh coal, Liverpool coal, coke and charcoal all necessarily produce carbonic acid, the gas which is the cause of death in these instances, whenever they are burning; and there is, under the same circumstances, danger from all, differing only in degree.

On destroying Thistles with Salt.-A Correspondent in the Farmer's Journal, who dates from Worcestershire, says, "I have no doubt that salt may be made use of with good effect for destroying this. tles. I have made several experiments, which have uniformly been attended with success. The most effectual way is, to cut off or bruise the thistle, and then put a small portion of salt upon it: very few will survive this treatment. It may be accomplished without this trouble; but the land should be gone over more than once, to see if any have escaped. Salt is also very serviceable for destroying weeds of all kinds, say nettles, docks, &c. that grow around farm buildings; but you must be careful not to use it too near fences or trees, or perchance, you may destroy those also." Another correspondent confirms this-he says, "A small quantity of common salt, about a tea-spoonful, is taken between the finger and thumb, and placed firmly on the centre of the thistle. In two or three days the thistle will turn quite black; and in eight or ten days the root and every part of it will be destroyed. I have found this a cheap and certain mode of clearing land from thistles. One person will salt as many as four or five would cut up in the usual way; and with this difference, that salt completely destroys the weeds, whereas the spud merely retards them for a short period, to be ultimately more productive. The salt should be applied to the large thistles before the stem is put forth; and care should be taken that it is not dropped upon the grass or cinque-foil."-Liver pool Advertiser.

The following numbers represent the comparative value of several woods and coals:

Shellbark Hickory, Pig-nut Hickory, Red-heart Hickory,

White Oak,

100

95

81

81

Pine Charcoal,

These numbers, represent the comparative values of the several fuels.-Thus it is seen, that the relative value of shellbark hickory and Lehigh coal is near. I ly the same, cord for ton; so that if we could buy a cord of shellbark hickory for 6 dollars, or 6 times 100, we ought to be able to buy a ton of Lehigh coal for 5 dollars 94 cents, or 6 times 99, to be equally cheap. The numbers given, seem to show, what we should not have supposed, that cord for cord, white oak is equally valuable with red-heart hickory, and ought to bring the same price; while chestnut white oak is even more valuable.

Wadsworth's Steam Engine.-We are pleased to inform our readers, that the improvement in the steam engine recently tested by the Providence Steam Engine Company, is, on account of the simplicity of its construction, its economy and perfect safety, deservedly gaining the approbation of the publick. Numerous appli cations have been made to the company's agent for engines on this plan, and a contract has been made within a few days by a number of enterprising gentlemen of this town, for an engine to drive several sets of stones for grain and plaister, and machinery for other purposes. The engine is to be located in a building already engaged for that purpose in Benefitstreet, near the market. The work is commenced, and will probably be completed in thirty or forty days. We understand the Lehigh or Rhode Island coal will be used for fuel.-Rhode Island Jour.

Some estimate of the number of persons who pass annually upon the Hudson, either from business or pleasure, may be made from the calculation, that the Constellation and Constitution have each carried, during the past season, thirty thousand passengers, making sixty thousand in one line of boats. This calculation is not made from the official returns, but it is believed to be nearly accurate. During the greater part of the season, there were nineteen steam boats besides the line of tow boats. The probability is, that the passengers in the boats of the Hudson River Association, exceed that of any other single line; but it is a reasonable estimate, that 250,000 persons have passed upon the Hudson during the past season, by this mode of conveyance, exclusive of the tow boats, sloops, &c.

The New York Society Library is the most ancient publick Library in the State, and is the third for size and value in the United States; being inferior only to those of Cambridge and Philadelphia. It existed so early as the year 1754, and received

its charter from the Colonial Government in 1772. It now possesses about eighteen thousand volumes, many of which are of the most rare and valuable description.

Of the Officers and Soldiers of the Revolutionary army, who served six months and upwards, is estimated that there are about 20,000 now living.

members of Colleges in New England, Eleven Greek youths, five of them are now receiving an education in this country, with a view to their future usefulness when they shall return to the land

of their ancestors.

Religious Intelligence.

THE COLLEGE OF ATHENS--GEORGIA.

Every gownsman is a legion”— This, said Dr. Witherspoon, was the expression addressed to me, by the celebrated George Whitefield, when I felt reluctant to leave a congregation of nearly two thousand people, to which I regularly preached in Scotland, for the Presidency of New Jersey College. He who is instrumental in bringing into the ministry of the gospel, one able and faithful labourer, who would otherwise not have entered on the sacred work, renders a service, the benefit of which cannot be calculated.Hence revivals of religion in colleges and academies, by which the church is always furnished with some of its most useful ministers, are peculiarly interesting to the friends of vital piety. We there. fore insert in our pages, at full length, the interesting narrative, by the president of the college at Athens in Georgia, of what has taken place among the precious youth of his charge.--We have a lively participation in his feelings. The account is extracted from the Charleston Observer.

FRANKLIN COLLEGE, ATHENS, (Ga.)

29th December, 1826.

To the Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve, Editor of the "Charleston Observer."

Rev. and Dear Sir,-You, no doubt, remember that, at the annual sessions of

our Synod which we lately attended, I was required publickly to give a narrative of the revival of religion which has lately appeared in this institution, as well as in this town and its vicinity. You also recollect that, after the statement was verbally made to the Synod and numerous congregation present on that occasion, it was resolved unanimously, that a narrative of the same kind should be prepared by myself, and published in some religious journal. Having lately returned home from Synod, I have chosen your recently established paper as the medium of communication, and hasten to comply with the resolution of Synod, by giving the following summary view:

On my removal to this place in May, 1819, the state of religion here was very discouraging. Not more than two families, each containing three professors of the Presbyterian communion, resided in this place; together with two females of the Baptist church, and one female of the Methodist order. These were the only professors of religion then in the village. Being required by the laws of the Col. lege to see that publick worship should be performed on every Lord's day, I generally officiated myself, except when occasionally visited by a clergyman of the

Baptist or Methodist order; to either of whose preachers the College chapel was always cheerfully open. During the first six months of my residence here, it is believed that not more than thirty persons generally attended publick worship, besides the few students who were then in the College. The religious aspect and prospects of the place were gloomy indeed. No church of any denomination had ever been organized in the town, although the Baptists and Methodists, each, had one, not very distant in the neighbourhood.

During the year 1820, the number of students increased, and the prospects of the institution having begun to brighten, several respectable families from various

parts of the state began to select Athens as a place of residence, for the sake of society and the education of their children. Among these were professors of religion of different denominations. Before the close of that year, a Presbyterian church was constituted and the Lord's Supper administered; in which ordinance we were joined by several Methodist brethren and sisters, who have gene. rally united with us in such solemnities ever since.

During the two succeeding years, our little church was increased by the addition of a few respectable students and other persons who became religiously impressed by attending to the usual stated means of grace. The number of families of each denomination, who annually settled here, continued to increase until our worshipping assemblies became large and respectfully attended. A Methodist preacher of respectable talents settled here as preceptor of our female academy. He was invited to divide the Sabbath with Professor Church and myself, by preaching in the College chapel, which he often did with general acceptance. Religious harmony was well preserved; perhaps never better in any place under similar circumstances. At length the number of Methodist families, who removed into Athens, became so large as to dispose and enable them to erect a house of worship for their own use. This being done, an amicable arrangement was made betwixt the two Societies and sanctioned by the Trustees of the College, that divine service would be alternately performed in the College chapel and Methodist meeting house, twice in each month. The labours of a highly esteemed minister of the Methodist order, have been thus employed and enjoyed once in two weeks since last spring.

Ever since the summer of 1824, it has been observed that an increased attention was paid to the preaching of the gospel by a majority of the respectable members of the College, when assembled in the chapel for worship. During the last year (1825) several respectable members were added to our church by a pub lick profession of their faith; but no very unusual appearances occurred until early in August last.

A young man, a member of the senior class in the College, after the final examination of his class in June, had, as is usually permitted, gone to his father's in a neighbouring county, to prepare for the duty assigned to him at the then approaching commencement. While there, he was attacked with a violent fever, and a few days numbered him with the dead. Having been much beloved by his class

mates as well by his other fellow-students, the unexpected intelligence of his early and sudden death produced a serious ef fect upon the minds of many in the College. This impression was probably improved by some very pertinent and appropriate remarks, introduced by the member of the class who had been appointed to deliver the valedictory addresses on the day of commencement, which were followed by some observations in the address to the graduates. Another young man, formerly a student of this College, who had finished his academical course here two years before, having studied law and entered on the practice of his profession, had visited the place and attended the commencement. On the next day he was confined to bed with sickness; and, after languishing three weeks, notwithstanding every attention and effort of skilful physicians, he died. As he lay in town during his illness, and was much esteemed by the students, many of them visited him, whom he addressed and admonished in terms and under circumstances so peculiarly solemn, as evidently produced impres sions of much solemnity upon their minds.

On the second day after commencement, the Presbytery of Hopewell met in Athens; and on the following Sabbath, the Lord's Supper was administered in our place of worship. There was much solemn and very appropriate preaching on that occasion; and a greater degree of solemnity was observed and believed to overspread the congregation, especially the students, than at any time before. Several of them shortly afterwards were known to be under serious convictions. Prayer meetings, which had been established and attended for five years past once a week or oftener, generally by serious students and other professors of religion, became more closely and fully attended on the evening of the Sabbath and Wednesday in each week. In September, a Methodist camp-meeting, distant some miles from the College, was attended by many of the students, where, it is altogether probable, the religious impressions of a number were deepened. About a week afterwards, one who had been among the earliest subjects of conviction, obtained a comfortable hope of pardon. The seriousness in the College afterwards appeared to increase daily. Religious exercises were attended to by the serious students in their rooms during the hours by law allotted to recreation. In October, several professed a hope of pardon and acceptance; four of whom joined our church by a publick profession of their faith in Christ. The College was

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