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CHAPTER I.. AIDS TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE

WAR. A. [$] CHRONOLOGIES AND LISTS OF

:: EVENTS

It is often very important for the searcher to find the precise date of events with which he has to deal. A list from Library of Congress, The United States at War, is reprinted in Handbook $1. See short list of aids in $32 below. The following lists will be found serviceable for the period antecedent to the war, and particularly for military, civil and diplomatic occurrences during the war. American Journal of International Law. (N. Y., Baker, Voorhis; quarterly

since 1909.) Each number contains a list of significant events for

the preceding months. American Library Annual. (Since 1911; N. Y., Bowker, 1912—-.) (Pre

ceded by the Annual Literary Inder, 1892-1904, and Annual Library Index, 1905-1910.) Contains an index to dates of current events, covering the years 1895 to 1914, which is continued by Information

(cited below). American Year Book. (Since 1910; N. Y., Appleton, 1911— .) At the

end of each volume is a chronology of public events. Boston Transcript. Publishes at frequent intervals a cumulative chronology. Independent. (N. Y. weekly.) Current summaries of International events. Information, A Continuous Cyclopedia and Digest of Current Events.

[1915 to 1917.) (N. Y., Cumulative Digest Corporation, 1915-1917.) Issued monthly, and cumulated quarterly and annually; continued from July, 1917, under title Business Digest, which is issued weekly and

cumulated quarterly. Library of Congress. (H. B. B. Meyer, compiler.) The United States at

War. (Wash., Govt. Print. Office, 1917.) The chronology at pages 8-13

reprinted in Handbook of the War, $1. Matteson, David M. Epitome of United States History. (In Vol. XL of

American Statesmen Series, Boston, etc. (Houghton, Mifflin, 1917.)

Extends through election of 1916; and includes diplomatic data. New York Times Current History--The European War. In each number

beginning with Vol. II appears a brief classified summary of events.

Use also the indexes that are prefixed to the volumes. Ploetz, Carl. Ploetz's Manual of Universal History from the Dawn of

Civilization to the Outbreak of the Great War of 1914. (Trans. and enlarged by W. H. Tillinghast, Boston, etc., Houghton, Mifflin, 1915.) Earlier editions called Ploetz's Epitome; extends into 1914; well in

dexed. Political Science Quarterly. (Boston, Ginn, quarterly since 1886.) Record

of political events printed formerly half-yearly; now as an annual

supplement. Providence Journal. A Few Lines of Recent American History. (23 pp.,

Providence Journal, June 11, 1917.) Includes events specially noted

in the newspaper which issues it. . Putnam, George P. Putnam's Handbook of Universal History. (N. Y.,

Putnam, 1914.) Chronology of various countries in parallel columns;

extends to August, 1914. World's Work. (Garden City, Doubleday, Page; Vol. XVIII, 135-136,

Sept., 1914.) Contains a chronology of the diplomacy that led to war.

B. PUBLIC DEFENSE ORGANIZATIONS.

1. [$2] The Council of National Defense. The war has called out a special machinery to act alongside with and often in supremacy over, the usual officials and authorities. Most of these new instrumentalities are grouped under a body called “The Council of National Defense.” This body is made up of six of the ten members of the cabinet under the chairmanship of the Secretary of War. It was formed under an act of Congress of August 29, 1916, and became very important when the war broke out on April, 1917. The President of the United States has practically a veto upon any of its proceedings in the last resort.

The following description of the Council of National Defense is reprinted from, Library of Congress, The United States at War (Wash., Govt. Print. Office, 1917), pp. 40-46, under date of June 1, 1917. Changes of the personnel of the Council take place from time to time.

Some of the publications are listed below, $20.

(A) Membership and Organization. Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, chairman. Secretary of Navy, Josephus Daniels. Secretary of Interior, Franklin K. Lane. Secretary of Agriculture, David F. Houston. Secretary of Commerce, William C. Redfield. Secretary of Labor, William B. Wilson. Director of council and advisory commission, Walter S. Gifford. Secretary of council and advisory Commission, Grosvenor B.

Clarkson.

(B) Sections and Boards of Council.

(a) Aircraft production board, Howard E. Coffin, chairman. (b) Munitions standards board, Frank A. Scott, chairman.

Subcommittee on Army and Navy artillery, S. M. Vau

clain, chairman.
Subcommittee on Army and Navy projectiles, H. W.

Van Dervoort, chairman.
Subcommittee on fuses and detonators, E. A. Deeds,

chairman.
Subcommittee on gauges, dies, etc., F. C. Pratt, chair-

man. Subcommittee on optical instruments, F. A. Scott, chair

man. Subcommittee on small arms and munitions, J. E.

Otterson, chairman.

$2] COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 3 (c) General munitions board, Frank A. Scott, chairman.

Subcommittee on price problems, Frank A. Scott, chair

man. Subcommittee on armored cars, Col. J. H. Rice, chair

man. Subcommittee on Army vehicles, William Butterworth,

chairman. Subcommittee on emergency construction and con

tracts, W. A. Starrett, chairman. Subcommittee on machine guns, B. W. M. Hanson,

chairman. Subcommittee on optical glass, Dr. R. A. Millikan,

chairman. Subcommittee on priority, Gen. J. B. Aleshire, chair

man. Subcommittee on storage facilities, M. L. Cook, chair

man. Subco-operative committee-Defense committee of

American Institute of Accountants, E. S. Suffern,

chairman. (d) Commercial economy board, A. W. Shaw, chairman. (e) Interdepartmental advisory committee. (f) Committee on shipping, William Denman, chairman. (g) Committee on women's defense work, Dr. Anna Howard

Shaw, chairman. (h) Committee on coal production, F. S. Peabody, chairman. (i) Section of co-operation with States, George F. Porter, chairman.

(C) Advisory Commission. Nominated by council, appointed by the President:

Daniel Willard, chairman.
Howard E. Coffin.
Dr. Hollis Godfrey.
Julius Rosenwald.
Bernard M. Baruch.
Samuel Gompers.
Dr. Franklin H. Martin.

(D) Committees and Co-operative Committees of the

Advisory Commission. (a) Transportation and communication, Daniel Willard, chair

man.
a. Telegraphs and telephones, Theodore N. Vail, chair-

man.
b. Railroad transportation, Fairfax Harrison, chairman.

Subcommittee on car service, C. M. Sheaffer,

chairman.

Subcommittee on express, D. S. Elliott, chair

man.
Subcommittee on military equipment standards,

J. T. Wallis, chairman.
Subcommittee on military transportation ac-

counting, A. H. Plant, chairman. Subcommittee on military passenger tariffs, E. L.

Bevington, chairman.
Subcommittee on military freight tariffs, L.

Green, chairman.
Subcommittee on materials and supplies, H. B.

Spencer, chairman.

c. Cars, S. M. Vauclain, chairman.
d. Locomotives, S. M. Vauclain, chairman.
e. Electric railroad transportation, Gen. George H. Har-

ries, chairman.

(b) Munitions, Howard E. Coffin, chairman.

Automotive transport, Karl W. Zimmerschied, chair

man. Gas and electric service, John W. Lieb, chairman. National industrial conference board, L. A. Osborne,

chairman. (c) Engineering and education, Dr. Hollis Godfrey, chairman.

Subcommittee on general engineering, Dr. Hollis God

frey, chairman.
Subcommittee on production engineering, Dr. Hollis

Godfrey, chairman.
Subcommittee on universities and colleges, Dr. Hollis

Godfrey, chairman.
Subcommittee on secondary and normal schools, Dr.

Hollis Godfrey, chairman.
(d) Supplies, Julius Rosenwald, chairman.

Cotton goods, Lincoln Grant, chairman.
Woolen manufacturers, John P. Wood, chairman.
Shoe and leather industries, J. F. McElwain, chairman.

Knit goods, Lincoln Cromwell, chairman. (e) Raw materials, Bernard M. Baruch, chairman.

a. Alcohol, Horatio S. Rubens, chairman.
b. Aluminum, Arthur V. Davis, chairman.
c. Asbestos, magnesia, and roofing, Thomas F. Manville,

chairman.
d. Brass, Charles F. Brooker, chairman.
e. Cement, John E. Morron, chairman.
f. Chemicals, Dr. William H. Nichols, chairman.

Acids, H. R. Grasselli, chairman.
Alkalies, J. D. Pennock, chairman,

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Coal tar by-products, William H. Childs, chair

man.
Electro chemicals, J. J. Riker, chairman.
Fertilizers, Horace Bowker, chairman.
Miscellaneous chemicals, Edward Mallinckrodt,

Jr., chairman.
Pyrites, A. D. Ledoux, chairman.

Sulphur, Henry Whiton, chairman.
g. Copper, John D. Ryan, chairman.
h. Lead, Clinton H. Crane, chairman.
i. Lumber, R. H. Downman, chairman.
j. Mica, L. W. Kingsley, chairman. ·
k. Nickel, Ambrose Monell, chairman.
1. Oil, A. C. Bedford, chairman.
m. Rubber, H. Stuart Hotchkiss, chairman.
n. Steel and steel products, Elbert H. Gary, chairman.

Alloys, James A. Farrell, chairman.
Pig tin, John Hughes, chairman.
Sheet steel, W. S. Horner, chairman.
Steel distribution, James A. Farrell, chairman.
Scrap iron, Eli Joseph, chairman.
Ferro-manganese, Arthur A. Fowler, chairman.
Tubular products, 'James A. Campbell, chairman.
Tin plate, J. I. Andrews, chairman. .
Pig iron, iron ore, and lake transportation, H. G.

Dalton, chairman.

0. Wool, Jacob F. Brown, chairman.

p. Zinc, Edgar Palmer, chairman.

(f) Labor, Samuel Gompers, chairman.

a. Wages and hours, Frank Morrison, chairman.

b. Mediation and conciliation, V. Everit Macy, chair

man.

c. Welfare work, L. A. Coolidge, chairman.

Industrial safety, L. R. Palmer, chairman.
Sanitation, Dr. William A. Evans, chairman.
Dust and fumes, Col. Lewis T. Bryant, chairman.
Lighting, L. B. Marks, chairman.
Structural safety, Robert D. Kohn, chairman.
Fatigue, Dr. Thomas Darlington, chairman.
Public education in health matters, Dr. Alvah H.

Doty, chairman.
Vocational education, H. E, Miles, chairman.

d. Women in industry, Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, chair

man.

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