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The jurisdiction of the commerce court over cases of the foregoing Cases not included. classes shall be exclusive; but this Act shall not affect the jurisdiction
now possessed by any circuit or district court of the United States over cases or proceedings of a kind not within the above-enumerated
classes. Status of court. The commerce court shall be a court of record, and shall have a seal Composition. of such form and style as the court may prescribe. The said court
shall be composed of five judges, to be from time to time designated and assigned thereto by the Chief Justice of the United States, from among the circuit judges of the United States, for the period of five years, except that in the first instance the court shall be composed
of the five additional circuit judges to be appointed as hereinafter Designation for first provided, who shall be designated by the President to serve for one, period.
two, three, four, and five years, respectively, in order that the period
of designation of one of the said judges shall expire in each year Filling vacancies. thereafter. In case of the death, resignation, or termination of
assignment of any judge so designated, the Chief Justice shall designate a circuit judge to fill the vacancy so caused and to serve during
the unexpired period for which the original designation was made. Subsequent designa- After the year nineteen hundred and fourteen no circuit judge shall
be redesignated to serve in the commerce court until the expiration
of at least one year after the expiration of the period of his last prePresiding judge. vious designation. The judge first designated for the five-year period
shall be the presiding judge of said court, and thereafter the judge
senior in designation shall be the presiding judge. Expense allowance Each of the judges during the period of his service in the comto judges.
merce court shall, on account of the regular sessions of the court being held in the city of Washington, receive in addition to his salary as circuit judge an expense allowance at the rate of one thousand
five hundred dollars per annum. Appointment of ad The President shall, by and with the advice and consent of the ditional circuit judges.
Senate, appoint five additional circuit judges no two of whom shall Assignment.
be from the same judicial circuit, who shall hold office during good behavior and who shall be from time to time designated and assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States for service in the circuit court for any district, or the circuit court of appeals for any circuit,
or in the commerce court. Precedence and suc.
The associate judges shall have precedence and shall succeed to the place and powers of the presiding judge whenever he may be
absent or incapable of acting in the order of the date of their desigQuorum of court.
nations. Four of said judges shall constitute a quorum, and at least a majority of the court shall concur in all decisions.
The court shall also have a clerk and a marshal, with the same duties and powers, so far as they may be appropriate and are not altered by rule of the court, as are now possessed by the clerk and marshal, respectively, of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The offices of the clerk and marshal of the court shall be in the city Appointment of offi- of Washington, in the District of Columbia. The judges of the court
shall appoint the clerk and marshal, and may also appoint, if they find it necessary, a deputy clerk and deputy marshal; and such clerk, marshal, deputy clerk, and deputy marshal shall hold office during the pleasure of the court. The salary of the clerk shall be four thousand dollars per annum; the salary of the marshal three thousand dollars per annum; the salary of the deputy clerk two thousand five hundred dollars per annum; and the salary of the deputy marshal two thousand five hundred dollars per annum. The said clerk and marshal
may, with the approval of the court, employ all requisite assistance. Costs and fees. The costs and fees in said court shall be established by the court in a
table thereof, approved by the Supreme Court of the United States, within four months after the organization of the court; but such costs
Expenses outside of
Court rooms outside
and fees shall in no case exceed those charged in the Supreme Court
Court permanently business. Its regular sessions shall be held in the city of Washing- Sessions in Wash ton, in the District of Columbia; but the powers of the court or of any judge thereof, or of the clerk, marshal, deputy clerk, or deputy marshal may be exercised anywhere in the United States; and for expedi- Washington. tion of the work of the court and the avoidance of undue expense or inconvenience to suitors the court shall hold sessions in different parts of the United States as may be found desirable. The actual and necessary expenses of the judges, clerk, marshal, deputy clerk, and deputy marshal of the court incurred for travel and attendance elsewhere than in the city of Washington shall be paid upon the written and itemized certificate of such judge, clerk, marshal, deputy clerk, or deputy marshal by the marshal of the court, and shall be allowed to him in the statement of his accounts with the United States.
The United States marshals of the several districts outside of the of Washington. city of Washington in which the commerce court may hold its sessions shall provide, under the direction and with the approval of the Attorney-General of the United States, such rooms in the public buildings of the United States as may be necessary for the court's use; but in case proper rooms can not be provided in such public buildings, said marshals, with the approval of the Attorney-General of the United States, may then lease from time to time other necessary rooms for the court.
If, at any time, the business of the commerce court does not require judges to other duty. the services of all the judges, the Chief Justice of the United States may, by writing, signed by him and filed in the Department of Justice, terminate the assignment of any of the judges or temporarily assign him for service in any circuit court or circuit court of appeals. In
Temporary assigncase of illness or other disability of any judge assigned to the commerce court the Chief Justice of the United States may assign any other circuit judge of the United States to act in his place, and may terminate such assignment when the exigence therefor shall cease; and any circuit judge so assigned to act in place of such judge shall, during his assignment, exercise all the powers and perform all the functions of such judge.
In all cases within its jurisdiction the commerce court, and each of the judges assigned thereto, shall, respectively, have and may exercise any and all of the powers of a circuit court of the United States and of the judges of said court, respectively, so far as the same may be appropriate to the effective exercise of the jurisdiction hereby conferred. The commerce court may issue all writs and process appropriate to the full exercise of its jurisdiction and powers and may prescribe the form thereof.
It may also, from time to time, Procedure. establish such rules and regulations concerning pleading, practice, or procedure in cases or matters within its jurisdiction as to the court shall seem wise and proper. Its orders, writs, and process may run, be served, and be returnable anywhere in the United States; and the marshal and deputy marshal of said court and also the United States marshals and deputy marshals in the several districts of the United States shall have like powers and be under like duties to act for and in behalf of said court as pertain to United States. marshals and deputy marshals generally when acting under like conditions concerning suits or matters in the circuits of the United States.
The jurisdiction of the commerce court shall be invoked by filing in Filing of petitions the office of the clerk of the court a written petition setting forth briefly and succinctly the facts constituting the petitioner's cause of
ment to fill vacancies.
Powers of court and judges.
Issue of process.
Service,etc.,of pror. ess.
Service of copies.
Opening of court,
action, and specifying the relief sought. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith served by the marshal or a deputy marshal of the commerce court or by the proper United States marshal or deputy marshal upon every defendant therein named, and when the United States is a party defendant, the service shall be made by filing a copy of said peti
tion in the office of the Secretary of the Interstate Commerce CommisFiling of answer. sion and in the Department of Justice. Within thirty days after the
petition is served, unless that time is extended by order of the court or a judge thereof an answer to the petition shall be filed in the clerk's office, and a copy thereof mailed to the petitioner's attorney, which answer shall briefly and categorically respond to the allegations of the petition. No replication need be filed to the answer, and objections to the sufficiency of the petition or answer as not setting forth a cause of action or defense must be taken at the final hearing or by
motion to dismiss the petition based on said grounds, which motion Relief if no answer may be made at any time before answer is filed. In case no answer
shall be filed as provided herein the petitioner may apply to the court on notice for such relief as may be proper upon the facts alleged in the petition. The court may, by rule, prescribe the method of taking evidence in cases pending in said court; and may prescribe
that the evidence be taken before a single judge of the court, with Practice and proced- power to rule upon the admission of evidence. Except as may be
otherwise provided in this Act, or by rule of the court, the practice and procedure in the confmerce court shall conform as nearly as may be to that in like cases in a circuit court of the United States.
The commerce court shall be opened for the transaction of business at a date to be fixed by order of the said court, which shall be not later than thirty days after the judges thereof shall have been designated.
SEC. 2. That a final judgment or decree of the commerce court may be reviewed by the Supreme Court of the United States if appeal to the Supreme Court be taken by an aggrieved party within sixty days after the entry of said final judgment or decree. Such appeal may be taken in like manner as appeals from a circuit court of the United States to the Supreme Court, and the commerce court may direct the original record to be transmitted on appeal instead of a transcript thereof. The Supreme Court may affirm, reverse, or modify the final judgment or decree of the commerce court as the case may
require. Nostay of judgment Appeal to the Supreme Court, however, shall in no case supersede
or stay the judgment or decree of the commerce court appealed from, unless the Supreme Court or a justice thereof shall so direct, and appellant shall give bond in such form and of such amount as the Supreme Court, or the justice of that court allowing the stay, may require.
An appeal may also be taken to the Supreme Court of the United States from an interlocutory order or decree of the commerce court granting or continuing an injunction restraining the enforcement of an order of the Interstate Commerce Commission, provided such appeal be taken within thirty days from the entry of such order or decree.
Appeals to the Supreme Court under this section shall have priority in hearing and determination over all other causes except criminal
causes in that court. Suits to enjoin, etc.,
SEC. 3. That suits to enjoin, set aside, annul, or suspend any order to be against United of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be brought in the com
merce court against the United States. The pendency of such suit shall not of itself stay or suspend the operation of the order of the Interstate Commerce Commission; but the commerce court, in its discretion, may restrain or suspend, in whole or in part, the operation
Appeals to Supreme Court.
unless Supreme Court so directs.
Appeals on injunctions.
Priority of appeals.
orders of Commission
United States substituted for Interstate
of the commission's order pending the final hearing and determination of the suit. No order or injunction so restraining or suspending sidem poprevenu surean order of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall be made by parable dan.age. the commerce court otherwise than upon notice and after hearing, except that in cases where irreparable damage would otherwise ensue to the petitioner, said court, or a judge thereof may, on hearing after not less than three days' notice to the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Attorney-General, allow a temporary stay or suspension Time limit. in whole or in part of the operation of the order of the Interstate Commerce Commission for not more than sixty days from the date of the order of such court or judge, pending application to the court for its order or injunction, in which case the said order shall contain a specific finding, based upon evidence submitted to the judge making the order and identified by reference thereto, that such irreparable damage would result to the petitioner and specifying the nature of the damage. The court may, at the time of hearing such applica- Extension. tion, upon a like finding, continue the temporary stay or suspension in whole or in part until its decision upon the application.
SEC. 4. That all cases and proceedings in the commerce court which but for this Act would be brought by or against the Interstate Commerce Commerce Commission shall be brought by or against the United sion in all cases, States, and the United States may intervene in any case or proceeding in the commerce court whenever, though it has not been made a party, public interests are involved.
SEC: 5. That the Attorney-General shall have charge and control of Attorney-General to the interests of the Government in all cases and proceedings in the commerce court, and in the Supreme Court of the United States upon appeal from the commerce court; and if in his opinion the public especialsicattorneys, interest requires it, he may retain and employ in the name of the United States, within the appropriations from time to time made by the Congress for such purposes, such special attorneys and counselors at law as he may think necessary to assist in the discharge of any of the duties incumbent upon him and his subordinate attorneys; and Compensation. the Attorney-General shall stipulate with such special attorneys and counsel the amount of their compensation, which shall not be in excess of the sums appropriated therefor by Congress for such purposes, and shall have supervision of their action: Provided, That the Inter
Appearance of Com. state Commerce Commission and any party or parties in interest to mission, etc. the proceeding before the commission, in which an order or requirement is made, may appear as parties thereto of their own motion and as of right, and be represented by their counsel, in any suit wherein is involved the validity of such order or requirement or any part thereof, and the interest of such party; and the court wherein is pending such suit may make all such rules and orders as to such appearances and representations, the number of counsel, and all matters of procedure, and otherwise, as to subserve the ends of justice and speed the determination of such suits: Provided further, That communities, associations, corporations, firms, and individuals who are interested in the controversy or question before the Interstate Commerce Commission, or in any suit which may be brought by anyone under the terms of this Act, or the Acts of which it is amendatory or which are amendatory of it, relating to action of the Interstate Commerce Commission, may intervene in said suit or proceedings at any time after the institution thereof, and the Attorney-General shall not dispose of or discontinue said suit or proceeding over the objection of such party or intervenor aforesaid, but said intervenor or intervenors may prosecute, defend, or continue said suit or proceeding unaffected by the action or nonaction of the Attorney-General of the United States therein.
Parties interested may intervene.
Rights of intervenors.
Rights of complainants to appear, etc.
Pending cases transferred.
Status of transferred cases.
Complainants before the Interstate Commerce Commission interested in a case shall have the right to appear and be made parties to the case and be represented before the courts by counsel under such regulations as are now permitted in similar circumstances under the
rules and practice of equity courts of the United States. Cases prior to open SEC. 6. That until the opening of the commerce court as in section ing of court.
one hereof provided, all cases and proceedings of which from that time the commerce court is hereby given exclusive jurisdiction may
be brought in the same courts and conducted in like manner and with Appeals, etc. like effect as is now provided by law; and if any such case or pro
ceeding shall have gone to final judgment or decree before the opening of the commerce court, appeal may be taken from such final judgment or decree in like manner and with like effect as is now provided by law. Any such case or proceeding within the jurisdiction of the commerce court which may have been begun in any other court as hereby allowed before the said date shall be forthwith transferred to the commerce court, if it has not yet proceeded to final judgment or decree in such other court unless it has been finally submitted for the decision of such court, in which case the cause shall proceed in such court to final judgment or decree and further proceeding thereafter, and appeal may be taken direct to the Supreme Court, and if remanded such cause may be sent back to the court from which the appeal was taken or to the commerce court for further proceeding as the Supreme Court shall direct; and all previous proceedings in such transferred case shall stand and operate notwithstanding the transfer, subject to the same control over them by the commerce court and to the same right of subsequent action in the case or pro
ceeding as if the transferred case or proceeding had been originally Original papers, etc., begun in the commerce court. The clerk of the court from which
any case or proceeding is so transferred to the commerce court shall transmit to and file in the commerce court the originals of all papers filed in such case or proceeding and a certified transcript of all record
entries in the case or proceeding up to the time of transfer. ton to be designated
It shall be the duty of every common carrier subject to the proby carriers for service visions of this Act, within sixty days after the taking effect of this of process, etc.
Act, to designate in writing an agent in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, upon whom service of all notices and processes may be made for and on behalf of said common carrier in any proceeding or suit pending before the Interstate Commerce Commission or before said commerce court, and to file such designation in the office of the secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission, which designation may from time to time be changed by like writing similarly filed; and thereupon service of all notices and processes may be made upon such common carrier by leaving a copy thereof with such designated agent at his oflice or usual place of residence in the city
of Washington, with like effect as if made personally upon such comService in default mon carrier, and in default of such designation of such agent, service
of any notice or other process in any proceeding before said Interstate Commerce Commission or commerce court may be made by posting such notice or process in the office of the secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Sec. 7. That section one of the Act entitled "An Act to regulate Vol: 24, p. 379; Vol. commerce,” approved February fourth, eighteen hundred and eighty
seven, as heretofore amended, is hereby now amended so as to read
as follows: Application. “SECTION 1. That the provisions of this Act shall apply to any Transportation by pipe lines, etc., be- corporation or any person or persons engaged in the transportation Telegraph, tele- of oil or other commodity, except water and except natural or artiphone, and cable com- ficial gas, by means of pipe lines, or partly by pipe lines and partly
by railroad, or partly by pipe lines and partly by water, and to tele
Agent in Washing
Interstate commerce regulations.