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settle together; that we derived our title from the First Consul, and did not doubt his guarantee of it: and we, four days ago, sent off orders to the Governor of the Mississippi territory and General Wilkinson, to move down with the troops at hand to New Orleans, to receive the possession from Mr. Laussat. If he is heartily disposed to carry the order of the Consul into execution, he can probably command a volunteer force at New Orleans, and will have the aid of ours also, if he desires it, to take the possession and deliver it to us. If he is not so disposed, we shall take the possession, and it will rest with the government of France, by adopting the act as their own and obtaining the confirmation of Spain, to supply the non-execution of their stipulation to deliver, and to entitle themselves to the complete execution of our part of the agreements. In the mean time, the legislature is passing the bills, and we are preparing every thing to be done on our part towards execution, and we shall not avail ourselves of the three months' delay after possession of the province, allowed by the treaty for the delivery of the stock, but shall deliver it the moment that possession is known here, which will be on the eighteenth day after it has taken place.

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Accept my affectionate salutations, and assurances of my constant esteem and respect.

Tu: JEFFERSON.

LETTER VI.

TO DAVID WILLIAMS.

Washington, November 14, 1803. SIR, I have duly received the volume on the claims of literature, which you did me the favor to send me through Mr. Monroe : and have read with satisfaction the many judicious reflections it contains, on the condition of the respectable class of literary men. The efforts for their relief, made by a society of private citizens, are truly laudable : but they are, as you justly observe, but a palliation of an evil, the cure of which calls for all the wisdom and the means of the nation. The greatest evils of populous society have ever appeared to me to spring from the vicious distribution of its members among the occupations called for. I have no doubt that those nations are essentially right, which leave this to

individual choice, as a better guide to an advantageous distribution than any other which could be devised. But when by a blind concourse, particular occupations are ruinously overcharged, and others left in want of hands, the national authorities can do much towards restoring the equilibrium. On the revival of letters, learning became the universal favorite. And with reason, because there was not enough of it existing to manage the affairs of a nation to the best advantage, nor to advance its individuals to the happiness of which they were susceptible, by improvements in their minds, their morals, their health, and in those conveniences which contribute to the comfort and embellishment of life. All the efforts of the society, therefore, were directed to the increase of learning, and the inducements of respect, ease and profit were held

up for its encouragement. Even ihe charities of the nation forgot that misery was their object, and spent themselves in founding schools to transfer to 'science the hardy sons of the plough. To these incitements were added the powerful fascinations of great cities. These circumstances have long since produced an overcharge in the class of competitors for learned occupation, and great distress among the supernumerary candidates; and the more, as their habits of life have disqualifed them for re-entering into the laborious class. The evil cannot be suddenly, nor perhever entirely cured : nor should I presume to say by what means it may be cured. Doubtless there are many engines which the nation might bring to bear on this object. Public opinion, and public encouragement are among these. The class principally defective is that of agriculture. It is the first in utility, and ought to be the first in respect. The same artificial means which have been used to produce a competition in learning, may be equally successful in restoring agriculture to its primary dignity in the eyes of men.. It is a science of the very first order.

It counts among its handmaids the most respectable sciences, such as Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Mechanics, Mathematics generally, Natural History, Botany. In every College and University, a professorship of agriculture, and the class of its students, might be honored as the first. Young men closing their academical education with this, as the crown of all other sciences, fascinated with its solid charms, and at a time when they are to choose an occupation, instead of crowding the other classes, would return to the farms of their fathers, their own, or those of others, and replenish and invigorate a calling, now languishing under contempt and oppression. The charitable schools, instead of storing their pupils with a lore which the present state of society does not call for, converted into schools of agriculture, might restore them to that branch

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VOL. IV.

- & 1 Li (/ q
*--5.
CORRESPONDENCE,
MISCELLANIES,

rRom THE PAPERs of

THIO MIA S J EFFIER SON.

EDITED BY

THOMAS JEFFERSON RANDOLPH.

VOLUME IV.

CHARLOTTESVILLE:
PUBLISHED BY F. CARR, AND Co.

EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA, to wit:

......... BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the seventeenth day of January, in : : the fifty-third year of the Independence of the United States of ; L S. # America,THoMA's EFFERSöN RANDoi PH, of the said Dis. ********* trict, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit: “Memoir, Correspondence, and Miscellanies, from the papers of Thomas Jefferson. Edited by Thomas Jefferson Randolph.” In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled “An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such *# during the times therein mentioned.” RD. JEFFRIES, Clerk of the Eastern District of Virginia.

Jefferson Clark, Printer.

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