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1. [$39] Brief Histories of Europe. See $17 above and $50 below. Cambridge Modern History, Vol. XI. The Growth of Nationalities. (N.

Y., Macmillan, 1909.) Hart, Albert Bushnell. “The Historical Roots of the War," in Outlook,

Sept.-Nov., 1914. Ten articles on Hohenzollerns, Hapsburgs, Napo

leons, Guelphs, Romanoffs, etc. Hillis, Newell Dwight. Studies of the Great War; What Each Nation

Has at Stake. (Chicago, Revell, 1915.) Low, Sydney. (Editor.) The Spirit of the Allied Nations; with an intro.

ductory essay. (London, Black, 1915.) Lowell, Abbott Lawrence. Governments and Parties in Continental

Europe. (Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 1900.) Vol. I, chaps. V and
VI, Vol. II, chap. viii, deal with Germany; Vol. II, chaps. v, viii, x

with Austria Hungary.) Rose, J. Holland. The Development of the European Nations. (5th

ed., 2 vols. in one.) (N. Y., Putnam, 1916.) A standard work on this period, with chapters added in this edition to include the out

break of the war. Stoddard, F. Lothrop. Present Day Europe; Its National States of Mind.

(N. Y., Century, 1917.)

2. [840] Austria-Hungary. Colquhoun, Archibald Ross, and Colquhoun, Ethel. The Whirlpool of

Europe, Austria-Hungary and the Hapsburgs. (N. Y., Dodd, Mead,

1907.) Kellner, Leon, Arnold, Madame Paula, and Delisle, Arthur L. Austria of

the Austrians and Hungary of the Hungarians. (N. Y., Scribners,

1914.) Masaryk, Thomas G. “Bohemia and the European Crisis,” in The New

Europe, II, (Jan. 25, 1917.) By a Bohemian popular leader. Schierbrand, Wolf von. “The Fate of Austria-Hungary,” in World's Work,

189-198. (June, 1917.)

3. [$41] Balkan States. See $866, 72, 73 below. Bonn, M. J. (Editor.) Die Balkan Frage. (Munich, Duncker, 1914.)

Ten essays by various writers. Chéradame, André. Douze ans de propagande en faveur des peuples Balkaniques. (Paris, Plon-Nourrit, 1913.)

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Fox, Frank. The Balkan Peninsula. (London, Black, 1915.) Written

before the war. Deals with national characteristics of the Balkan

peoples and the history of their diplomatic relations and wars. Hanotaux, Gabriel. La guerre des Balkans et l'Europe 1912-1913. (Paris,

Plon-Nourrit, 1914.) Etudes diplomatiques, No. 2.

Balkan Wars. Report. (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the

Balkan Wars. Report. (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,

N. Y., Publication No. 4, 1914.) Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich, Prince Stephan Lazar Eugene. The Servian

People; Their Past Glory and Their Destiny. (N. Y., Scribners, 1910.) Peacock, Wadham. Albania, the Foundling State of Europe. (N. Y., Ap

pleton, 1914.) Petrovitch, Wislav M. Serbia; Her People, History and Aspirations.

(London. Harrap, 1915.) Schurman, Jacob Gould. The Balkan Wars (1912-1913). (Princeton Uni.

versity Press. Sloane, William Milligan. The Balkans; a Laboratory of History. (N. Y.,

Eaton & Mains, 1914.) Wagner, Hermenegild. With the Victorious Bulgarians. (Boston, etc.,

Houghton, Mifflin, 1913.)

4. [$42] Belgium. See $899-101, 111 below. Boulger, Demetrius Charles. Belgium of the Belgians. (N. Y., Scribner,

1911.) Griffis, William Elliot. Belgium; the Land of Art; Its History, Legends,

Industry and Modern Expansion. (Boston, etc., Houghton, Mifflin,

1912.) King Albert's Book, a Tribute to the Belgian King and People from Over

Two Hundred Representative Men and Women Throughout the World.

(N. Y., Hearst's International Library, 1915.) Macdonnell, John DeCourcy. Belgium, Her Kings, Kingdom and People.

(Boston, Little, Brown, 1914.),

5. [$43] France. See $52 below. Berard. Victor. La France et Guillaume II. (Paris, Colin, 1907; 10 edn.) Colin, Jean Lambert Alphonse. France and the Next War: a French

View of Modern War. Trans. by Major L. H. R. Pope-Hennesey.

(London, Hodder, Stoughton, 1914.) Darmstädter, Paul. Frankreich als Weltmacht. (Berlin, Teubner, 1915.)

Argues that France had reached the limit of possible colonial expansion, and had reverted to a policy of revenge; hence seized the

opportunity in 1914 to go to war against Germany. Guerard, Albert Leon. French Civilization in the 19th Century. (N. Y.,

Century, 1914.) Hanotaux, Gabriel. Contemporary France, 1870-1882. Trans, by John Charles

Tarver. (4 vols.; N. Y., Putnam, 1903-1909.) Vergnet, Paul. La France en danger. (Paris, La Renaissance du livre,

1913.) Vizetelly, Ernest Alfred. Republican France; 1870-1912; Her Presidents,

Statesmen, Policy, Vicissitudes and Social Life. (Boston, Small, 1913.) Wendell, Barrett. The France of Today. (N. Y., Scribner, 1907.)

6. [844] Great Britain. Bryce, George. A Short History of the Canadian People. (London, Low,

Marston, 1914.) Collier, Price. England and the English from an American Point of View.

(N. Y., Scribner, 1911.) Jenks, Edward. A History of the Australasian Colonies from Their Foun

dation to the Year 1911. (Cambridge, Univ. Press, 1912.)

Ward, Mrs. Mary Augusta. England's Effort, Letters to an American Friend. (N. Y., Scribner, 1916.)

7. [$45] Italy. Borgese, G. A. Italia e Germania. Il Germanesimo.-L'imperatre.--La

guerra e l'Italia. (Milano, Fratelli Treves, 1915.) Dauzat, Albert. L'expansion italienne. (Paris, Charpentier, 1914.) Dillon, E. J. From the Triple to the Quadruple Alliance; Why Italy

Went to War. (London, Hobbs & Stoughton, 1915.) - King, Bolton, and Thomas Okey. Italy Today. (New and enlarged edn.,

London, 1909.)

8. [$46] Luxemburg.

Renwick, George. Luxemburg: the Grand Duchy and Its People. (N. Y., Scribner, 1913.)

9. [$47] Poland. Gibbons, Herbert Adams. The Reconstruction of Poland and the Near

East. (N. Y., Century, 1917.) Grabowsky, Adolf. Die polnische frage. (Berlin, Heymann, 1916.) Hill, Ninian. Poland and the Polish Question, Impressions and After.

thoughts. (London, etc., Allen, 1915.) Orvis, Julia Swift. A Brief History of Poland. (Boston, etc., Houghton,

Mifflin, 1916.) Poland's Case for Independence. A series of essays illustrating the con

tinuance of her national life. (N. Y., Dodd, Mead, 1916.)

10. [$48] Russia. Alexinsky, Gregor. Russia and the Great War. Trans. by Bernard Miall.

(London, Unwin, 1915.) Baring, Maurice. Mainsprings of Russia. (London, Nelson, 1914.) Foulke, William Dudley. Slav or Saron? A study of the growth and

tendencies of Russian civilization. (3rd edn.; N. Y., Putnams, 1904.) Graham, Stephen. Russia and the World. A study of the war and a

statement of the world-problems that now confront Russia and Great

Britain. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1915.) Kornilov, Alexander. Modern Russian History. Being an authoritative

and detailed history of Russia from the age of Catherine the Great

to the present. (2 vols.; N. Y., Knopf, 1916.) Milyoukov, Paul. Russia and Its Crisis. (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press,

1906.) . Stanoyevich, Milivoy S. Russian Foreign Policy in the East. (27 pp.,

Oakland, etc., Liberty Publishers, 1916.) Wallace, Sir Donald Mackenzie. Russia. (New and enlarged edn.; N. Y.,

Holt, 1905.) Wright, Richardson. The Russians: An Interpretation. (N. Y., Stokes,



1. [849] Brief Discussions of the Causes. See short list in $$32, 33 above. Hart, Albert Bushnell. “Why the Nations Fight” in World's Work,

XXVIII, 11-15. (Sept., 1914.) Hayes, Carlton. “The War of the Nations” in Political Sci. Quarterly,

XXIX. (Dec., 1914.) Hill, David Jayne. “Europe's Heritage of Evil” in Century, XCIV. (May,

1917.) Hill, David Jayne. “International Self-Revelations of Guilt,” Ibid, XCIV.

(July, 1917.) Turner, Edward R. “The Causes of the Great War" in Am. Pol. Sci.

Rev., IX, 16. (Feb., 1915.)

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2. [$50] Current Histories of Europe. See $$17, 29, above. Cambridge Modern History, Vol. XII. The Latest Age. (N. Y., Mac

millan, 1910.) Hayes, Carlton J. H. A Political and Social History of Modern Europe,

Vol. II, 1815-1915. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1916.) Hazen, Charles Downer. Europe Since 1815. (N. Y., Holt, 1910.) Clear

and accurate and very helpful. Phillips, Walter Alison. Modern Europe, 1815-1899. (London, Riving

ton, 1901.) Seignobos, Charles. 1815-1915 from the Congress of Vienna to the War

of 1914. Trans. by P. E. Matheson. (Paris, Colin, 1915.) 36 pp. Wright, C. H. C. A History of the Third French Republic. (Boston,

Houghton, Mifflin, 1916.) See also $38 above.

3. [351] British Views of the War. See $859, 82 below. Fisher, H. A. L. The War: Its Causes and Issues. (31 pp.; London, etc.,

Longmans, 1914.) Grey, Viscount of Fullodon. Why Britain Is in the War and What She

Hopes from the Future. (20 pp.; London, Unwin, 1916.) Members of the Oxford Faculty of Modern History. Why We Are at War:

Great Britain's Case-With an appendix of original documents, includ. ing the authorized English translation of the White Book issued by the German government. (7th impression-containing the Russian Orange Book, and extracts from the Belgian Grey Book. Oxford, Clarendon

Press, 1914.) Murray (Sir), Gilbert L. Faith, War and Policy. (Boston, Houghton,

Mifflin, 1917.) Rose, J. Holland. How the War Came About. (Patriotic Publishing Co.,


4. [852] French Point of View. See $43 above. Daudet, Leon. L'avant-guerre études et documents sur l'espionnage juif

allemand en France depuis l'affaire Dreyfus. (Paris, Nouvelle Librarie

Nationale, 1913.) Durkheim, E., and Denis E. Who Wanted War? (Paris, Colin, 1915.)

Studies and documents on the war. Guyot, Yves. The Causes and Consequences of the War.. (London,

Hutchinson, 1916.) Trans. by Holt. Lichtenberger, Henri. Germany and Its Evolution in Modern Times.

Translation of L'Allemagne Moderne: Son Evolution. (N. Y., Holt, 1913.)

5. [$53] German Point of View. See $859, 60, 62, 79-95, 96 below. Becker, Carl (Editor). Deutschland und der weltkrieg. (Leipzig, etc.,

Teubner, 1915.) Chamberlain, Houston Stewart. Who Is to Blame for the War? (München,

Bruckmann, 1915.) Dernburg, Bernhard. Germany and the War, not a Defense, but an

Explanation. (N. Y., The Fatherland, 1915.) Federn, Karl. The Origin of the War, Facts and Documents. (N. Y.,

Dillingham, 1915.) Friedrich, F. Die ursachen des weltkrieges in geschichtlicher beleuchtung.

(Lcipzig, Teubner, 1915.) Frobenius, H., Colonel. The German Empire's Hour of Destiny. (N. Y.,

McBride, Nast, 1914.)

6. [$54] Italian Point of View. Ferrero, Guglielmo. Who Wanted the European War? (Oxford, Clarendon

Press, 1915.) Low, Sidney J. M. Italy in the War. (London, Longmans, Green, 1916.) Tittoni, Tommaso. Le jugement de l'histoire sur la responsible ite de la

guerre. (Paris, Blond et Gay, 1915; pages actuelles, Nos. 96-97.) By an Italian statesman.'

7. [$55] Austro-Hungarian Point of View. See $73 below. Andrassy, Comte Jules. Considerations sur les origines de la guerre. (Lausanne, La Revue politique internationale, 1915.)

8. ' [856] American Point of View.

See $178 below. Adler, Felix. The World Crisis and Its Meaning. (N. Y., Appleton, 1915.)

An elaborate analysis of the causes and effects of the war discussing various aspects involved like Imperialism, Nationalism, Social Reform

and Ethical Development. Barron, Clarence W. The Audacious War. (Houghton, Mifflin.) By an

American expert on financial and business matters, who has made a first hand study of conditions in Europe, particularly in relation to finance and trade. Finds in commercial treaties, protective tariffs,

and financial ambitions the immediate causes of the war. Beck, James M. The Evidence in the case. (N. Y., Putnam, 1914.)

Searching analysis of the responsibility for the European war, by an

eminent lawyer, formerly assistant attorney-general of the United States. Beck, James M. “In the Supreme Court of Civilization," in New York

Times Current History, I, 413-430. (Jan. 9, 1915.) Beveridge, Albert J. What Is Back of the War. (Indianapolis, Bobbs

Merrill, 1915.) Former Senator of the United States: personal impres

sions on the ground in the early part of the war. Chitwood, Oliver P. The Immediate Causes of the Great War. (N. Y.,

Crowell, 1917.) Outline of the outbreak of the war. Coudert, Frederic R., and others. Why Europe Is at War: the Question

Considered from the Points of View of France, England, Germany,

Japan, and the United States. (N. Y., Putnam, 1915.) Eliot, C. W. “Probable Causes,” “Stout and Warlike Breed," "Why Is

America Anti-German?” “Germany a World Empire,” “Hopeful Road to

Peace,” in New York Times Current History, I, 473-501. (Jan. 9, 1915.) Fullerton, George Stewart. Why the German Nation Has Gone to War.

An American to Americans. (München, Sachs, 1915.) Hart, A. B. The War in Europe: Its Causes and Results. (N. Y., Appleton,

1914.) Hart. “Why the Nations Fight,” in World's Work, XXVIII, 9-15. (Sept.,

1914.) With good maps. Repplier, Agnes. “Comments on Herr Zelbrück's Distortion of Facts," in

Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 115, pp. 426-428. (Mar., 1915.) Roosevelt, T. America and the World War. (N. Y., Scribner, 1916.) Thayer, Wm. Roscoe. Germany vs. Civilization. (Boston, Houghton

Miffin, 1916.) Compares despotism and democracy. Very unfavorable to Germany.

C. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. . See short list in $833, 34 above, $157 below.

1. [$57] Diplomacy of Europe. Gauvain, Auguste. L'Europe avant la guerre. L'Europe en 1911. Apres

la crise marocaine; France et Allemagne. La question turque. La Ligue balkanique. Autriche-Hongrie et Serbie. (Paris, Colin, 1917.) Remoter causes of the war.

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