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of infantry. Problems of organization and problems of equipment have to be worked out by the most painstaking and scientific observation and deduction. For instance, only large experience and accurate estimate has established the general principle that the load of the infantryman must not exceed one-third the weight of the individual soldier if the best efficiency is to be obtained. One know vaguely that soldiers are organized into companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, divisions, and armies, but why is each unit organized as to number and material, as laid down in tables of organization and drill book? The most profound study of experience has taught that certain organizations are best adapted for the handling of given masses of troops. For instance, the company contains the greatest number of men in which the relation of the personal influence of the individual leader or his subordinates can be maintained. And the battalion has worked out to be the normal fighting unit that can best be handled in actual combat by one man's directions when in the fighting are involved large numbers. And the regiment has been found convenient for the purpose of obtaining a proper supervision of the three battalions. The brigade is organized similarly as a convenient organization in which to combine three regiments, while the division, combined as it is of all arms, infantry, cavalry, artillery, and auxiliary troops, comprises that mass of men most suited for transportation on a single road and for action as a unit in great operations where large armies are involved.
Never has the stress of war called forth the moral qualities which present war conditions require of the infantry: To face destruction by the enemy's artillery when he is five or six miles from a point where he himself can inflict injury in return, suffer casualties in advancing over great stretches of ground without firing a shot, to the face the thunderbolts of large calibre guns and howitzers, to endure the rain of death of shrapnel and high explosives, to meet the withering hail of the hell-spitting mitrailleuse, to face the steel-jacketed sheet of rifle fire, even to suffer death at the hands of one's own supporting artillery, cut the wire entanglement, mount the parapet, to give or receive the death thrust of the bayonet's cold steel. This is what modern warfare requires of the infantryman. To meet the test he must be faithfully and arduously trained. And to give him this training there must be developed the learned and successful officer who comprehends his task.
The cavalryman must be reasonably proficient in all that pertains to the lore of the infantryman, but, of course, in a lesser degree. In addition he must be a master of the horse. He must know how best to train man and horse, for the trained man increases the power of the horse to render service, and the trained horse makes infinitely less demand upon the physical strength of the rider than does the untrained horse. Mobility is one of the decisive factors in war. Napoleon said that “The power of an army, like the quantity of
movement in mechanics, is measured by the product of its mass by its rate of motion.” Nothing requires more care, knowledge, and practical experience than is needed to develop proficiency in conserving the energy and power of the horse. The cavalry officer must be an expert in this, as also he must be an expert in the use of the pistol and sword. Despite the condition of the western European battlefront, with its trenches and intricate field fortifications, highly trained and powerful bodies of cavalry are as essential to the successful conduct of wars as ever.
Fine appreciation of what field artillery means in modern war was shown by the colored applicant for enlistment in one of the so-called immune regiment recruited in a Southern State during the war with Spain. A colored recruiting sergeant discussing warfare in general and in particular waxed fervent in his exposition, finally ending an animated account of the excitement of war by telling the applicant that in the armies of the world there were even guns that shot a thousand pounds of steel from ten to fifteen miles. “Great Lawd!" said the discouraged patriot, "none of that for me. A man would run all day and be shot at sundown.”
This conversation accurately explains the present conditions of war as far as the effects of artillery fire are concerned. Until 1896, when the French developed the recoil rapid-fire firearms, the artillery always occupied directing positionsin other words, posts from which the targets could be seen from the guns. After the adoption of the long recoil system the general rule was and is to occupy masked or indirect firing positions; in other words, positions from which the targets remain invisible to the gunners at artillery ranges hitherto unheard of in war. But now all normal combats are carried on between gunners that cannot possibly see one another. The officer who is observing the firing of his batery may be a couple of miles in front of his guns, tucked away in an observation trench, perched in a tree or on a haystack, connected with his batteries by land telephone. Or the observer may be hovering over the enemy objective about a mile or more in the air, bringing back and signaling back information as to the effect of the fire. To meet these changed conditions a precise system of range finding by various angle-measuring instruments and intricate optical details has been wrought out and mastered.
The responsibility for accurate sighting by the artillery is greater than ever before. It is impossible for the infantry to advance without the fullest support from the artillery. It is necessary that this support be continued until one's own troops are very near to the enemy and that the enemy fire may be beaten down. But to render this support at the right moment without slaughtering one's own soldiers in the excitement and heat of battle is a great problem. Nothing can destroy the morale of infantry more quickly than lack of confidence in the supporting artillery with the consequent fear that in an assault on an enemy's position not only will there be danger from foe, but equal danger from friend. It is easily
seen that the most thorough and arduous training is necessary to obtain the required degree of perfection. The field artillery officer must be an expert in the erection of field telephones and buzzers, in map making, scouting and panoramic sketching. He must be a horse master, an expert in the observation of human and animal energy, a good mathematician, a field astronomer, and possess a character reliable for coolness, steadfastness, and endurance.
COAST ARTILLERY. The great coast artillery service really demonstrates itself to the ordinary man. Respect is compelled for the men who handle the giant guns of our harbor defenses, operate the intricate machinery necessary for their manipulation, and execute the complicated calculations that have to be made in estimating ranges. A gun that shoots a' projectile weighing a ton 20,000 yards and develops a muzzle energy of approximately 126,000 foot tons speaks for itself. These are the guns that make it possible for the fire to seek the bors in important cities to the protection of the coast artillery as far as the danger of attack from a hostile fleet is concerned. This is the service that offers an asylum to the fleet in case it needs such asylum in the face of a superior enemy or after having been roughly handled. It need not be assumed that the coast artillery protects the coasts. We have about 5,000 miles of coast line, about 300 miles of which are under the potential protection of coast defense guns.
(New York Times Magazine, Dec. 5, 1916.)
(c) [$241] A Fable for Everybody.
By GEORGE ADE. A Marriage Broker was trying to promote an Alliance so as to get his piece of the Dowry. He said to the young man, "She's a nice Girl. Go home, take a Bath, put on your Good Clothes, go and talk to her; I think it will be all right.” The Young Man was skeptical. “The trouble is,” he said, “I might go home and take a Bath, and then she wouldn't have me after all !"
We must convince people who shrink from contact with Cold Porcelain that a Bath isn't a bad idea, whether you are going to get married or not!
We must drive home to a lot of Nice People the important Fact that whether the entry of the United States means Real War or merely the opening of a new Commissary, we need Universal Military Training. This country is first in the production of a good many things, but our largest and surest cropthe one that never fails—is the Crop of half-baked Liabilities, between the ages of 15 and 25.
TRAINING GOOD FOR BOYS. Whether you find him at the Corner of 42nd and Broadway, or on a Depot Platform in Indiana, or steering a Ford through the corn-fields of Kansas, the delightful specimen of Young America, who has just turned 18 and who knows more than his
Parents, is the most obtrusive item in the Picture. Young men are fresh the world over, but the American club is fresher than Green Paint, than which nothing could be fresher. I
Some time it would seem that all the women who Didn't Raise their Boys to be Soldiers raised them to be Vaudeville Performers. Nowhere else in the world do Young People accept so lightly in such a take-it-for-granted manner the enormous Sacrifices made in their behalf.
Nowhere else is the directing advice of Elderly People received with such good-natured Contempt.
Nowhere else do Young Folks have so little regard for Vested Authority.
They are too old to spank, but we can line them up and try to convince them that this World is not all Rag-time and Cigarettes.
We can teach them to respect the Flag, obey orders and get at least a glimmering conception of the Eternal Law of Compensation—that he who takes must also give.
TIME то нIT BACK. We are now at war with Germany. We have not struck back, but we have taken Blows in the Face, and either we must retaliate or cease to claim relationship with the Human Race. There is no need to Talk Preparedness and Military Service to Intelligent People. They are in favor of striking hard. We must be of some Real Help to the men who have been fighting our Battles. We must devise ways and means of arousing our Fellow Citizens so that they will take up the tasks of this war with Burning Enthusiasm and not with Reluctance.
This is a good time for all of us to say that, regardless of Old Affiliations, we are now ready to follow any Leadership that will courageously show us how to defend our National Honor. And we are against any former Room-Mate who gets Cold Feet at a time like this.
Up to this time the Germans have done all they can to convince Americans that we must battle for our rights or go out of business. They have violated our Hospitality by Infamous Plots. They have murdered our People. They have struck down our Flag. Every time we began to cool down from one insult they landed us Another, just as a Slight Token of Contempt. The Germans have been the best Allies of Patriotic Americans.
REASONS FOR REAL WAR. Real War will be waged against Germany when all sections of this country are convinced that our most sacred interests are acutely involved. Plenty of people regard the War in Europe as a mere upheaval of Explosive Elements. It is no more related to them than a Famine in India or a Tornado in an Adjoining State. It is something to feel sorry about, but nothing has happened which can materially affect "me and my wife or my son John and his wife." These kindly souls have been told for years that when wheat is $1.50 a Bushel, and Corn brings a dollar, and Hogs are $14 a hundred on the hoof, then all is well in the World, and no one should seek to revise a Destiny which is already 100 per cent perfect.
It is pretty hard to convince these Good People that the War is a Final Struggle between Despotism and Democracy, and that if the Allies lose, every man in the remotest corner of the United States must get ready to wear a Collar made in Germany.
Many of them seem to believe that now, as we enter the War, * we are taking up an Idle Quarrel over the Loss of Property.
They want to refer the whole thing to a Claim Agent. Let us show them, if we can, that we are fighting to defend our very existence as a free government. We are fighting to win back our Self Respect, without which we are a Pauper Nation.
(d)  Need of Preparedness. By President Woodrow Wilson (January, 1916.) It would be a hopeless piece of provincialism to suppose that because we think differently from the rest of the world, we are at liberty to assume that the rest of the world will permit us to enjoy that thought without disturbance. How can Americans differ about the safety of America ?
They (the American people) will at no time seek a contest, but they will at no time cravenly avoid it. Because if there is one thing that the country ought to fight for, and that every nation ought to fight for, it is the integrity of its own convictions. We cannot surrender our convictions.
Think of asking men who can be easily drawn, to come into the field, crude, ignorant, inexperienced, and merely furnish the stuff for camp fever and the bullets of the enemy-we have got the men to waste, but God forbid that we should waste them.
A nation like this should be ashamed to use an inefficient instrument.
I know that peace costs something, and that the only way in which you can maintain peace is by thoroughly enjoying the respect of everybody with whom you deal.
We must go at once to the task of training a very considerable body of men to the use of arms and the life of camps.
I want you to let everybody who comes within earshot of you know that you are a partisan for the adequate preparation of the United States for national defense.
If I am to maintain the honor of the United States, and it should be necessary to exert the force of the United States to do it, have you made the force ready? You know that you have not.
Whenever the ordinary rules of commerce at sea and of international relationship are apt to be thrust aside or ignored, there is danger of the more critical kind of controversy.
America has done more than care for her own people and think of her own fortunes. She has said, ever since the time of President Monroe, that she was the champion of freedom and the separate sovereignty of peoples throughout the Western Hemisphere. She is trustee for those ideals and she is pledged, deeply and permanently pledged, to keep those momentous promises.