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have been there only to maintain one of our air-transport lines of 1 communication with our occupation forces in Germany.

In the Azores, on the southern air-transport communication line to Germany, we have about 300 men. Again there is not a single combat soldier among them. They are technicians and administrative officials. They are there under an agreement with the Government of Portugal.

Our combat troops are in North China at the request of the Chinese National Government. Their task is to assist in carrying out the terms of surrender with respect to the disarming and deportation of the Japanese. Their mission is nearly completed. Instructions have already been issued for the return of half of our forces now in China although the Chinese Government has urged that they be retained there until conditions become more stabilized.

We have made it clear that our troops will not become participants in civil strife in China. But we are eager to do our part, and we hope other states are eager to do their part, to prevent civil war in China and to promote a unified and democratic China. A free and independent China is essential to world peace, and we cannot ignore or tolerate efforts upon the part of any state to retard the development of the freedom and independence of China. The United States Government repudiates the suggestion that our troops in China or elsewhere, with the consent of the states concerned, are a threat to the internal or external peace of any country.

Because the representative of the U. S. S. R. has referred to our troops in China, it is for me to say that I am confident that the number of American troops in North China is far less than the number of U. S. S. R. troops in South Manchuria, in the Port Arthur area.

Under the Finnish Peace Treaty the U. S. S. R. acquires the right to lease the Porkkala naval base in Finland and to maintain troops there. The temporary presence of a few thousand United States troops in China at the request of that country certainly raises no essentially different question than the permanent presence of U. S. S. R. troops in another country under treaty arrangements.

It is our desire to live up to the letter and the spirit of the Moscow Declaration. We do not intend to use our troops on the territories of other states contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

The implementation of the Moscow Declaration is not made easier by loose charges or counter charges. The Declaration requires consultation and that is the method we should pursue if we wish to advance the cause of disarmament and of collective security.

Last December at Moscow we consulted the U. S. S. R. and the United Kingdom regarding our troops in China. We have now asked

for consultation in the Council of Foreign Ministers regarding the number of troops to be retained in Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, and Rumania under the conclusion of the peace treaties with the ex-satellite states.

The task before us is to maintain collective security with scrupulous regard for the sovereign equality of all states. This involves more than the question of armaments and armed forces. Aggressor nations do not go to war because they are armed, but because they want to get with their arms things which other nations will not freely accord to them. Aggressor nations attack not only because they are armed but because they believe others have not the armed strength to resist them. Sovereignty can be destroyed not only by armies but by a war of nerves and by organized political penetration. World peace depends upon what is in our hearts more than upon what is written in our treaties.

Great states must strive for understandings which will not only protect their own legitimate security requirements but also the political independence and integrity of the smaller states. It is not in the interest of peace and security that the basic power relationships among great states should depend upon which political party comes to power in Iran, Greece or in China. Great states must not permit differences among themselves to tear asunder the political unity of smaller states. Then, smaller states must recognize that true collective security requires their cooperation just as much as that of the larger states. Without the cooperation of large states and small states, all of our disarmament plans are doomed to failure.

A race for armaments, a race for power is not in the interest of any country or of any people. We want to stop the race for armaments and we want to stop the race for power. We want to be partners with all nations, not to make war, but to keep the peace. We want to uphold the rule of law among nations. We want to promote the freedom and well-being of all peoples in a friendly civilized world.

ber 6, 1946, Concerning Proposed United States Trusteeship of Former Japanese

Islands in the Pacific

8 The United States is prepared to place under trusteeship, with the United States as the administering authority, the Japanese Mandated Islands and any Japanese Islands for which it assumes responsibilities as a result of the second World War. Insofar as the Japanese Mandated Islands are concerned, this Government is transmitting for information to the other members of the Security Council (Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United Kingdom) and to New Zealand and the Philippines a draft of a strategic area trusteeship agreement which sets forth the terms upon which this Government is prepared to place those islands under trusteeship. At an early date we plan to submit this draft agreement formally to the Security Council for its approval.



6. Draft Trusteeship Agreement for the Jap

anese Mandated Islands, Transmitted by the United States November 6, 1946, for Information to the Other Members of the Security Council and to New Zealand and the Republic of

of the Philippines


Preamble WHEREAS Article 75 of the Charter of the United Nations provides for the establishment of an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent agreements; and

WHEREAS under Article 77 of the said Charter the trusteeship system may be applied to territories now held under mandate; and

WHEREAS on December 17, 1920 the Council of the League of Nations confirmed a mandate for the former German islands north of the equator to Japan, to be administered in accordance with Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations; and

WHEREAS Japan, as a result of the Second World War, has ceased to exercise any authority in these islands;

Now, THEREFORE, the Security Council of the United Nations, having satisfied itself that the relevant articles of the Charter have been complied with, hereby resolves to approve the following terms of trusteeship for the Pacific Islands formerly under mandate to Japan.

Article 1 The Territory of the Pacific Islands, consisting of the islands formerly held by Japan under mandate in accordance with Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, is hereby designated as a strategic area and placed under the trusteeship system established in the Charter of the United Nations. The Territory of the Pacific Islands is hereinafter referred to as the trust territory.

Article 2 The United States of America is designated as the administering authority of the trust territory.

Article 3 The administering authority shall have full powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction over the territory subject to the provisions of this agreement as an integral part of the United States, and may apply to the trust territory, subject to any modifications which the administering authority may consider desirable, such of the laws of the United States as it may deem appropriate to local conditions and requirements.

Article 4 The administering authority, in discharging the obligations of trusteeship in the trust territory, shall act in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, and the provisions of this agreement, and shall, as specified in Article 83 (2) of the Charter, apply the objectives of the international trusteeship system, as set forth in Article 76 of the Charter, to the people of the trust territory.

Article 5 In discharging its obligations under Article 76 (a) and Article 84, of the Charter, the administering authority shall ensure that the trust territory shall play its part, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority shall be entitled :

(1) to establish naval, military and air bases and to erect fortifications in the trust territory;

(2) to station and employ armed forces in the territory; and

(3) to make use of volunteer forces, facilities and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for the local defense and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.

Article 6 In discharging its obligations under Article 76 (b) of the Charter, the administering authority shall:

(1) foster the development of such political institutions as are suited to the trust territory and shall promote the development of the inhabitants of the trust territory toward self-government, and to this end shall give to the inhabitants of the trust territory a progressively increasing share in the administrative services in the territory; shall develop their participation in local government; shall give due recognition to the customs of the inhabitants in providing

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