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to be democratic and yet in no nation is democracy trusted. The result is that we have arbitrary decisions made by a class and often by a single person that the people are forced to carry out against their inclinations. Should declarations of war be delayed until ratified by popular vote they would not occur. Popular decisions appeal to human nature, and it is the same the world over. It is class decisions that differ, and these we must avoid by taking from every class its power to override popular decision.

HOME RULE. .2. The second principle is equally important. Home rule must accompany popular suffrage to prevent national majorities from oppressing minorities. The antagonisms of race, culture, religion and language could thus be avoided and at the same time the peculiar exigencies of localities would be provided for.

FREEDOM OF THE SEAS. 3. The third principle is the freedom of the seas. The ocean is a common heritage that should be in the control of no nation or group. This freedom must be so limited as to enable every nation to protect its own shores. The recognized three-mile limit will not enable this to be done. The controlled zone should be one hundred miles rather than three. Whatever the limit agreed upon, it alone should be the recognized area for warfare either offensive or defensive. If England extends her blockade of Germany one hundred miles from the German coast, Germany should be allowed an equal area about England to establish her submarine blockade, and we should claim the same zone for our coast defense. But other parts of the ocean should be open to all on equal terms.

NO TAXES ON EXPORTS OF RAW MATERIAL. 4. The fourth principle is that no nation should be allowed to enact export taxes on raw material. The natural advantages are so unequally distributed that a virtual slavery can be maintained if some world necessity were controlled by one nation or if a group of nations should conspire to control world commerce. Manufactured goods do not come in this class, as they can be made anywhere with slight differences in cost.

DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL AREAS. 5. The fifth principle demands a fair distribution of tropical areas among commercial nations. All nations need a tropical region to complement their home trade. Perhaps a third of foreign trade will be of this class. But there is ten times the quantity of tropical land to meet this condition. Cuba could supply the sugar of the world and either Java or Brazil its coffee and spices. Nations now monopolize land they will never use. When land hunger ceases a potent cause of war will be removed.

(Am. Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, LXXII, 36-37. (July, 1917.)

C. [$310] WORLD PEACE MOVEMENT. 1. Specific References on the Section. See 88146-148 above. Addams, Jane. The Newer Ideals of Peace. (N. Y., Macmillan,

1907.) Hooper, C. E. The Wider Outlook Beyond the World War.

· (N. Y., Putnam, 1915.) Jordan, David Starr. Ways to Lasting Peace. (Indianapolis,

Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1916.)
"Cosmos.The Basis of Durable Peace. (N. Y., Scribner, 1917.)

Reprint of articles in the N. Y. Times.
Mlynarski, Felix. The Problems of the Coming Peace. (N. Y.,

Polish Book Importing Co., 1916.)
Hart, Albert Bushnell, and others. Problems of Readjustment After

the War. (N. Y., Appleton, 1915.)
Wells, H. G. The War That Will End War. (London, Palmer,

1914).
Choate, Joseph H. The Two Hague Conferences. (Princeton,

Univ. Press, 1913.)
Jordan, David Starr. World Peace and the College Man. (Phila.,

Univ. of Pa., 1916.)
Marshall, H. R. War and the Ideal of Peace. A study of those

Characteristics of Man that Result in War, and of the Means

by Which They May Be Controlled. (N. Y., Duffield, 1915.) Pratt, J. B. Democracy and Peace. (Boston, Badger, 1916.) Reely, Mary K. Selected Articles on World Peace, Including

International Arbitration and Disarmament. (White Plains,

Wilson Co., 1914.) 2. Plans for Arbitration.

(a) Experience of the world.

(b) Arbitrations in which the United States has participated. 3. Hague Conferences.

(a) Conference of 1899.
(b) Conference of 1907.
(c) Resulting Conventions.
(d) Hague Court.

(e) Part of the United States. 4. International Organizations.

(a) Churches.
(b) Commercial unions, post, telegraphs, etc.
(c) International Parliamentary Union.
(d) International labor organizations and influence.

(e) Commercial and business connections. 5. Unions of Nations.

(a) European Concert.
(b) Division into Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
(c) Close Alliances in the War.

D. [$311] PEACEFUL DISPOSITION OF THE

AMERICAN PEOPLE. 1. Specific References on the Section.

Mahan, A. T. Armaments and Arbitration, or the Place of Force

in ihe International Relations of States. (N. Y., Harper,

1912.)
2. Pacific Foreign Policy.

(a) Toward Europe-Doctrine of spheres of influence.
(b) Toward the rest of America—Monroe Doctrine.
(c) Toward Asia-Chinese and Japanese policy.

Toward the belligerents in the Great War.

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3. Peace Organizations in the United States. (a) Societies:

American Peace Society. (b) Foundations:

Carnegie Foundation.

Ginn Foundation.
(c) Plans of Permanent Peace:

World Court.
League to Enforce Peace.

World State.
4. Interest of the United States in World Peace.

(a) Long practice of arbitration.
(b) Settlement of Alabama Claims (1872).
(c) Appeal to the principle in Venezuela Case (1895).
(d) Arbitration treaties previous to 1913.
(e) Secretary Bryan's arbitration treaties.
(f) Attitude on the Declaration of London (1909).

E. [$312] MEDIATION OF THE UNITED

STATES IN THE GREAT WAR.

1. Specific References on the Section. See $152 above. Nicholson, J. S. “President Wilson's Patience,” N. Y. Times Cur.

rent History, III, 472.475 (Dec., 1915). Roosevelt, T. “Criticism of the President's Message,” ibid, III,

684. (Jan., 1916). Lansing, Robert (Secretary of State). “Our Foreign Policy in • This War” (address, June 3, 1915), ibid, IV, 739-740 (July,

1916). Hanotaux, Gabriel. "America Up Against the Wall,” ibid, IV,

297-298 (May, 1916). Cromer, Lord. “Wilson's Mediation Not Acceptable,” ibid, IV,

738-739 (July, 1916). Harden, Maximilian. "If I Were Wilson,' ibid, IV, 693 (July,

191.). Imagines President Wilson speaking to the German

government.
Reventlow, Count Ernst. “Germany's Opinion of Wilson as a

Mediator,” ibid, V, 148-151 (Oct., 1916).
Wells, H. G. “World Peace,” in ibid, II, 33-45 (April, 1915).-

Gives cure for war disease.
2. Attempts to Stop the War at the Outset.

(a) No appeal to the Hague Peace Organizations.
(b) Offer of Serbia to arbitrate with Austria.
(c) Efforts of statesmen to prevent the war-Grey; Sazonoff;

attitude of Emperor William. (See $$94.98 above.)
(d) Efforts to localize the war.

(e) Intense interest of the United States in these efforts. 3. Attempts to adjust Difficulties of the United States with

Belligerents.
(a) Suggested arbitration with Germany on Frye question.
(b) Possible eventual arbitration with Great Britain over seizure

of vessels.
(0) Suggestion of arbitration with Germany over submarine de-

structions. (d) Attempt to bring Germany and Great Britain to an under

standing over the zone question. 4. American Peace Proposals of 1916-1917.

(a) (Dec. 12) German notes to the Entente Allies and to the

Pope.

(b)
(c)

(Dec. 18) President Wilson's appeal to the Powers.
(Dec. 26 to 30) Germany's reply and proposal for a confer.

ence of delegates, 1917.
(Dec. 30 to Jan. 13) Declination by the Allies.
(Jan. 22) President Wilson's "Peace without Victory.

(d)
(e)

Wilson, President Woodrow. “Note Requesting Peace Terms of

All Belligerents” (Dec. 18, 1916), N. Y. Times Current History,

V, 602-604 (Jan., 1917).
“Germany's Peace Proposal,” ibid, V, 585-590 (Jan., 1917).
“Official Comments of France, Russia and Italy on Germany's

Peace Proposals," ibid, V, 590 (Jan., 1917).
Lloyd George, David. “Speech Regarding Peace,” ibid, V, 592-600

(Jan., 1917).
“The President's Peace Efforts” (Dec., 1916, and Jan., 1917).

Text of Reply of Central Powers to President's Peace Note;
Text of Entente Allies' Reply to the President; Great Britain's
Note amplifying the Entente Reply, by A. J. Balfour; Belgium's
Separate Reply to the President; Germany's Retort to the
Entente in a Separate Note to Neutrals; Replies of Neutral
Nations to President Wilson's Peace Nöte; “Peace Founded
on the Rock of Vindicated Justice,” by Premier Lloyd George;
Text of Reply of Entente to Central Powers, ibid, V, 777-805

(Feb., 1917).
“A Masterpiece in Diplomacy; the Allied Reply to German Peace

Terms,” in New Republic, IX, 311-313 (Jan. 20, 1917).
Wilson, President Woodrow. “Senate Address on Permanent

Peace" (Jan. 22, 1917), in N. Y. Times Current History

(Mar., 1917.) “Peace without Victory” speech. “Criticism of the President's Plan for 'Peace Without Victory',”

ibid, V, 1093-1096 (Mar., 1917). “The Power of the Pen," in New Republic, IX, 313-315 (Jan. 20,

1917). An appreciation of President Wilson's Peace Without

Victory address. “Lincoln in 1917,ibid, X, 61-63 (Feb. 17, 1917). Fish, C. R. "American Tradition in the Address to the Senate,"

ibid, X, 221-223 (Mar. 24, 1917). “Who Willed American Participation,” ibid, x, 308-310 (April 14,

1917). Wilson, President Woodrow. America First,” “Humanity First,"

"America for Humanity" (addresses), in N. Y. Times Current

History, II, 438-444 (June, 1915).
Wilson, President Woodrow. “Reply to Berlin" (regarding the

Lusitania), June 9, 1915, ibid, II, 619-622 (July, 1915); also
“The American Rejoinder" (rejecting Germany's proposals),

July 21, 1915, ibid, II, 823-825 (August, 1915).
Wilson, President Woodrow. “The State of the Nation” (annual

address to Congress, Dec. 8, 1915), ibid, III, 679-684 (Jan.,

1916). Discusses U. S. neutrality. Wilson, President Woodron. “America's Creed of War and

Peace,” in N. Y. Times Current History, IV, 736-738 (July,

1916). Tentative proffer of American mediation. Wilson, President Woodrow. “America's Perils and Defenses," in

ibid, III, 1088-1092 (Mar., 1916). 5. Papal Mediation.

(a) (Aug. 1, 1917) Appeal of the Pope to the belligerent peoples.

(h) (Aug. 27) Unfavorable reply of President Wilson. 6. Why Did These Efforts Fail?

(a) Mutual distrust.
(b) Occupation of Belgium and Northern France by “the Ger.

mans."
(c) Combination of Germany, Austro-Hungary, Bulgaria and

Turkey.
(d) Desire of each side to gain territory.
(e) Desire of each side to crush the other side.

F. [$313] DIFFICULTIES OF PEACE AT THE

END OF THE GREAT WAR.

1. Specific References in the Section.

See $150 above.

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Buxton, C. R.; Dickinson, G. L.; Sidebotham, H., and Others. TO.

wards a Lasting Settlement. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1916.) “Cosmos.” The Basis of Durable Peace. (N. Y., C. Scribner's

Sons, 1917.) Also in N. Y. Times Current History, V. 921.

929 (Feb., 1917). Eliot, C. W. The Road Towards Peace. (Boston, Houghton, Miffin,

1915.) Fayle, Charles E. The Great Settlement. (N. Y., Duffield & Co.,

1915.)
Grey, Sir Edward. A Free Europe. (London, Unwin, 1916.)
Headlam, J. W. The Peace Terms of the Allies. (London,

Clay & Sons, Ltd., 1917.)
Bourne, R. S. (Compiler). Towards an Enduring Peace. A sym-

posium of peace proposals and programs 1914-1916. (N. Y.,

Amer. Assoc. for International Conciliation, 1916.)
Fisher, W. L. Preparations for Peace. (Philadelphia, 1915.)
Beard, Charles A. “German Annexations and Indemnities,” in New

Republic, XII (July 14, 1917).
Muir, Ramsay. “The Difficulties of a League of Peace,” in New

Europe, II (Feb., 1917).
Perry, R. B. “What Is Worth Fighting For?” in Atlantic Monthly,

vol. 116, pp. 822-831 (Dec., 1915).
Adams, G. B. “America's Obligation and Opportunity," in Yale

Review, V, 474-483 (April, 1916). If Germany comes out

victorious, permanent peace is impossible.
Johnson, W. F. “America and World Peace,” in North American

Review, vol. 204, pp. 673-680 (Nov., 1916).
Moore, John Bassett. “The Peace Problem,” in ibid, vol. 204, pp.

74-89 (July, 1916).
Hill, David J. “Protection of American Citizens,” in ibid, vol. 203,

pp. 380-387 (March, 1916). Guyot, Ives. “What the Nature of the Peace Will Be,” in ibid,

vol. 201, pp. 175-190 (Feb., 1915). "The Monroe Doctrine,” in N. Y. Times Current History, V.

154-163 (Oct., 1916). Wilson, President W. “Senate Address on Permanent Peace”

(Jan. 22, 1917), in ibid, V, 1090-1092 (Mar., 1917). 2. Allied Views. 3. Central Powers' Views. 4. Question of Status Quo Ante Bellum. 5. Documents and Extracts on the Section.

(a) [$314] The Problems of the War.

By NORMAN ANGELL. The immediate cause [of this war] was an incident of Balkan politics, and Balkan politics with all its welter of language and nationality difficulties—the relations of Serbs, Bulgars, Roumanians, Turks, Greeks, Albanians, of the Moslems, the Catholics, the Orthodox and Unified Greek churches; the influence and struggle for prestige within the Peninsula of the Austrian, Russian, German, Italian and British foreign policies—has absorbed the life studies of many students.

THE MAZE OF ISSUES. But the incident leading to the outbreak of war was also a question of Austrian policy, of the everlasting struggle between Germans, Magyars, Croats, Serbs, Slovenes, Ruthenians, Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles.

Of the issues of the Serbo-Bulgarian war of 1885, the tariff wars between Austria and Serbia, the annexation of

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