« ПретходнаНастави »
WHY IS THERE WAR IN EUROPE?
A.  REFERENCES ON THE CHAPTER.
Handbook of the War. Special References, $86.
Went to War. (London, Hobbs & Stoughton, 1915.)
Politics from Sadowa to Kirk-Kilisse. (N. Y., Scribner, 1913.) A newspaper reporter's racy account of the diplomatic events of the period
before the war. Gibbons, Herbert Adams. The New Map of Europe. (1911-1914.) The Story of the Recent European Diplomatic Crises and War and of
Europe's Present Catastrophe. (N. Y., Century, 1914.) Deals with
the Balkan question, German policy, etc. Prothero, G. W. German Policy Before the War. (London, Murray,
1916.) Rose, J. Holland. The Development of the European Nations, etc. (2
vols. in one, 5th ed., Putnam, 1916.) A standard work on this period
with chapters added in this edition to include the outbreak of the war. Rose, J. Holland. The Origins of the War, 1871-1914. (N. Y., etc.,
Putnam, 1915.) Deals more briefly with the material in the latter
work, by the same author. Seymour, Charles. The Diplomatic Background of the War. (New Haven,
Yale Univ. Press, 1916.) A scholarly and impartial account. Members of the Oxford Faculty of Modern History. Why We Are at
War: Great Britain's Case, with an appendix of original data. (Ox
ford, Claredon Press, 1914.) Turner, E. R. “Causes of the Great War," in Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. IX.
16-35 (Feb., 1915.) Colquhoun, R. R. “Why British Empire Is At War,” No. Am. Rev., vol.
200. pp. 678-692. (Nov., 1914.). Hayes, C. "War of the Nations,” in Pol. Sci. Quart., XXIX., 687-707.
(Dec., 1914.) B. [S157] WORLD RIVALRIES DOWN TO 1914. 1. Specific References to the Section. See $839-50, 57-68 above.
Bullard, Arthur. Diplomacy of the Great War. Book II.
pp. 127-133. (July, 1915.)
745. (Dec., 1916.) Bland, J. 0. P. “Liberalism in England,” ibid. vol. 114, pp. 665
674. (Nov., 1914.) Wallas, G. “Eastern Question in 1917,” in New Republic, IX.
348-349. (Jan. 27, 1917.)
N. Y. Times Current History, V. 85 (Oct., 1916.)
Rev., vol. 200, pp. 833-846. (Dec., 1914.)
(a) European ambitions.
(d) Special question of future of India. 3. Commercial.
(a) Internal production and wealth.
C. [$158] QUESTIONS OF NATIONALITY.
1. Specific References to the Section. See 8869-73 above. Buck, Carl D. “Language and Sentiment of Nationality," in Am.
Polit. Sci. Rev., X, 44. (Feb., 1916.) Distinguishes European
nationalities, especially on the basis of language. Buxton, Noel, and Buxton, Charles Roden. The War and the
Balkans. (London, Allen & Unwin, 1915.) A brief account
of Balkan history. Fox, Frank. The Balkan Peninsula. (London, Black, 1915.)
Written before the war. Deals with national characteristics of the Balkan peoples and the history of their diplomatic relations
and wars. Hannah, Ian C. Arms and the Man: A Study of Nationalities and
Frontiers.” (London, Unwin, 1915.) The question of nation
alities in its relation to geographical boundaries. Poland's Case for Independence. Being a series of essays illustrating
the continuance of her national life. (N. Y., Dodd, Mead,
1916.) Rose, J. Holland. Nationality in Modern History. (N. Y., Mac
millan, 1916.) Treats of nationality, historically and philosophically, devoting considerable space to the German theory
of the state. The best book on this subject. Toynbee, Arnold J. Nationality and the War. (London, Dent,
1915.) Shows the difficulty of working out the nationality ideal
A scholarly work.
IV, 447-461. April, 1915.)
57-64. (Nov., 1916.) Rognette-Buisson, P. Du Principle des Nationalities. Zangwill, Israel, The Principle of Nationalities. (N. Y., Mac
millan, 1917.) Finot, Jean. Race Prejudice. Tr. by Florence Wade-Evans. (N.
Y., Dutton, 1907.) A French writer's exposition and criticism of the doctrine.
2. Divisions in Europe and Asia.
(a) Language and religion.
(c) Rising feeling of nationality based on race. 3. Enclosed Units.
4. Composite States.
(a) Race situation in Russia.
D. [$159] MILITARISM.
1. Specific References to the Section.
See 8878-80 above. Bryce, James, and Others. The War of Democracy: The Allies' Statement.
(N. Y., Doubleday, Page, 1917.) “Chapters on the fundamental sig. nificance of the struggle for a new Europe," by English, French, Belgian
and Dutch men of letters, scholars and statesmen. Collier's. Story of the War. I. 272. Dickinson, G. L. European Anarchy. Repplier, Agnes, and White, J. William Germany and Democracy, the
Real Issue. The views of two average Americans. A reply to Dr.
Dernburg. (Phila., Winston, 1914.) Seton-Watson, Robert William. The War and Democracy. (London,
Macmillan, 1915.) Abbott, Lyman. “Militarism and Christianity,” in New York Times Cur
rent History. I. 610-612. (Jan., 1915.) Wells, H. G. “Why England Came To Be In It,” ibid. I. 108-125. (Dec.,
1914.) Doyle, Sir Arthur. “To Arms.” ibid. I. 132-144. Dec., 1914.) Bryce, James. “Teachings of von Bernhardi,” ibid. I. 343-349. (Dec., !
1914.) Solomon, A. “Nietzsche and German Culture,” ibid. I. 613. (Jan.,
1915.) Hart, Albert Bushnell. “The War and Democracy,” in Outlook, vol. 110,
pp. 27-30. (May 5, 1915.) Hyndman, H. M. “Democracy” in Fortnightly Rev., vol. 103, pp. 408-422.
Monthly, vol. 114, pp. 598-607. (Nov., 1914.)
681-688. (Nov., 1914.)
114, pp. 816-819. (December, 1914.) Lindsay, A. D. “State Against Commonwealth,” ibid., vol. 116, pp.
275-284. (July, 1915.) Olds, F. P. “Kultur in American Politics,” ibid., vol. 117, pp. 382. . 391. (Sept., 1916.) Tucker, Allen. “Flame of France,” ibid., vol. 118, pp. 711-715.
Review, vol. 101, pp. 306-314. (Feb., 1914.)
(1), pp. 443-449. (March, 1914.)
205-218. (Feb., 1915.) Bentley, E. C. “German State of Mind,” ibid., vol. 103, pp. 42-53.
(Jan., 1915.) Knight, H. “Militarism and the War,” ibid, vol. 103, pp. 517-526.
(March, 1915.) Mallock, W. H. “The State as a Fighting Savage,” ibid., vol. 103,
pp. 939.950. (June, 1915.) Randall, A. W. G. “The German God,” ibid , vol. 104, pp. 622
630. (Oct., 1915.) Weigall, A. E. P. B. “German Logic and Its Results,” ibid., vol.
104, pp. 631-643. (Oct., 1915.) Bryce, J. “Real Prussian Menace," in Nation, vol. 104, pp. 481-482.
(April 26, 1917.) “Why the World Is Against Germany,” in World's Work, XXX.
135A-137F. (May, 1915.)
Middleton. “Mailed Fist in American History," ibid., XXXII.
145-152. (May, 1916.) Archer, W. “Fighting a Philosophy,” in No. Am. Rev., vol. 201,
pp. 30-44. (Jan., 1915.) Hill, D. J. “International Morality,” ibid., vol. 201, pp. 853-859.
IV, 235-246. (Jan., 1915.)
473. (April, 1915.)
664-683. (July, 1915.) Abbott, W. C. “War and American Democracy,” ibid., pp. 484-502.
(April, 1916.) Pollard, A. F. “Death-Grapple with Prussian Militarism,” ibid., VI.
80-86. (Oct., 1916.)
2. Prussian Militarism.
(a) Universal military service.
(e) Treatment of dependents—Zabern affair. 3. Effect on European Balance of Power.
(a) Armaments of Germany's neighbors.
(b) Germany's training for conquest.
(a) Military influence-Dreyfus affair,
(c) Heavy taxation and loan.
(a) Secret diplomacy.
(b) Alliances. 6. Documents and Extracts on the Section.
(a) [$160] Ideal of a Proud Nation of Warriors.
BY GENERAL COLMAR VON DER GOLTZ.
Then again, there are the false apostles of to-day who condemn the war as in itself reprehensible. A universal peace in which wolf and lamb shall dwell together in unity is proved possible by means of a multitude of misleading and seductive arguments. Thus do the shadows deepen over the ancient Germanic ideal of a proud nation of warriors, an ideal which is bound to lose its power to attract, particularly in a prolonged peace, when even the most martialminded see that all chances of testing their prowess are fading gradually away. . .
The warlike spirit must not be allowed to die out among people, neither must the love of peace get the upper hand, for all the greater would be the consternation at the moment of awakening. If the Fatherland is to remain victorious we must not let our old ideals of manly courage, fearless scorn of death, and knightly virtue be destroyed, but must cherish and uphold them to the utmost, both in this generation and in all that are to come.
(Gen. von der Goltz in Germany's War Mania, pp. 186-187.)
$$159-160] GERMAN MILITARISM (b)  Blessing to German Troops Starting for China.
By KAISER WILHELM II. (July 27, 1900.)
In connection also with the trouble in China on July 27, 1900, the Emperor addressed troops in Bremerhaven immediately before their departure. In his speech he pointed out:
"The Chinese have trampled on international law, they have, in a manner unheard of in the history of the world hurled foul scorn at the sanctity of the Ambassador and the duties of hospitality. Such conduct is all the more revolting, because the crime was committed by a nation which is proud of its immemorial civilization. Maintain the old Prussian excellency: prove yourselves Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering; may honor and glory attend your colors and your arms; set an example to all the world of discipline and obedience.
"Remember when you meet the foe, that quarter will not be given, and that prisoners will not be taken. Wield your weapons so that for a thousand years to come no Chinaman will dare to look askance at a German. Pave the way once for all for civilization. ...
"May you all prove your German efficiency, devotion, and bravery, bear joyfully all discomfort, and uphold the honor and glory of our arms and colors. You must set an example of discipline, self-domination, self-control. You will fight against a well-armed and well-equipped foe, but you have to avenge not only the death of our Minister, but that of many Germans and Europeans. May the name of Germany make itself felt in China that for a thousand years to come China shall never dare even to look askance at a German.
“The blessing of the Lord be with you. The prayers of the whole people accompany you in all your ways. My best wishes for yourselves, for the success of your aims, will ever follow you. Give proofs of your courage, no matter where. May the blessing of God rest on your banners, and may He vouchsafe to you to find a path for Christianity in that far-off country. For this you have pledged yourselves to me with your oath to the colors. I wish you God-speed. Adieu, comrades!
(Reprinted in Germany's War Mania, pp. 75-6.) “When you meet the foe you will defeat him. No quarter will be given; no prisoners will be taken. Let all who fall into your hands be at your mercy. Just as the Huns a thousand years ago, under the leadership of Etzel (Attila) gained a reputation in virtue of which they still live in historical tradition, so may the name of Germany become known in such a manner in China that no Chinaman will ever again dare to look askance at a German. . . . May the blessing of God attend your flags, and may this war have the blessed result that Christianity may make its way into China."
(Report in Bremen “Weser Zeitung.” Translated in London “Times,” July 30, 1900.).