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people included; for the rights of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty.

We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been as secure as the faith and the freedom of the nations can make them.

Just because we fight without rancor and without selfish object, seeking nothing for ourselves but what we shall wish to share with all free people, we shall, I feel confident, conduct our operations as belligerents without passion and ourselves observe with proud punctilio the principles of right and of fair play we profess to be fighting for. ...

It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves as belligerents in a high spirit of right and fairness because we act without animus, not in enmity toward a people or with the desire to bring any injury or disadvantage upon them, but only in armed opposition to an irresponsible Government which has thrown aside all considerations of humanity and of right and is runnng amuck.

We are, let me say again, the sincere friends of the German people, and shall desire nothing so much as the early re-establishment of intimate relations of mutual advantage between us, however hard it may be for them, for the time being, to believe that this is spoken from our hearts.

AFFRONTS PATIENTLY BORNE FOR MANY MONTHS. We have borne with their present Government through all these bitter months because of that friendship, exercising a patience and forbearance which would otherwise have been impossible. We shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and actions toward the millions of men and women of German birth and native sympathy who live among us and share our life, and we shall be proud to prove it toward all who are in fact loyal to their neighbors and to the Government in the hour of test.

They are, most of them, as true and loyal Americans as if they had never known any other fealty or allegiance. They will be prompt to stand with us in rebuking and restraining the few who may be of a different mind and purpose.

If there should be disloyalty it will be dealt with with a firin hand of stern repression; but if it lifts its head at all it will lift it only here and there, and without countenance except from a lawless and malignant few.

THE RIGHT MORE PRECIOUS THAN PEACE. It is a distressing and oppressive duty, gentlemen of the Congress, which I have performed in thus addressing you. There are, it may be, many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into

war-into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. · But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts

for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own government, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free people as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.

To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.



Negere above car Book, 1914,


CHAPTER 1. Nature of Modern War. See $103 above. American Year Book, 1914, pp. 300-318; 1915, pp. 309-325; 1916,

pp. 2-5, 301-320. Giddings, F. H. "Democracy of Universal Military Service,” in

Amer. Acad. of Pol. and Soc. Sci. Annals, LXVI, 173 (July,

Hart, A. B. “Story of the American Army,” in Mentor, serial

No. 133.
Howe, F. C. “Democracy or Imperialism," in ibid., 250-258.
McLaughlin, Andrew C., and Hart, Albert Bushnell, Editors.

Cyclopedia of Am. Govt. (3 vols.; N. Y., Appleton, 1914.)
Especially articles on “Articles of War”; “Army, Standing”;
“Army, Regulations”; “Army of the United States, Authorized
Strength of”; “Armies and Navies, Foreign”; “Civil War, Con-
stitutional Questions of”; “Civil War, Influence of”; “Coast
Defense”; “Conscription and Draft”; “Education, Military and
Naval”; “Enlistment, Naval and Military”; “Fortifications”;
“Fortifications in Coast Defense”; “Marine Corps”; “Martial
Law”; “Military and Naval Expenditure”; “Military Law";
"Militia, Naval Vessels, Navy, Department of”; “Officers, Mil-
itary and Naval”; “Prisoners of War”; “Reserves, Army and
Navy”; “Soldiers and Sailors, Legal Status of”; “Soldiers,
Compulsory Qurtering of”; “Volunteers”; “Wars, Carrying on”;
“War Colleges”; “War, Department of”; “War, International
Relations in"; “War Power, Constitutional”; “War Powers of

the President”; “Wars of the United States.” Newton, W. Douglas. War. (London, Methuen, 1914.) A realistic

presentation of warfare and invasion.
Peary, R. E. “Command of the Air," in ibid, 192.
William, Henry Smith. Modern Warfare. (N. Y., Hearst's Inter-

national Library Co., 1915.) Technology of war, arms, battle-
ships, air craft, submarines, fighting, disease, etc.
Government, 3 vols., N. Y., Appletons, 1914.)

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Preparation of Men.
See $8129-133 above.
Alger, G. W. “Preparedness and Democratic Principles," in

Atlantic Monthly, vol. 117, pp. 476-486 (Apr., 1916).
Anon. "American Tradition and the War,” in Nation, 484-486 (Apr.,

26, 1912).
Brodney, S. “Canada and the War,” ibid, V. 89 (Oct., 1916).
Handbook on the War. Special References, $$101-122.
Roosevelt, T. Address in N. Y. Times Current History, II, 679-683

(July, 1915); speech at Pan-American Pacific Exposition (July

21, 1915), ibid, II, 840-841. Upton, Major-General Emory. The Military Policy of the United

States. (Washington, Govt. Print. Office, 1912.)

Wilson, President Woodrow. Speech (Nov. 4, 1915), ibid, II, 488;

extracts from speeches, ibid, III. 1088 (March, 1916); address to

Congress (Dec. 8, 1915), ibid, 679 (Jan., 1916).
Wood, General Leonard. The Military Obligations of Citizenship.

(Princeton, University Press, 1915.) 3. How to Make the War Successful. See $$129-137, 142 above. Angell, Norman. Dangers of Half.Preparedness. (N. Y., Putnams,

1916.) American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, XVI

(July, 1916). Collection of addresses. Lea, Homer. Valor of Ignorance. (N. Y., Harper, 1909.) A pic.

ture of danger from Asia. Maxim, Hudson. Defenceless America. (N. Y., Hearst's Internl.

Libr. Co., 1915.) Sharp criticism of the apathy of the army. Army War College. Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the

United States. (Wash., Govt. Print. Office, 1915.) With sup

plements published under separate titles. Clark University (Ed.). Problems and Lessons of the war. Addresses. Hay, Ian. The First Hundred Thousand. (Boston, Houghton

Mitslin, 1915.)
Hull, Wm. I. Preparedness: The Military and the American Pro.

gramme. (N. Y., Revell, 1916.) Pacifist in sentiment.
Wood, General Leonard. Our Military History: Its Facts and Fal-

lacies. (Chicago, Reilly & Britton Co., 1916.) Hard, W. “America Prepares,” in New Republic, X, 253-255

(March 31, 1917). Marvin, G. “Politics vs. Patriotism,” in World's Work, XXXII,

173-178 (June, 1916). Anon. “The American Revival,” in New Republic, X, 3-5 (Feb. 3,

1917). Anon. “The Tasks of America,” in ibid, XI, 94-95 (May 26, 1917). Anon. "Preparedness,” in World's Work, XXXi, 26-31 (Nov.,

1915). Roll of 261 newspapers on preparedness. Anon. “Cost of Unpreparedness," ibid, 32-40.


1. Specific References on the Section.
See $$129-133 above.

Maxim, Hudson. Defenceless America, chs. iv, v.
Huidekoper. "Armies of Europe,” in World's Work, XXVIII, 22.

49 (Sept., 1914). With pictures and maps.
Marvin, George. “The Greater America,” in World's Work,

XXVIII, 22-49 (Sept., 1914).
Roosevelt, T. “America Onward,” in Everybody's Magazine, XXXII,

120-128 (Jan., 1915).
Herrick, R. "Armament,” in New Republic, I, 22 (Dec. 19, 1914).
Stead, A. "How Tommy Atkins Gets His Breakfast,” in Inde.

pendent, LXXX, 493-495 (Dec. 28, 1914). O'Ryan, F. “Moving and Feeding an Army,” in Lippincott's, XCIV,

38-44 (Dec., 1914). Anon. “Food Allowed Soldiers,” in Technical World, XXIII, 500

(June, 1915).
Anon. “Refrigerated Meats for Italy's Armies,” in Review of

Reviews, LII, 365 (Sept., 1915).
Anon. "Lessons of the War," in World's Work, XXIX, 615-616

(April, 1915).
Herbert, H. A. “America's Need of Defense,” in N. Y. Times

Current History, III, 732 (Jan., 1916).
Bethmann-Hollweg, T. von. “Germany: Invincible and Secure,"

in ibid, 640. (Jan., 1916.)
Wilson, Woodrow. "America's Perils and Defenses,” in ibid, III,

1088 (Mar., 1916). Bullard, Arthur. “National Defense,” in Century, LXXXIX, 489.

491 (Feb., 1915).

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Johnston, R. M. “Arms and the Race,” in ibid, 648-658 (Mar.,

915). Garrison, L. M. “National Defense,” in ibid, LXXXIX, 675-682

(Mar., 1915). Wood, Eric Fisher. "Nation on Trial,” in ibid, XCI, 321-332 (Jan.,

1916). Bullard, A. “Are We a World Power,” in ibid, XCI, 114-119

(Nov., 1915). Anon. “Vital Problem of National Defense,” in Review of Re.

views, LII, 343 (Sept., 1915). Walker, J. Bernard. “Weak Points in Our National Defense,ibiit,

LII, 425-428 (Oct., 1915)

2. Tremendous Scale of Modern Warfare.

(a) Great number of men put in the field
(b) Immense provision of clothing, equipment, etc.
(c) Vast quantity of the most modern weapons.
(d) Profusion of food and necessaries.
(e) Enormous hospital and ambulance service.
(f) Abundant adjunct services of aeroplanes, etc.
(g) Land transportation on a gigantic scale; railroads, light rail.

roads, trolley lines, trucks, auotmobilees, wagons, horse

and mule transport, man power, etc. (h) Profusion of naval ships and supplies, including hundreds of

destroyers and submarines, etc. 3. War Will Be a Failure Without Similar Provisions by

the United States.
(a) Present organization by the U. S. Government.
(b) Hearty co-operation by states, cities, and local governments.
(c) Work of private societies and organizations.
(d) Duty of the individual to take part in some kind of organi-


4. Documents and Extracts on the Section.

(a) [8239] Military Needs of the United States (1915).

By Ex-SECRETARY OF WAR HENRY L. STIMSON. In any discussion of the military needs of this country the first thing to be avoided is the formulation of any ill-matured suggestions by civilians who have no special knowledge on the subject. Constant change and lack of continuity have been characteristic faults from which our military policy has suffered since the beginning of our national history. ...


The army and navy are peculiar sufferers from our "pork barrel” system, which is the result of our lack of any national executive budget. So long as the men who are responsible for the efficiency of these two services as a whole—the Secretaries of War and of the Navy-have no hand in the preparation of a budget and no voice to defend such a budget on the floor of the Houses of Congress, while the men who wish to spend the army and navy appropriations upon unnecessary army posts or unfit navy yards have such a voice as well as a vote, a great degree of waste and extravagance is sure to result. Our military system can never be made highly or permanently efficient until a budget system is adopted in this country similar to that which exists in substantially all other

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