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to be democratic and yet in no nation is democracy trusted. The result is that we have arbitrary decisions made by a class and often by a single person that the people are forced to carry out against their inclinations. Should declarations of war be delayed until ratified by popular vote they would not occur. Popular decisions appeal to human nature, and it is the same the world over. It is class decisions that differ, and these we must avoid by taking from every class its power to override popular decision.
HOME RULE. .2. The second principle is equally important. Home rule must accompany popular suffrage to prevent national majorities from oppressing minorities. The antagonisms of race, culture, religion and language could thus be avoided and at the same time the peculiar exigencies of localities would be provided for.
FREEDOM OF THE SEAS. 3. The third principle is the freedom of the seas. The ocean is a common heritage that should be in the control of no nation or group. This freedom must be so limited as to enable every nation to protect its own shores. The recognized three-mile limit will not enable this to be done. The controlled zone should be one hundred miles rather than three. Whatever the limit agreed upon, it alone should be the recognized area for warfare either offensive or defensive. If England extends her blockade of Germany one hundred miles from the German coast, Germany should be allowed an equal area about England to establish her submarine blockade, and we should claim the same zone for our coast defense. But other parts of the ocean should be open to all on equal terms.
NO TAXES ON EXPORTS OF RAW MATERIAL. 4. The fourth principle is that no nation should be allowed to enact export taxes on raw material. The natural advantages are so unequally distributed that a virtual slavery can be maintained if some world necessity were controlled by one nation or if a group of nations should conspire to control world commerce. Manufactured goods do not come in this class, as they can be made anywhere with slight differences in cost.
DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL AREAS. 5. The fifth principle demands a fair distribution of tropical areas among commercial nations. All nations need a tropical region to complement their home trade. Perhaps a third of foreign trade will be of this class. But there is ten times the quantity of tropical land to meet this condition. Cuba could supply the sugar of the world and either Java or Brazil its coffee and spices. Nations now monopolize land they will never use. When land hunger ceases a potent cause of war will be removed.
(Am. Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, LXXII, 36-37. (July, 1917.)
C. [$310] WORLD PEACE MOVEMENT. 1. Specific References on the Section. See 88146-148 above. Addams, Jane. The Newer Ideals of Peace. (N. Y., Macmillan,
1907.) Hooper, C. E. The Wider Outlook Beyond the World War.
· (N. Y., Putnam, 1915.) Jordan, David Starr. Ways to Lasting Peace. (Indianapolis,
Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1916.)
Reprint of articles in the N. Y. Times.
Polish Book Importing Co., 1916.)
the War. (N. Y., Appleton, 1915.)
Univ. Press, 1913.)
Univ. of Pa., 1916.)
Characteristics of Man that Result in War, and of the Means
by Which They May Be Controlled. (N. Y., Duffield, 1915.) Pratt, J. B. Democracy and Peace. (Boston, Badger, 1916.) Reely, Mary K. Selected Articles on World Peace, Including
International Arbitration and Disarmament. (White Plains,
Wilson Co., 1914.) 2. Plans for Arbitration.
(a) Experience of the world.
(b) Arbitrations in which the United States has participated. 3. Hague Conferences.
(a) Conference of 1899.
(e) Part of the United States. 4. International Organizations.
(e) Commercial and business connections. 5. Unions of Nations.
(a) European Concert.
D. [$311] PEACEFUL DISPOSITION OF THE
AMERICAN PEOPLE. 1. Specific References on the Section.
Mahan, A. T. Armaments and Arbitration, or the Place of Force
in ihe International Relations of States. (N. Y., Harper,
(a) Toward Europe-Doctrine of spheres of influence.
Toward the belligerents in the Great War.
3. Peace Organizations in the United States. (a) Societies:
American Peace Society. (b) Foundations:
(a) Long practice of arbitration.
E. [$312] MEDIATION OF THE UNITED
STATES IN THE GREAT WAR.
1. Specific References on the Section. See $152 above. Nicholson, J. S. “President Wilson's Patience,” N. Y. Times Cur.
rent History, III, 472.475 (Dec., 1915). Roosevelt, T. “Criticism of the President's Message,” ibid, III,
684. (Jan., 1916). Lansing, Robert (Secretary of State). “Our Foreign Policy in • This War” (address, June 3, 1915), ibid, IV, 739-740 (July,
1916). Hanotaux, Gabriel. "America Up Against the Wall,” ibid, IV,
297-298 (May, 1916). Cromer, Lord. “Wilson's Mediation Not Acceptable,” ibid, IV,
738-739 (July, 1916). Harden, Maximilian. "If I Were Wilson,' ibid, IV, 693 (July,
191.). Imagines President Wilson speaking to the German
Mediator,” ibid, V, 148-151 (Oct., 1916).
Gives cure for war disease.
(a) No appeal to the Hague Peace Organizations.
attitude of Emperor William. (See $$94.98 above.)
(e) Intense interest of the United States in these efforts. 3. Attempts to adjust Difficulties of the United States with
structions. (d) Attempt to bring Germany and Great Britain to an under
standing over the zone question. 4. American Peace Proposals of 1916-1917.
(a) (Dec. 12) German notes to the Entente Allies and to the
(Dec. 18) President Wilson's appeal to the Powers.
ence of delegates, 1917.
Wilson, President Woodrow. “Note Requesting Peace Terms of
All Belligerents” (Dec. 18, 1916), N. Y. Times Current History,
V, 602-604 (Jan., 1917).
Peace Proposals," ibid, V, 590 (Jan., 1917).
Text of Reply of Central Powers to President's Peace Note;
Terms,” in New Republic, IX, 311-313 (Jan. 20, 1917).
Peace" (Jan. 22, 1917), in N. Y. Times Current History
(Mar., 1917.) “Peace without Victory” speech. “Criticism of the President's Plan for 'Peace Without Victory',”
ibid, V, 1093-1096 (Mar., 1917). “The Power of the Pen," in New Republic, IX, 313-315 (Jan. 20,
1917). An appreciation of President Wilson's Peace Without
Victory address. “Lincoln in 1917,” ibid, X, 61-63 (Feb. 17, 1917). Fish, C. R. "American Tradition in the Address to the Senate,"
ibid, X, 221-223 (Mar. 24, 1917). “Who Willed American Participation,” ibid, x, 308-310 (April 14,
1917). Wilson, President Woodrow. “America First,” “Humanity First,"
"America for Humanity" (addresses), in N. Y. Times Current
History, II, 438-444 (June, 1915).
Lusitania), June 9, 1915, ibid, II, 619-622 (July, 1915); also
July 21, 1915, ibid, II, 823-825 (August, 1915).
address to Congress, Dec. 8, 1915), ibid, III, 679-684 (Jan.,
1916). Discusses U. S. neutrality. Wilson, President Woodron. “America's Creed of War and
Peace,” in N. Y. Times Current History, IV, 736-738 (July,
1916). Tentative proffer of American mediation. Wilson, President Woodrow. “America's Perils and Defenses," in
ibid, III, 1088-1092 (Mar., 1916). 5. Papal Mediation.
(a) (Aug. 1, 1917) Appeal of the Pope to the belligerent peoples.
(h) (Aug. 27) Unfavorable reply of President Wilson. 6. Why Did These Efforts Fail?
(a) Mutual distrust.
F. [$313] DIFFICULTIES OF PEACE AT THE
END OF THE GREAT WAR.
1. Specific References in the Section.
See $150 above.
Buxton, C. R.; Dickinson, G. L.; Sidebotham, H., and Others. TO.
wards a Lasting Settlement. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1916.) “Cosmos.” The Basis of Durable Peace. (N. Y., C. Scribner's
Sons, 1917.) Also in N. Y. Times Current History, V. 921.
929 (Feb., 1917). Eliot, C. W. The Road Towards Peace. (Boston, Houghton, Miffin,
1915.) Fayle, Charles E. The Great Settlement. (N. Y., Duffield & Co.,
Clay & Sons, Ltd., 1917.)
posium of peace proposals and programs 1914-1916. (N. Y.,
Amer. Assoc. for International Conciliation, 1916.)
Republic, XII (July 14, 1917).
Europe, II (Feb., 1917).
vol. 116, pp. 822-831 (Dec., 1915).
Review, V, 474-483 (April, 1916). If Germany comes out
victorious, permanent peace is impossible.
Review, vol. 204, pp. 673-680 (Nov., 1916).
74-89 (July, 1916).
pp. 380-387 (March, 1916). Guyot, Ives. “What the Nature of the Peace Will Be,” in ibid,
vol. 201, pp. 175-190 (Feb., 1915). "The Monroe Doctrine,” in N. Y. Times Current History, V.
154-163 (Oct., 1916). Wilson, President W. “Senate Address on Permanent Peace”
(Jan. 22, 1917), in ibid, V, 1090-1092 (Mar., 1917). 2. Allied Views. 3. Central Powers' Views. 4. Question of Status Quo Ante Bellum. 5. Documents and Extracts on the Section.
(a) [$314] The Problems of the War.
By NORMAN ANGELL. The immediate cause [of this war] was an incident of Balkan politics, and Balkan politics with all its welter of language and nationality difficulties—the relations of Serbs, Bulgars, Roumanians, Turks, Greeks, Albanians, of the Moslems, the Catholics, the Orthodox and Unified Greek churches; the influence and struggle for prestige within the Peninsula of the Austrian, Russian, German, Italian and British foreign policies—has absorbed the life studies of many students.
THE MAZE OF ISSUES. But the incident leading to the outbreak of war was also a question of Austrian policy, of the everlasting struggle between Germans, Magyars, Croats, Serbs, Slovenes, Ruthenians, Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles.
Of the issues of the Serbo-Bulgarian war of 1885, the tariff wars between Austria and Serbia, the annexation of