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G.  BELGIAN QUESTION. 1. Specific References to the Section. See 879 above. Fox, Frank. The Agony of Belgium, Being Phase 1 of the Great
War. (London, Hutchinson, 1915.) A narrative account of
personal observations. Fuehr, Alexander. The Neutrality of Belgium, a study of the
Belgian case under its aspects in political history and international law. (N. Y. and London, Funk & Wagnalls, 1915.) An attempt to defend German activity in Gelgium and the violation of the neutralization of treaties on the ground that they had
become obsolete. Houtte, Paul van. The Pan-Germanic Crime. Impressions and in.
vestigations in Belgium during the German occupation. (London and N. Y., Hodder & Stoughton, 1915.) Quotes opinion from
neutral sources. Stowell, E. C. Diplomacy of the W'ar of 1914. I. 601, 603, 637
seq. Visscher, Ch. de. Belgium's Case, a juridical enquiry. (Trans
lated by Jourdain.) (London and N. Y., Hodder & Stoughton, 1916.) The best juridical exposition of Belgium's case, con.
clusively answers all the German excuses. Waxweiler, Emile. Belgium, Neutral and Loyal: The War of 1914.
(N. Y. and London, Putnam, 1915.) The violation of Belgian neutrality and atrocities committeed in Belgium from the point of
view of a Belgian. Waxweiler, Emile. Belgium and the Great Powers. Her neutrality
explained and vindicated. (N. Y. and London, Putnam, 1916.) Justifies the resistance to Germany on political and moral as
well as legal grounds. Fortnightly Rev., vol. 106, pp. 417 seq. (Sept. 1916.) Lapradelle, A. G. “Neutrality of Belgium,” in No. Am. Rev., vol.
200, pp. 847-857. (Dec., 1914.) N. Y. Times Current History. I. 60-63, 365-373, 1101-1125; IV.
536; V. 728.
(a) Treaties of 1814, 1839, 1870.
(c) German railroad preparations.
(a) Germany's demand for passage.
(c) Later charges of bad faith by Belgians. 4. Treatment of Non-Combatant Belgians.
(a) Hostages and civilian prisoners.
(c) Louvain episode.
(a) Influence on Great Britain.
(b) Reception in the United States. 6. Question of Neutrals Defending a Guaranteed State. 7. Documents and Extracts on the Section. (a) [$168] A Chinese View of Germany's Violation of
By RICHARD D. HARLAN. "I am a Country; I am NOT a Road.”
A few months after the outbreak of Germany's war against the world, L'Eche de Chine, a Shanghai journal representing French interests in China, contained a brief article on Germany's violation of Belgium's neutrality from the pen of a young Chinaman, whose knowledge of current events was
more accurate than his command of the English language. The following was his quaint summary of the chain of events that within a few weeks plunged seven European nations into the war that has finally set the world on fire:
"Now there is a great war in Europe. This began because the Prince of Austria went to Serbia with his wife. One man of Serbia killed him.
"Austria was angry, and write Serbia. “Germany write to letter to Austria and said, I will help
“Russia write a lettere to Serbia and said, 'I will help you.'
"France did not want to fight, but they got ready their soldiers.
“Germany write a letter to France and said, 'You don't get ready, or I will fight you in nine hours.'
“Germany, to fight France, passed Belgium.
“And Belgium write a letter to England about Germany, to help them.
"So England helped Belgium.”
The salient acts and mobilizations and counter-mobilizations which are described in the voluminous White and Red and Yellow and Blue Books of diplomatic correspondence issued by the foreign offices of the leading European belligerents were condensed by this young Chinaman into a dozen or more lines.
"I am a Country; I am NOT a Road.” That epitome of Belgium's right to remain neutral in the war between Germany and France is as convincing as a whole treatise on the international law as to the “rights of neutrals.”
In the defense of Germany's right to "cut across lots” through Belgium and to overcome her resistance by force of arms, Chancellor von Bethman-Hollweg contrasted what he was pleased to call "Luxemburg's neutrality with Belgium's unneutral course.”
No one condemned helpless little Luxemburg because, in the face of Germany's colossal armies, she felt forced to say, “I am nothing but a road; I am NOT a Country.” But the whole civilized world took its hat off to brave Belgium because she had the courage to say to Germany, “I am a Country; I am NOT a Road. I refuse to take sides with Germany and against my other neighbor, France, by allowing myself to be used as the shortest and quickest 'road to Paris.”
Belgium has, indeed, saved Europe and the whole world. She has saved liberty and free, representative government, as those great phrases are understood by the Anglo-Saxon and Latin races. Germany shamelessly broke the word she had solemnly plighted to Belgium and the other signatories to the Neutrality Treaty of. 1837. And while Britain and France, as co-guarantors of Belgian neutrality, loyally kept their word to Belgium, it must not be forgotten that sheer self-interest and motives of self-defense compelled them to defend that neutrality.
Not so with Belgium. No nation could have blamed her very much if, like Luxemburg, she had declined to sacrifice herself. And yet Belgium not only kept her word, but, as Maeterlinck so finely put it, “She nearly died in doing so." She lost nearly everything; but she has kept her soul.
(Written for this Handbook.)
H. [$169] SUBSEQUENT ENLARGEMENT OF
1. Specific References to the Section. See $100 above. “Politicus.” “Germany's Real War Aims,” in Fortnightly Rev.,
vol. 107, pp. 617-628. Whitney, Sidney. “Germany's Obsessions,” ibid., vol. 102, pp. 563
573. (Oct., 1914.) Hyndman, H. M. “The Awakening of Asia,” ibid., vol. 106, pp.
677-690. (Oct., 1916.) Imperialist. “The Final Expulsion of Germany from China,” ibid.,
vol. 103, pp. 733-740. (April, 1915.) O'Connor, T. A. "The Bagdad Railway,” in ibid., vol. 101, pp. 201.
216. (Feb., 1914.)
LVII. 1-6. (Jan., 1917.)
vol. 115, pp. 525-533. (April, 1915.)
114, pp. 708-713. (Nov., 1914.) Pool, K. “The Bagdad Corridor," in New Republic, IX, pp. 318
319. (Jan. 20, 1917.) Pears, Sir Edwin. "The Future of Turkey,” in Yale Rev., IV, 162
177. (Oct., 1914.) Emery, H. C. “German Economics and the War,” ibid., pp. 247-266.
Jan., 1915.) 2. Expansion in Western Europe.
(a) Northern France with iron, coal and Calais.
(b) Belgium with Congo-annexation or commercial control. 3. Expansion in Eastern Europe.
(a) Annexation of Russian Baltic Provinces.
(c) Russia to be a satellite to Germany. 4. Policy of Berlin to Bagdad.
(a) Austria-Hungary as a satellite.
completely dominated by Germany. 5. World Commerce. (a) Preferences to satellite powers and against United States and
I. [$170] OUTBREAK OF GENERAL WAR.
1. Specific References to the Section.
See $894-98 above.
Murray, Sir Gilbert. Foreign Policy of Sir Edward Grey.
American Year Book, 1914, chaps. iii, iv.
set out in brief form from the diplomatic correspondence.
(London, Macmillan, 1914.) Shaw, B. “Common Sense About the War,” N. Y. Times Current
History, I, pp. 11-60. (Dec., 1914.) “Russia Enters War," ibid., I, pp. 358-365. (Dec. 26, 1914.) Guerrazzi, G. F. “Why Italy Went Into the War," ibid, IV, pp.
332 seq., 560 seq. (May, 1916.)
Ibid., II, pp. 735-747. (July, 1915.)
vol. 205, pp. 62-76. (Jan., 1917.)
(Oct., 1915.) “Politicus.” “The Plight of Germany's Dupes,” in Fortnightly
Rev., vol. 106, pp. 374-389. (Sept., 1916.) “Politicus.” “Russia and the War,” ibid., vol. 102, pp. 621-632.
(Oct., 1914.) Barker, J. E. “Relations Between Russia and Germany,” ibid.,
vol. 101, pp. 616-627. (April, 1914.)
2. The Austro-Serbian Conflict. 3. Austro-Russian Discussions.
4. Efforts of Grey to Maintain Peace.
5. Germany's Declaration of War on Russia and France.
6. Western Powers.
7. Eastern Powers.
J. [$171] SUMMARY OF THE RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES TO THESE
CAUSES OF WAR.
1. Specific References to the Section.
Bullard, Arthur. Diplomacy of the Great War, Book iv.
United States with Germany,” II, p. 78; with Austria-Hungary,
Japan, II, pp. 247-249.
view, IV, pp. 219-234. (Jan., 1915.)
114. (Nov., 1915.) Colcord, L. “The U. S. as a Sea Power,” in New Republic, IX, p.
240. (Dec. 30, 1916.) Anon. “The Defence of the Atlantic World,” ibid., X, pp. 59-60.
(Feb. 17, 1917.)
(a) Dependencies in Pacific and Caribbean.
(a) Vast interest of U. S. A. in foreign trade.
4. Asiatic Questions. ?
(a) Interest in Philippines.
5. World Empire.
(a) Opposition to Imperial power.
K. DOCUMENTS AND EXTRACTS ON THE
1. [$172] Gems of German Thought.
BY VARIOUS GERMANS. .
It has been said that it is un-German to wish to be only German. That again is a consequence of our spiritual wealth. We understand all foreign nations; none of them understand us, and none of them can understand us.-Prof. D. Sombart.
The German soul is the world's soul; God and Germany belong to one another.—Pastor W. Lehman, On the German God.
Let us bravely organize great forced migrations of inferior peoples. Posterity will be grateful to us. We must coerce them! This is one of the tasks of war: the means must be the superiority of armed force. Superficially such forced migrations, and the penning up of inconvenient peoples in narrow “reserves" may appear hard; but it is the only solution of the race question that is worthy of humanity. . . Thus alone can the overpopulation of the earth be controlled: The efficient peoples must secure themselves elbow room by means of war, and the inefficient must be hemmed in, and at last driven into “reserves," where they have no room to grow ... and where, discouraged and rendered indifferent to the future by the spectacle of the superior energy of their conquerors, they may crawl slowly toward the peaceful death of weary and hopeless senility.-K. Wagner.
He who does not believe in the divine mission of Germany had better hang himself, and rather to-day than to-morrow.H. S. Chamberlain.