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regarded by the United States as essential for the formation of enlightened public opinion on which, fundamentally, the success of the United Nations depends. The Trusteeship Council

Constitution of the Trusteeship Council necessarily had to be deferred until a sufficient number of trusteeship agreements have been negotiated among the states directly concerned and approved by the General Assembly in the case of non-strategic trust territories or by the Security Council in the case of strategic trust territories. The General Assembly will then elect such number of members to the Trusteeship Council as may be necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Charter as to a balance between members administering trust territories and members which do not administer trust territories.

Prolonged consideration had been given by the Executive Committee and the Preparatory Commission to the means of expediting the formation of the Trusteeship Council and recommendations to this end had been placed before the General Assembly. However, even before their consideration was undertaken, each of the powers holding mandates under the League of Nations voluntarily declared its intentions with respect to its mandated territories.

The United Kingdom announced that it intended forthwith to enter into negotiations to place Tanganyika, the Cameroons, and Togoland under the trusteeship system of the United Nations. Similar declarations were made by Belgium regarding Ruanda-Urundi; by Australia regarding New Guinea and Nauru; by New Zealand regarding Western Samoa; and by France regarding the Cameroons and Togoland. The United Kingdom further declared that steps would be taken in regard to establishing Trans-Jordan as an independent state, and that any proposals concerning Palestine would await the report of the AngloAmerican Committee of Inquiry. The Union of South Africa indicated that the population of Southwest Africa would be consulted before a decision was taken as to the future status of that mandated territory.

On the basis of proposals by the Representative of the United States in the Committee on Trusteeship, Mr. John Foster Dulles, which with some changes were embodied in the resolution adopted, the General Assembly welcomed the declarations made by these states and expressed the expectation that the realization of the objectives of the chapters of the Charter dealing with non-self-governing territories, with the trusteeship system and with the Trusteeship Council, will make possible the attainment of the aspirations of non-selfgoverning peoples generally. The same resolution invited the States administering territories under mandate to undertake practical steps, in concert with the other states directly concerned, for the negotiation of trusteeship agreements.

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of the Charter, a request to the Secretary-General to provide the Assembly in his Annual Report with a summary of the information received by him from Members in regard to their non-self-governing territories apart from mandated or trusteeship territories. the resolution is appended to this report.

It may be noted that the trusteeship agreements are subject to negotiation through diplomatic channels by the "states directly concerned.” Efforts to define this phrase in its application to all the mandated territories were strongly resisted by the United States Delegation. The agreements are subject to approval by the General Assembly except in the case of those relating to strategic areas, which only the Security Council is empowered to approve. Under the Charter, the United States will have the position of a permanent member in the Trusteeship Council when established.

The Secretary-General and the Secretariat

By the Charter, the appointment of the Secretary-General is made by the General Assembly upon nomination by the Security Council. The Council by unanimous vote on February 1, nominated Mr. Trygve Lie, then Foreign Minister of Norway, and the General Assembly · immediately appointed him.

With regard to the organization of the Secretariat, the General Assembly accepted with but few amendments the recommendations of the Preparatory Commission. The General Assembly thus left the Secretary-General adequate discretion to function effectively as the chief Administrative Officer of the United Nations. The Assembly also expressed the belief that United Nations officials should be exempt from national taxes, and likewise from national service obligations. The Secretary-General was instructed to discuss with Members the means for meeting the taxation problem with a view to achieving equality of treatment for his staff and equity among Member States, and to report to the General Assembly at its September session. In reserving the United States position, Senator Vandenberg, representing the United States in Committee V and in the Assembly, and Mr. Walker, representing the United States in the related legal discussions in Committee VI, expressed the Delegation's view throughout that, in the case of the United States only the Congress can determine whether American citizens employed by the United Nations should be subject to taxation and to military service.

The United States also reserved its position on those parts of the present provisional budget of the United Nations which relate to tax immunity, though fully supporting the budget itself, amounting to $21,500,000. Until the General Assembly in its September meeting receives the report of the standing Committee on Contributions and determines the First Annual Budget, the definite portion which the

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meantime the Organization will be financed from the Working Capital Fund which has been agreed upon as a permanent fund for the purpose of assuring the Organization constantly available financing especially for interim and emergency expenditures. For the present year the Fund has been set provisionally at $25,000,000 and the share of the United States is $6,135,500, both figures being subject to review at the September meeting of the Assembly. Thereafter the Annual Budget will carry an item to maintain the Fund.

The legal aspects of the above problems of tax and service immunities arose particularly in connection with a draft General Convention on privileges and immunities of the Organization, its officials, and the representatives of Members attending its meetings, which the Assembly approved and to which all Member States were asked to accede. The Convention would provide for the exercise by the Organization of the right, among others, to make contracts and to acquire and to convey certain properties. Individuals connected with the Organization and the representatives of Members would be extended certain immunities in connection with acts performed in their official capacities, and the high officials of the Organization would have a status comparable to that of foreign diplomatic representatives. Miscellaneous privileges with respect to travel facilities, communications and similar matters also would be granted.

In addition the General Assembly authorized the Secretary-General to negotiate with the competent authorities of the United States the arrangements required as a result of the establishment of the seat of the United Nations in the United States. For use in these negotiations as a basis of discussion the General Assembly transmitted a draft special convention to the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General will be assisted in these negotiations by a committee composed of persons appointed by the governments of Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Poland, United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The United States Delegation, while desiring to extend all possible consideration and cooperation, took no part in formulating this Draft Convention, since to have done so might have prejudged the very matters which were to be the subjects of negotiation.

The International Court of Justice

In accordance with the Statute of the International Court of Justice the Judges of the Court were elected independently by the General Assembly and the Security Council from a list of nominees submitted by national groups. The Judges do not, of course, servo as national representatives in any sense.

In the election, held on February 6, 1946, a remarkable degree of unanimity was found to exist within both the General Assembly and

the Security Council, thirteen Judges being elected by both bodies on the first ballot. The final list of the fifteen Judges elected included twelve of the candidates for whom the United States Delegation, as instructed, had voted on the first ballot.

The resulting bench is considered to present a balanced representation of the main forms of civilization and the principal legal systems of the world as envisioned in the Statute of the Court. Among them is a Judge of American nationality, the Hon. Green H. Hackworth, for many years Legal Adviser of the Department of State, who was Chairman of the United Nations Committee of Jurists which had prepared the draft of the proposed Statute adopted at the San Francisco Conference, and who served as General Adviser to the Delegation at San Francisco and as Senior Adviser in London. Mr. Hackworth had been nominated by the American group of the Permanent Court of Arbitration which includes in its membership former Secretaries of State Cordell Hull and Henry L. Stimson. In addition, the following fourteen Judges were elected: Dr. Alejandro Alvarez (Chile); Dr. J. Philadelpho de Barros e Azevedo (Brazil); H. E. Abdel Hamid Badawi Pasha (Egypt); Prof. Jules Basdevant (France); Lic. Isidro Fabela Alfaro (Mexico); H. E. Dr. Jose Gustavo Guerrero (El Salvador); Dr. Hsu Mo (China); Dr. Helge Klaestad (Norway); Prof. Sergey Borisovich Krylov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics); Sir Arnold Duncan McNair (United Kingdom); the Hon. John E. Read (Canada); Dr. Charles de Visscher (Belgium); M. Bohdan Winiarski (Poland); and Dr. Milovan Zoricić (Yugoslavia).

The Assembly also took steps to fix the emoluments of Judges on the basis of those of the Judges of the Permanent Court of International Justice and directed the Secretary-General to make the necessary arrangements to permit the convening of the first session of the Court at The Hague on April 3. Two questions may be expected to come before the International Court of Justice for immediate attention. One is a request from the Security Council for an advisory opinion on the interpretation of Articles 11 and 12 of the Statute of the Court, relating to the election of Judges. The other is a case between the United Kingdom and Guatemala concerning the interpretation, application or validity of any treaty relating to the boundaries of British Honduras.

The still-existing Permanent Court of International Justice, of which the United States is not a member, was the subject of a resolution by the Preparatory Commission, approved by the General Assembly, through which the Members who are also members of the Permanent Court consented to the dissolution of that Court. The League of Nations Assembly is expected to complete, in its special session beginning April 8, the process of dissolution insofar as concerns the members of the League.

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The question of whether public nominations should be made in all cases of election in the General Assembly arose in the first such case, the election of its President. That election was by secret ballot, as laid down in the general rule for all elections. One school of opinion assumed that no nominations from the floor would be needed and considered public nominations inconsistent with maintaining completely the principle of the secret ballot. The United States Delegation favored having nominations made either orally, or by written message to the President of the General Assembly to be announced by him without disclosure of the source. Others not only favored having nominations but inclined toward restricting elections to Members or individuals actually nominated. The General Assembly, after prolonged consideration by its Legal Committee, decided, subject to future reconsideration, that there should be no nominations. Languages

One of the persistently difficult problems, on which widely differing views were held, was the language rules to be adopted for the Organization. The Preparatory Commission, not having been able to reach agreement, recommended merely that the language rules adopted for use at the San Francisco Conference should be continued by the Organization pending a final determination. The General Assembly finally decided to maintain the practice of the San Francisco Conference and to recommend similar action by the other organs except the International Court, the Statute of which makes French and English its official languages.

Accordingly, the rules of the General Assembly establish five official languages, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese; English and French will, however, be the working languages, and speeches in any other languages must be translated into both of these. All important documents will be published in these five languages, and other documents will be printed upon request in any of these languages. League of Nations Functions, Activities, and Assets

It had long been evident that the creation of the United Nations would involve an early termination of the League of Nations, of which 38 of the United Nations have remained members, and certain of the activities of which have continued in London, Princeton, Washington, and Geneva. It had generally been felt, however, that various of the League's technical and non-political activities, as well as the material assets of the League, should be transferred to the United Nations, in order that there might be the least possible interruption in the performance of such work as the United Nations may desire to continue. Until the time of the Preparatory Commission, the

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