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CHAPTER IV.

WHY IS THERE WAR IN EUROPE?

A. [3156] REFERENCES ON THE CHAPTER.

Handbook of the War. Special References, $86.
Beck, J. M. Evidence in the Case.
Bullard, Arthur. Diplomacy of the Great War. (N. Y., Macmillan, 1916.)
Dillon, E. J. From the Triple to the Quadruple Alliance: Why Italy

Went to War. (London, Hobbs & Stoughton, 1915.)
Fullerton, Wm. Morton. Problems of Power, a Study of International

Politics from Sadowa to Kirk-Kilisse. (N. Y., Scribner, 1913.) A newspaper reporter's racy account of the diplomatic events of the period

before the war. Gibbons, Herbert Adams. The New Map of Europe. (1911-1914.) The Story of the Recent European Diplomatic Crises and War and of

Europe's Present Catastrophe. (N. Y., Century, 1914.) Deals with

the Balkan question, German policy, etc. Prothero, G. W. German Policy Before the War. (London, Murray,

1916.) Rose, J. Holland. The Development of the European Nations, etc. (2

vols. in one, 5th ed., Putnam, 1916.) A standard work on this period

with chapters added in this edition to include the outbreak of the war. Rose, J. Holland. The Origins of the War, 1871-1914. (N. Y., etc.,

Putnam, 1915.) Deals more briefly with the material in the latter

work, by the same author. Seymour, Charles. The Diplomatic Background of the War. (New Haven,

Yale Univ. Press, 1916.) A scholarly and impartial account. Members of the Oxford Faculty of Modern History. Why We Are at

War: Great Britain's Case, with an appendix of original data. (Ox

ford, Claredon Press, 1914.) Turner, E. R. “Causes of the Great War," in Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. IX.

16-35 (Feb., 1915.) Colquhoun, R. R. “Why British Empire Is At War,” No. Am. Rev., vol.

200. pp. 678-692. (Nov., 1914.). Hayes, C. "War of the Nations,” in Pol. Sci. Quart., XXIX., 687-707.

(Dec., 1914.) B. [S157] WORLD RIVALRIES DOWN TO 1914. 1. Specific References to the Section. See $839-50, 57-68 above.

Bullard, Arthur. Diplomacy of the Great War. Book II.
Collier's Story of the War, I. pts. i, iv, v.
Coolidge, A. C. Origin of the Triple Alliance. (N. Y., Scribner,

1917.)
Hart, A. B. War in Europe. (N. Y., Appleton, 1914.)
Russell, Bernard. Justice in War Time.
Russell, B. “Anglo-German Rivalry," in Atlantic Monthly, vol. 116,

pp. 127-133. (July, 1915.)
Murray, G. “Great Britain and the Seas,” ibid, vol. 114, pp. 732-

745. (Dec., 1916.) Bland, J. 0. P. “Liberalism in England,” ibid. vol. 114, pp. 665

674. (Nov., 1914.) Wallas, G. “Eastern Question in 1917,” in New Republic, IX.

348-349. (Jan. 27, 1917.)
Sherif of Mecca. “Proclamation of Moslem Revolt in Arabia," in

N. Y. Times Current History, V. 85 (Oct., 1916.)
Dernburg, Bernhard. "Germany and the Powers,” in North Am.

Rev., vol. 200, pp. 833-846. (Dec., 1914.)

2. Territorial.

(a) European ambitions.
(b) Colonial expansions.
(c) Schemes of World Empire.

(d) Special question of future of India. 3. Commercial.

(a) Internal production and wealth.
(b) World commerce and shipping.
(c) Sea power and naval stations.
(d) Special question of German vs. British trade.

C. [$158] QUESTIONS OF NATIONALITY.

1. Specific References to the Section. See 8869-73 above. Buck, Carl D. “Language and Sentiment of Nationality," in Am.

Polit. Sci. Rev., X, 44. (Feb., 1916.) Distinguishes European

nationalities, especially on the basis of language. Buxton, Noel, and Buxton, Charles Roden. The War and the

Balkans. (London, Allen & Unwin, 1915.) A brief account

of Balkan history. Fox, Frank. The Balkan Peninsula. (London, Black, 1915.)

Written before the war. Deals with national characteristics of the Balkan peoples and the history of their diplomatic relations

and wars. Hannah, Ian C. Arms and the Man: A Study of Nationalities and

Frontiers.(London, Unwin, 1915.) The question of nation

alities in its relation to geographical boundaries. Poland's Case for Independence. Being a series of essays illustrating

the continuance of her national life. (N. Y., Dodd, Mead,

1916.) Rose, J. Holland. Nationality in Modern History. (N. Y., Mac

millan, 1916.) Treats of nationality, historically and philosophically, devoting considerable space to the German theory

of the state. The best book on this subject. Toynbee, Arnold J. Nationality and the War. (London, Dent,

1915.) Shows the difficulty of working out the nationality ideal
in Eastern Europe because of the overlapping of nationalities.

A scholarly work.
Coolidge, A. C. “Nationality and the New Europe,” in Yale Review,

IV, 447-461. April, 1915.)
Krehbiel, E. "Is Nationalism an Anachronism?” in Survey. (June

3, 1916.)
Robinson, J. H. “What is National Spirit?” in Century, XCIII.

57-64. (Nov., 1916.) Rognette-Buisson, P. Du Principle des Nationalities. Zangwill, Israel, The Principle of Nationalities. (N. Y., Mac

millan, 1917.) Finot, Jean. Race Prejudice. Tr. by Florence Wade-Evans. (N.

Y., Dutton, 1907.) A French writer's exposition and criticism of the doctrine.

2. Divisions in Europe and Asia.

(a) Language and religion.
(b) Races.

(c) Rising feeling of nationality based on race. 3. Enclosed Units.

(a) Alsace-Lorrainese.
(b) Poles (three fragments, all subjects).
(c) Balkan units.
(d) Armenians.

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4. Composite States.

(a) Race situation in Russia.
(b) Race issues in Austria-Hungary.
(c) Race division in Turkey.

D. [$159] MILITARISM.

1. Specific References to the Section.

See 8878-80 above. Bryce, James, and Others. The War of Democracy: The Allies' Statement.

(N. Y., Doubleday, Page, 1917.) “Chapters on the fundamental sig. nificance of the struggle for a new Europe," by English, French, Belgian

and Dutch men of letters, scholars and statesmen. Collier's. Story of the War. I. 272. Dickinson, G. L. European Anarchy. Repplier, Agnes, and White, J. William Germany and Democracy, the

Real Issue. The views of two average Americans. A reply to Dr.

Dernburg. (Phila., Winston, 1914.) Seton-Watson, Robert William. The War and Democracy. (London,

Macmillan, 1915.) Abbott, Lyman. “Militarism and Christianity,” in New York Times Cur

rent History. I. 610-612. (Jan., 1915.) Wells, H. G. “Why England Came To Be In It,” ibid. I. 108-125. (Dec.,

1914.) Doyle, Sir Arthur. “To Arms.” ibid. I. 132-144. Dec., 1914.) Bryce, James. “Teachings of von Bernhardi,” ibid. I. 343-349. (Dec., !

1914.) Solomon, A. “Nietzsche and German Culture,” ibid. I. 613. (Jan.,

1915.) Hart, Albert Bushnell. “The War and Democracy,” in Outlook, vol. 110,

pp. 27-30. (May 5, 1915.) Hyndman, H. M. “Democracy” in Fortnightly Rev., vol. 103, pp. 408-422.

(March, 1915.)
Middleton, James. “Germany's Long Road to Democracy" in World's
Work, XXXIV. 199-204. (June, 1917.)
Mencken, H. L. “Mailed Fist and Its Prophet,” in Atlantic

Monthly, vol. 114, pp. 598-607. (Nov., 1914.)
Ferrero, Guglielmo. “The European Tragedy,” ibid., vol. 114, pp.

681-688. (Nov., 1914.)
Trowbridge, J. “Estimate of German Scientific Culture,ibid., vol.

114, pp. 816-819. (December, 1914.) Lindsay, A. D. “State Against Commonwealth,” ibid., vol. 116, pp.

275-284. (July, 1915.) Olds, F. P. “Kultur in American Politics,” ibid., vol. 117, pp. 382. . 391. (Sept., 1916.) Tucker, Allen. “Flame of France,” ibid., vol. 118, pp. 711-715.

(Nov., 1916.)
“Y.“Further Object Lesson in German Plans,” in Fortnightly

Review, vol. 101, pp. 306-314. (Feb., 1914.)
Lon, R. C. “German Lambs and Prussian Wolves,ibid., vol. 101

(1), pp. 443-449. (March, 1914.)
Hurd, A. “Will the War End Militarism,” ibid, vol. 103, pp. 29-41,

205-218. (Feb., 1915.) Bentley, E. C. “German State of Mind,” ibid., vol. 103, pp. 42-53.

(Jan., 1915.) Knight, H. “Militarism and the War,” ibid, vol. 103, pp. 517-526.

(March, 1915.) Mallock, W. H. “The State as a Fighting Savage,ibid., vol. 103,

pp. 939.950. (June, 1915.) Randall, A. W. G. “The German God,ibid , vol. 104, pp. 622

630. (Oct., 1915.) Weigall, A. E. P. B. “German Logic and Its Results,” ibid., vol.

104, pp. 631-643. (Oct., 1915.) Bryce, J. “Real Prussian Menace," in Nation, vol. 104, pp. 481-482.

(April 26, 1917.) “Why the World Is Against Germany,” in World's Work, XXX.

135A-137F. (May, 1915.)

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Middleton. “Mailed Fist in American History," ibid., XXXII.

145-152. (May, 1916.) Archer, W. “Fighting a Philosophy,” in No. Am. Rev., vol. 201,

pp. 30-44. (Jan., 1915.) Hill, D. J. “International Morality,” ibid., vol. 201, pp. 853-859.

(June, 1915.)
Hadley, A. T. “Political Teachings of Treitschke,” in Yale Review,

IV, 235-246. (Jan., 1915.)
Bacon, B. W. "Imperialism and the Christian Ideal,” ibid., pp. 462.

473. (April, 1915.)
Abbott, W. C. “War and American Democracy,” ibid., V. 484-502.

664-683. (July, 1915.) Abbott, W. C. “War and American Democracy,ibid., pp. 484-502.

(April, 1916.) Pollard, A. F. “Death-Grapple with Prussian Militarism,” ibid., VI.

80-86. (Oct., 1916.)

2. Prussian Militarism.

(a) Universal military service.
(b) The officer class.
(c) Education and literature.
(d) Secret government and espionage.

(e) Treatment of dependents—Zabern affair. 3. Effect on European Balance of Power.

(a) Armaments of Germany's neighbors.

(b) Germany's training for conquest.
4. Influence on European Governments.

(a) Military influence-Dreyfus affair,
(b) Concentration of power.

(c) Heavy taxation and loan.
5. Effect on International Relations.

(a) Secret diplomacy.

(b) Alliances. 6. Documents and Extracts on the Section.

(a) [$160] Ideal of a Proud Nation of Warriors.

BY GENERAL COLMAR VON DER GOLTZ.

Then again, there are the false apostles of to-day who condemn the war as in itself reprehensible. A universal peace in which wolf and lamb shall dwell together in unity is proved possible by means of a multitude of misleading and seductive arguments. Thus do the shadows deepen over the ancient Germanic ideal of a proud nation of warriors, an ideal which is bound to lose its power to attract, particularly in a prolonged peace, when even the most martialminded see that all chances of testing their prowess are fading gradually away. . .

The warlike spirit must not be allowed to die out among people, neither must the love of peace get the upper hand, for all the greater would be the consternation at the moment of awakening. If the Fatherland is to remain victorious we must not let our old ideals of manly courage, fearless scorn of death, and knightly virtue be destroyed, but must cherish and uphold them to the utmost, both in this generation and in all that are to come.

(Gen. von der Goltz in Germany's War Mania, pp. 186-187.)

$$159-160] GERMAN MILITARISM (b) [8161] Blessing to German Troops Starting for China.

By KAISER WILHELM II. (July 27, 1900.)

In connection also with the trouble in China on July 27, 1900, the Emperor addressed troops in Bremerhaven immediately before their departure. In his speech he pointed out:

"The Chinese have trampled on international law, they have, in a manner unheard of in the history of the world hurled foul scorn at the sanctity of the Ambassador and the duties of hospitality. Such conduct is all the more revolting, because the crime was committed by a nation which is proud of its immemorial civilization. Maintain the old Prussian excellency: prove yourselves Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering; may honor and glory attend your colors and your arms; set an example to all the world of discipline and obedience.

"Remember when you meet the foe, that quarter will not be given, and that prisoners will not be taken. Wield your weapons so that for a thousand years to come no Chinaman will dare to look askance at a German. Pave the way once for all for civilization. ...

"May you all prove your German efficiency, devotion, and bravery, bear joyfully all discomfort, and uphold the honor and glory of our arms and colors. You must set an example of discipline, self-domination, self-control. You will fight against a well-armed and well-equipped foe, but you have to avenge not only the death of our Minister, but that of many Germans and Europeans. May the name of Germany make itself felt in China that for a thousand years to come China shall never dare even to look askance at a German.

“The blessing of the Lord be with you. The prayers of the whole people accompany you in all your ways. My best wishes for yourselves, for the success of your aims, will ever follow you. Give proofs of your courage, no matter where. May the blessing of God rest on your banners, and may He vouchsafe to you to find a path for Christianity in that far-off country. For this you have pledged yourselves to me with your oath to the colors. I wish you God-speed. Adieu, comrades!

(Reprinted in Germany's War Mania, pp. 75-6.) “When you meet the foe you will defeat him. No quarter will be given; no prisoners will be taken. Let all who fall into your hands be at your mercy. Just as the Huns a thousand years ago, under the leadership of Etzel (Attila) gained a reputation in virtue of which they still live in historical tradition, so may the name of Germany become known in such a manner in China that no Chinaman will ever again dare to look askance at a German. . . . May the blessing of God attend your flags, and may this war have the blessed result that Christianity may make its way into China."

(Report in Bremen “Weser Zeitung.” Translated in London “Times,” July 30, 1900.).

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