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cometh, yea is now come, that ye shall be scattered every man to his own, and shall leave me alone. — John xviii. 8, 9. Jesus answered, If ye seek me, let these go their way; that the saying might be fulfilled which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

FULFILMENT. - Matt. xxvi. 56. Then all the disciples FORS00k him and fled. — Mark xiv. 50. And they ALL FORSOOK him and fled.

$ 3. That Peter would deny him. PROPHECY. Luke xxii. 31, 32. Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat; but I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not, and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. – John xiii. 38. Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake ? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, the cock shall not crow till thou hast denied me thrice. (See also Matt

. xxvi. 34. Luke xxii. 34.) – Mark xiv. 30. Verily I say unto thee, that this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.

FULFILMENT. - Luke xxii. 60, 61, 62. Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest; and immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice; and Peter went out and wept bitterly. (See also Matt. xxvi

. 75. John xviii. 27.).— Mark xiv. 72. The second time the cock crew, and Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. $ 4. The circumstances, place, and manner of his sufferings.

(i.) That he should suffer. PROPHECY. Matt. xvi. 21. Mark viï. 31. Luke ix. 22. Jesus began to teach and to show unto his disciples, how that he, the Son of Man, must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days, be raised again the third day. Mark ix. 31. Matt. xvii, 22. 33. The Son of Man shall be delivered into the hands of men; and they shall kill him; and after that he is kilted, he shall rise the third day. - Mark x. 33, 34. Matt. xx. 18, 19. Luke srül. 31–33. Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written in the prophets concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished: and the Son of Man shall be betrayed, and delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn bim unto death, and shall deliver him tinto the Gentiles. And they shall mock and spitefully entreat him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him, and crucify him; and the third day he shall rise again,

FULFILMENT. John xi. 53. They took counsel together to put him to death. - Matt. xxvi. 4. Mark xiv. 1. Luke xxii. 2. And consulted how they might take Jesus by subtilty, and put him to death. Matt. xxvi

. 66. Mark xiv. 64. Luke xxii. 71. They answered and said, 'He is guilty of death?.... and they all condemned him to be guilty of death. Matt. xxvij. 26. Luke xxiii. 24. John xix. 16. When he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified. - John xix. 18. Matt. xxvii. 35. Luke xxiii. 33. .... Golgotha; where they crucified him, and two others with him. — Luke xxiv. 6, 7. 26. 46. Remember how he spake unto you, when he was yet in Galilee, saying, · The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.'.. “Ought not Christ to have suffered these things ?!.... Thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day. — Acts ii. 23. Him.... ye have taken, and by wicked hands crucified and slain. — Acts xiii. 27. They have fulfilled (the prophecies) in condemning him. — Acts xvii. 3. (Paul opened and alleged out of the Scrip. tures) That Christ must needs have suffered and risen again from the dead. Gal. ii. 1. .... Christ hath evidently been set forth crucified among you.

(ii.) The place where he should suffer, viz. at Jerusalem. PROPHECY. Matt. xvi. 21. Luke ix. 31. "He must go unto Jerusalem and suffer. - Luke xiii. 31. 33. Herod will kill thee. - It cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem. — Luke xviii. 31. Matt. xx. 18. We go up to Jeru: salem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished.

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FULFILMENT. - Luke xxiv. 18. Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days? (See also Matt. xxvii. Mark xv. Luke xxiii. John xix.) - Acts xiii. 27. They that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath-day, they have fulfilled them in condemning him. - Heb. xiii. 12. Jesus - suffered withoat (ii.) The PERSONS, by whom he was to suffer, viz. particularly by the

Chief Priests and Gentiles.

(a.) By the Chief Priests. PROPHECY. - Matt. xvi. 21. Mark viii. 31. Luke ix. 22. He must suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and Scribes. — Matt. xvii. 12. Likewise shall also the Son of Man suffer of them. — Mark x. 33. The Son of Man shall be delivered to the chief priests, and to the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death.

FULFILMENT. Matt. xxvi. 3, 4. John xi. 53. Then assembled together the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high-priest who was called Caiaphas; and consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty and kill him. — John xviii. 13. 24. Matt. xxvi. 57. They led him away to Annas first. — Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high-priest. Matt. xxvi. 65, 66. Mark xiv. 64. The high-priest rent his clothes, saying, “He hath spoken blasphemy, - what think ye?' They answered and said, “He is guilty of death.' – Natt. xxvii. 20. Luke xxiii. 18. — The chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas and destroy Jesus. Luke xxiv. 20. Acts xiii. 28. The. chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death.

(6.) By the Gentiles. PROPHECY. — Luke xviii. 31, 32. Mark x. 33. Matt. xx. 19. The Son of Man shall be delivered to the Gentiles. (Note, that when Jesus etold that he should be crucified, it also implied that he should be delivered to the Gentiles; for crucifixion was a Roman not a Jewish punishment.).

FULFILMENT. Acts xiii. 28. Though they found no cause of death in him, yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain. — Matt. xxvii. 1. Mark xv. 1. They delivered him unto Pontius Pilate the governor. – John xviii. 31, 32. Pilate said unto them, . Take ye him and judge him according to your law.' The Jews therefore said unto him, “It is not lawful for us to put any man to death ;' that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled. — Mark xv. 15. Luke xxiii. 24. Pilate delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified. Acts iv. 27. Against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together. (iv.) The manner of his sufferings, viz. by mocking and crucifixion.

(a.) Jesus foretold that he should be mocked. PROPHECY. Mark ix. 12. The Son of Man must suffer many things and be set at nought. — Luke xviii. 32. Mark x. 34. The Son of Man shall be delivered to the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on.

FULFILMENT. At the high priest's. Matt. xxvi. 67, 68. Mark xiv. 65. Then did they spit in his face and buffeted him, and others smote him with the palms of their hands, saying Prophesy unto us thou Christ, who is he that smote thee? Before Herod. - Luke xxiii. 11. Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked hin, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe. At Pilate's judgment hall. — Mark xv. 17, 18, 19. Matt. xxvii. 28. John xix. 2. They clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorus and put it about his head, and began to salute him. Hail, king of the Jews" and they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him. - At the Cross, — Mark xv: 29–32.

- They that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads and saying, “ Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyselt, and come down from the cross. Likewise also, the chief priests mocking,

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not save; let Christ the king of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.' And they that were crucified with him reviled him.

(6.) Jesus foretold that he should be crucified. PROPHECY. - John iii. 14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up. - John xii

. 32. And I, if I bé (more correctly, when I am) lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. John viii. 28. When ye have lift up the Son of Man, then shall ye know that I am he. Matt. xx. 19. .... To mock and to scourge, and to crucify him.

FULFILMENT. — Matt. xxvi. 31. John xix. 16. They led him away to cry. cify him. - Luke xxiii. 33. Mark xv. 34. When they were come to the place which is called Calvary, there they crucified him. - Luke xxiv. 6, 7. Remember how he spake to you. .... The son of man must .... be crucified. Compare also Luke xxiv. 20. Acts ü. 23. and iv. 10. 1 Cor. i. 23. Gal. ii. 1.

$ 5. Jesus Christ predicted his resurrection. PROPHECY. - John ii. 19. 21. Jesus said, 'Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.' He spake of the temple of his body. - John x. 17. I lay down my life that I might take it again. Mark x. 34. (See also Mark vii. 31. Luke ix. 22.) They shall kill him, and the third day he shall rise again. — Matt. xxvii. 62, 63. The chief priests and Pharisees came together to Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said while he was yet alive, “After three days I will rise again.'

FULFILMENT. Luke xxiv. 5, 6. Why seek ye the living among the dead? he is not here but is risen ; remember how he spake to you when he was yet in Galilee. See also Matt. xxvii. 6, and xxviij. 9. 11. Luke xxiv. 15. 34. 36. John Xx. 14. 19. and xxi. 4. - John xx. 27. Then saith he to Thomas, • Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands, and reach hither thy hand and thrust it into my side ; and be not faithless, but believing.' – Acts 1. 3 To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days. — Acts x. 40, 41. Him God raised up the third day and showed him openly, not to all the people, but to witnesses chosen before of God, even to us who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. See also Acts ii. 32. and iv. 33. 1 Cor. xv. 20. Acts xvii. 3. xxvi. 23. Rom. i. 4. 86. Jesus Christ foretold that he would appear again to his disciples.

PROPHECY. — John xvi. 16. 22. A little while and ye shall not see me, and again a little while and ye shall see me, because I go to the Father. I will see you again. — Matt. xxvi. 32. Mark xiv. 28. After I am risen again I will go before you into Galilee. -- Matt. xxviii. 10. Mark xvi. 7. Go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.

FULFILMENT. Mark xvi. 14. John xx. 19. Luke xxiv. 36. He appeared to the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief

. -Matt. xxviii. 16, 17. The eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him they worshipped him, but'some doubted. - John xxi. 1. Jesus showed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. -- 1 Cor. xv. 5, 6. He was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve, after that he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once.

87. Jesus Christ foretold his ascension into heaven. PROPHECY. — John vi. 62. What if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up where he was before. - xvi. 28. I came forth from the Father, and an come into the world, again I leave the world, and go to the Father. - XI. 17. I am not yet ascended to my Fathor; but go is my brethren and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God.' (See also John vii

. 33. xiii. 33. xiv. 19. and xvii. 13.) FULFILMENT. Mark xvi. 19. After the Lord had spoken unto them he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. (See also Luke xxiv. 51.) - Acts i. 9, 10. While they bebeld he was taken up, and 4 cloud received him out of their sight. — They looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up. - Eph. iv. io. He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens. See also 1 Pet. ii. 22. Heb. ix. 24. iv. 14. vi. 20. I Tim. iii. 16.

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JERUSALEM. 91. The signs, which were to precede the destruction of Jerusalem. (i.) The FIRST SIGN is, the appearance of false Christs or Messiahs.

PROPHECY. Matt. xxiv. 3, 4. Mark xiij. 5, 6. Luke xxi. 8. Take heed that no man deceive you ; for many shall come in my name, saying I am Christ,' and shall deceive many; and the time draweth near.

FULFILMENT. - These false Christs began to appear soon after our Lord's death, but they multiplied as the national calamities increased. Josephus informs us, that there were many who pretending to divine inspiration deceived the people, leading out numbers of them into the desert. He does not indeed expressly say that they called themselves the Messiah or Christ : yet he says that which

is equivalent, viz. that they pretended that God would there show them the signs of liberty, meaning redemption from the Roman yoke, which thing the Jews expected the Messiah would do for ihem (compare Luke xxiv. 21.) Josephus further adds, that an Egyptian false prophet led thirty thousand men into the desert, who were almost entirely cut off by Felix the Roman Procurator. The same historian relates that in the reign of Claudius," the land was overrun with magicians, seducers, and impostors, who drew the people after them in multitudes into solitudes and deserts, to see the signs and miracles which they promised to show by the power of God." Felix, and afterwards Festus, governors of Judea, judging these proceedings to be the commencement of rebellion against the Romans, continually sent out detachments of soldiers, and destroyed great numbers of the deluded populace. Among these impostors were Dositheus the Sainaritan, who affirmed that he was the Christ foretold by Moses; Simon Magus, who said that he appeared among the Jews as the Son of God; and Theudas, who pretending to be a prophet, persuaded many of the people to take their goods and follow him to the river Jordan, declaring that he was divinely commissioned, and that at his command the waters would be divided, and give them a safe passage to the opposite side.3 Many other examples of pretended Messiahs might be adduced; but the preceding are sufficient to establish the truth of our Lord's prediction. 4

(ii.) The second SIGN is, Wars and commotions. PROPHECY. Matt. xxiv. 6. Mark xiii. 7. Luke xxi. 9. When ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, and commotions, see that ye be not troubled, and terrified; for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

FULFILMENT. — These wars and commotions were as the distant thunder, that foreDodes approaching storms. Previous to the destruction of Jerusalem, the greatest agitation prevailed in the Roman empire, and the struggle for succession to the imperial throne was attended by severe and bloody conflicts. Four emperors, Nero, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, suffered violent deaths within the short space of eighteen months. The emperor Caligula commanded the Jews to place his statue in their temple ; and in consequence of a positive refusal to comply with so impious a request, he threatened them with an invasion, which was prevented by his death.5 Jesus Christ added, See that ye (my disciples) be not troubled, as the Jews will be, expecting the approaching destruction of their nation; but the end is not yet : these events, alarming as they seemed, were only the preludes to the dreadful and tumultuous scenes that followed.

PROPHECY. Matt. xxiv. 7. Mark xiïi. 8. Luke xxi. 10. Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.

FULFILMENT. - In this prediction Christ declares that greater disturbances than those which happened under Caligula would take place in the latter part of Claudius's reign, and during that of Nero. The rising of nation against nation portended the dissensions, insurrections, and mutual slaughter of the Jews, and those of other nations,

1 Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. 2. c. 13. 94, 5.
9 Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. 20. c. 8. 96.
3 Ibid. lib. 20. c. 4. (al. 5.) 0 1.

* In the Rev. David Simpson's Key to the Prophecies, there is an instructive History of troenty-four false Messiahs, who deluded the Jews between the time of the Ernperor Adrian and the year of Christ 1682. See pp. 133_148.

8 Josephus, Antiq. lib. 18. c. 8. (al. 9.) De Bell. Jud. lib. 2. c. 10.

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who dwelt in the same cities together; as particularly at Cæsarea,' where the Jews and Syrians contended about the right of the city, which contention at length proceed. ed so far, that above twenty thousand Jews were slain, and the city was cleared of the Jewish inhabitants. At this blow the whole nation of the Jews were exasperated, and dividing themselves into parties, they burnt and plundered the neighbouring cities and villages of the Syrians, and made an immense slaughter of the people. The Synan in revenge destroyed not a less number of the Jews, and every city, as: Josephus ex. presses it, was divided into two armies. At Scythopolis4 the inhabitants compelled the Jews who resided among them to fight against their own countrymen ; and after the victory, basely setting upon them by night, they murdered above thirteen thousand of them, and spoiled their goods. At Ascalon; they killed two thousand five hundred, at Ptolemais two thousand, and made not a few prisoners. The Tyrians put many to death and imprisoned more. The people of Gadara did likewise, and all the other cities of Syria, in proportion as they hated or feared the Jews. At Alexandrigo the old enmity was revived between the Jews and Heathens, and many fell on both sides, but of the Jews to the number of fifty thousand. The people of Damascus? tôo conspired against the Jews of the same city, and assaulting them unarmed, killed ten thousand of them. The rising of kingdom against kingdom portended the open war of different tetrarchies and provinces against one another ; as that of the Jews who dwelt

in Peræa against the people of Philadelphia concerning their bounds, while Caspius Fadus was procurator ; and that of the Jews and Galileans against the Samari

. ians, for the murder of some Galilæans going up to the feast of Jerusalem, while Cumanus was procurator ; and10 that of the whole nation of the Jews against the Romans and Agrippa and other allies of the Roman empire, which began while Gessies Florus was procurator. But as Josephus says,11 there was not only sedition and civil war throughout Judæa, but likewise in Italy, Otho and Vitellius contending for the empire.

(iii.) The THIRD SIGN is, Famines and Pestilences. PROPHECY. — Matt. xxiv. 7. Mark xiii. 8. Luke xxi. 10. And there shall be famines and pestilences.

FULFILMENT. - There was a famine predicted by Agabus (Acts IX. 28.) which is mentioned by Suetonius, Tacitus and Eusebiusl2 and which came to pass in the days of Claudius Casar; and was so severe at Jerusalem, that (Josephus informs us) meny people perished for want of food.13 Pestilences are the usual attendants of famines

, as scarcity

and badness of provisions almost always terminate in some epidemical distemper. "That Judæa was afflicted with pestilence we learn from Josephus; who says that, when one Niger was put to death by the Jewish zealots

, besides other calamities

, he imprecated famine and pestilence upon them, “all which imprecations God confirmed against these impious men."14

(iv.) The FOURTH sign is, Earthquakes. PROPHECY. Matt. xxiv. 7. Mark xiii. 8. Luke xxi. 11. There shall be earthquakes.

FULFILMENT. Earthquakes in prophetic language mean commotians and popular insurrections: if these be intended, they have already been noticed under the second sign; but if we understand this prophecy, literally, of tremors or convulsions of the carth, many such occurred at the times to which our Lord referred ; particularly one at Crete, in the reign of Claudius, and others at Smyrna, Miletus, Chios, Samos and other places, in all of which Jews were settled.15 Tacitus mentions one at Ronne in the same reign, and says, that in the reign of Nero, the cities of Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colosse were overthrown; and that the celebrated city of Pompeii in Campe

: nia was overthrown,16 and almost demolished, by an earthquake 17' And another

1 Josephus, Antiq. lib. 20. cap. 7.0 7. &c. De Bell, Jud. lib. 2. c. 13.9 7. c. 18.61. edit. Hudson. 2 Ibid. c. 18. $ 1.

3 Ibid. 0 2. 4 Ibid. 9 3. Vita Joseph. 0 6. 5 De Bell. Jud. lib. 2. c. 18. Ø 5. 6 Ibid. 07. et 8.

7 Ibid. chap. 20. 2 8 Joseph. Antiq. lib. 20. c. 1. $ 1. 9 Ibid. c. 5. De Bell. Jud. lib. 2. c. 12. 03, &c. 10 Ibid. c. 17.

11 Ibid. lib. 4.c. 9. 09. 12 Suetonius, in Claudio. c. 18. Taciti Annales, lib. 12. c. 43. Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. 2. c. 8. 13 Antiq. lib. 20. c. 2. 95. (al. 6.)

14 De Bell. Jud. lib. 4. c. 6.91 15 Philostratus, in Vita Apollonii, lib. 4. c. 34. 16 Taciti Annales, lib. 14. c. 27. 17 Ibid. lib. 15. c. 22. This earthquake is mentioned by Seneca Nat.Quæst. lib. 6. c. 1.

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