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inquiry and conciliation, to which their governments will nominate representatives for a term of years. Thev undertake neither to make wars nor to mobilize against each other until the court or council has, within a stipulated time, issued its award or recommendation, nor for a stipulated time thereafter.

The executive of the League (representing the governments of the great Powers) shall, in case of a threatened breach of this fundamental obligation, concert effective measures, military or economic, to insure its observance. The signatory states will support this common action, subject to the several undertakings into which each of them may enter on their adherence to the League.

The executive will concert measures for mutual defense when a signatory state is attacked by any state which refuses to submit its case to the appropriate tribunal or council.

Should any state fail to accept and give effect to the recommendations of the council of conciliation or the award of the tribunal, the executive will forthwith determine what collective action, if any, is required to meet this situation.

The executive, subiect to safeguards to he agreed upon, shall determine the right of any state to he admitted to the League, and may expel, subiect to safeguards and the right of appeal, any state which has violated its constitution. The right of secession is recognized.

No treaty of alliance, past or future, shall hind any state adhering to the League to support an ally who had engaged in war without suhmitting his case to a court or council of the League, or has become involved in war hy reason of his failure to accept or give effect to the award or recommendation of a court or council of the League.

2. NATIONALITY.

The signatory Powers will define in a declaration to be embodied in the constitution of the League, their resolve to accord to all racial minorities in their European territories full liherty for the use of their language, the development of their culture. and the exercise of their religion.

3. REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTS. The Powers will consider measures for a general reduction of armaments on land and sea. [This might provide (a) for the limitation of the term of service in national armies, say to six months in the infantry; (b) for the suspense of all building of capital ships for a term of years until a permanent agreement could be reached as to ratios of building.)

4. THE LAW OF WAR AT SEA.

This may be remodelled on the principle that embargoes on commerce, blockades, and the capture of enemy merchant vessels are permitted only in public wars sanctioned or declared by the executive of the League. In private, unauthorized wars the strictest definition of neutral rights as maintained by the American school will be enforced.

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5. HUMANITY IN WARFARE. The convention regulating warfare shall be revised, particularly as regards aircraft, submarines, floating mines, the use of gas, and the exception of food destined for a civilian population from the rigors of a blockade.

6. A CHARTER OF COMMERCIAL FREEDOM.

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(a) The signatory Powers shall accord to each other in their home markets "most favored nation” treatment; (b) in their non-self-governing colonies they will impose tariffs (if any) for revenue purposes only; (c) they will concert measures to secure "the Open Door" to all foreign enterprise in undeveloped regions, particularly in China; (d) they will appoint as an organ of the League an international commission to insure free access for the trade of all the signatory Powers to raw materials and other natural resources.

(New Republic, X. 187-190; March 17, 1917.)

(ALL REFERENCES ARE TO PAGES)

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Abbott, J. F. Japanese Expansion....
Acad. of Polit. Science. Proceedings .....
Account of the Violation of the Neutrality of Belgium.
Adams, W. G. S. Internat. Control........

70
Adcock, A. S. On the Firing Line.....

55
Addams, J. Newer Ideals...................... ........

342
Ade, G. "Who Led Us Into War?".

.....169-170
“Fable for Everybody”........

.....198-200
Adler, F. World Crisis ............

... 40
Advertisement on Lusitania....

138
Advisory Commission on Defence...
Advocate of Peace....
Aerial Age ........
Aerial Coast Patrol Commission......
Aeronautics .............

.. 11
Aggressions on United States, references........59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 99-101
Ideals .......

100
Militarism .....

101
German spirit ..............................................

103
Comm erce ...................................................

104
Internal by Germans ......

......................105-107
Official by Germans........

...........107-115
On the seas.........

......... 115
Ships attacked ........

.......117-124
War zone ..........

......125-130
Lusitania ...

.....130-143
Submarines .........

.....143, 150
Barred zone .......

....150, 151
Ultimatum to Germany .........

.........151-155
Laconia ...........................................

...... 155
Atrocities ...........

.............................156-167
German responsibility

.......................169-173
Democracy .........

........ 173
Outbreak of war......

..........173-182
See also Germany; International Law; Neutrality; Sea Power;

War.
Agriculture, preparation in.........

241
Aid to ...............
Agriculture, Department of. Food Thrift Series.............

21
Drying Fruits ........
Alexinsky, A. Russia and War.
Aid to Allies. See Allies.
Aliens, analysis ....

311
Descendants ..........

311
Naturalized ...........

.......................... 311
Friends ....................................

.............

311
Enemies ...........................................

.. 311
See also German-Americans; Immigration.
Air service, Aircraft Board.........

................. 2
Essential .........

...................... 288
Aviators ..................................................288, 289
Building ..............................................29, 290, 391

See also International Law.
All deutscher Verband, Flugschriften........

....... 49
Allen, G. H. Great War......

...... 18
ALLEN, J. L. “Bywords of the War”...

.........320-323
Allies, aid over seas......................

.. 299
Union with .........

.................302, 304
Formal alliance deprecated....

302
Necessity of aid............................................

303
Kindred aims ................................................

305
Permanent alliance ............. ............................
See also France, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Russia.

.......................

248

.........................

......................................JUA,

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............

50
Alsace-Lorraine ......
Alvarez, A. Droit International..........
Amalgamation. See Aliens.
Ambassadors, German, plots by.......

....107-115
Austrian, plots by.........

...113-114
See also Bernstorff; Dumba.
America. See United States.
America, text of song.........................
Am. Acad. of Polit, and Soc. Science. .....

Annals .......
Am. Ambulance Field Service...............
Am. Assoc. for Inter. Conciliation...............
Am. Assoc. for Labor Legislation......
Am. Boys' Naval and Marine Scouts.................
Am. Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief...
Am. Committee on War Finance
Am. Economic Association.....................
Am. Economic Review .....
Am. Food Conservation League. ........
Am. Hist. Association, Annual Reports....

Am. Hist. Review .....
Am. Institute of Architects.......
Am. Institute of Int. Law, Declaration......
Am. Journal of International Law.......
Am. League to Limit Armaments. Opposition to Decrease of Army
and Navy ...................

.......
Am. Library Annual........................
Am. Nat. Committee for Democratic Govt. of Russia...
Am. Peace Congress. Proceedings .
Am. Peace Society....

Advocate of Peace ...............
Annual Reports ..........................

History and Work...
Am. Pediatric Society......
Am. Pol. Science Association.....

Proceedings

Review ..
Am. Railway Association, Special Com. on Nat. Defense. War

Board. Official Information....
Am. Red Cross. Am. Red Cross Magazine.........

See also Red Cross.
Am. Review of Reviews...
Am. Soc. for Judicial Settlement of Int. Disputes. Publications..
Am. Soc. of Int. Law. Proceedings...............

Journal of Int. Law....................................
Am. Year Book ..........................................
Ancona, Ship, case...................
Anderson, B. M., Jr. Farmers and Speculators..
Andler, C. Pan-Germanism .........

..............
Pangermanisme Philosophique .........

Frightfulness ............
Andrassy, C. J. Origines de la Guerre...
Andrews, M. R. S. Three Things..........
Andrillon, H. Expansion de l'Allemagne...
ANGELL, N. Am. and Europ. War.......
Great Illusion .....

..............
Am. and New World State......

70
Problems of the War"...

..345-349
Annexations, none in peace.....

385
Annual Register .....

10
Arabic, ship, case.................

.....122, 144
Arbitration, plans ...........

. 342
World's Court ........................
League to Enforce Peace.....

See also Peace.
Archer, W. Gems (?) of German Thought...

Thirteen Days .......
Color-Blind Neutrality ........................

............

.....

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