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4. Chemical and metall rgical plants
5. Primary reactors and associated chemical separation plants 6. Isotope separation plants
7. Secondary reactors
Beginning on October 15, informal conversations were held about twice a week in order to discuss in detail the types of safeguards necessary at each of the above steps and to hear statements by experts. The discussions carried forward by this informal group resulted in a draft report, completed on December 13, dealing with safeguards against diversions and clandestine activities. Preliminary consideration was given to the problems of seizure and of the coordination of safeguards.
The Atomic Energy Commission meantime held its sixth meeting on November 13 and resolved to prepare a progress report to be presented to the Security Council by December 31, 1946, when the membership of the Commission changes in consequence of the election of new Members to the Security Council. The report was to include an account of the proceedings, findings. and recommendations of the Commission based on its deliberations to date. The report was to be drafted by Committee 2.
While this report was being prepared, the Second Part of the First Session of the General Assembly was considering various proposals concerned with the regulation and reduction of armaments, including atomic weapons. Accordingly, the chairman called the seventh meeting of the Commission on December 5 and invited comments on the implications for the Commission of the discussion going forward in the Assembly. The sense of the meeting was that the chairman should convey to the appropriate committees of the Assembly the view of the Commission that the work of the Commission should not be prejudged and that no
action should be taken which would preclude or delay the Commission from the early completion of its task. (Verbatim Records of Meetings of the Atomic Energy Commission on November 13 and December 5, documents AEC/PV/6 and AEC/PV/7.)
On December 14, 1946, the General Assembly approved unanimously the following resolution, which includes many important clauses affecting the Commission:
"PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE GENERAL REGULATION AND REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTS
"1. In pursuance of Article 11 of the Charter and with a view to strengthening international peace and security in conformity with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations,
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOGNIZES the necessity of an early general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS that the Security Council give prompt consideration to formulating the practical measures, according to their priority, which are essential to provide for the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces and to assure that such regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces will be generally observed by all participants and not unilaterally by only some of the participants. The plans formulated by the Security Council shall be submitted by the Secretary-General to the Members of the United Nations for consideration at a special session of the General Assembly. The treaties or conventions approved by the General Assembly shall be submitted to the signatory States for ratification in accordance with Article 26 of the Charter.
"3. As an essential step towards the urgent objective of prohibiting and eliminating from national armaments atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now and in the future to mass destruction, and the early establishment of international control of atomic energy and other modern scientific discoveries and technical developments to ensure their use only for peaceful purposes, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
URGES the expeditious fulfilment by the Atomic Energy Commission of its terms of reference as set forth in section 5 of the General Assembly Resolution of January 24, 1946.
"4. In order to ensure that the general prohibition, regulation and reduction of armaments are directed towards the major weapons of modern warfare and not merely towards the minor
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS that the Security Council expedite consideration of the reports which the Atomic Energy Commission will make to the Security Council and that it facilitate the work of that Commission, and also that the Security Council expedite consideration of a draft convention or conventions for the creation of an international system of control and inspection, these conventions to include the prohibition of atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now and in the future to mass destruction and the control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes.
"5. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
FURTHER RECOGNIZES that essential to the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces is the provision of practical and effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violations and evasions.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS to the Security Council that it give prompt consideration to the working out of proposals to provide such practical and effective safeguards in connection with the control of atomic energy and the general regulation and reduction of
"6. To ensure the adoption of measures for the early general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces, for the prohibition of the use of atomic energy for military purposes and the elimination from national armaments of atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now or in the future to mass destruction, and for the control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes,
THERE SHALL BE ESTABLISHED,
Within the framework of the Security Council, which bears the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, an international system, as mentioned in paragraph 4, operating through special organs, which organs shall derive
their powers and status from the convention or conventions under which they are established.
"7. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, regarding the problem of security as closely connected with that of disarmament,
RECOMMENDS the Security Council to accelerate as much as possible the placing at its disposal of the armed forces mentioned in article 43 of the Charter;
IT RECOMMENDS the Members to undertake the progressive and balanced withdrawal, taking account of the needs of occupation, of their armed forces stationed in ex-enemy territories, and the withdrawal without delay of armed forces stationed in the territories of Members without their consent freely and publicly expressed in treaties or agreements consistent with the Charter and not contradicting international agreements;
IT FURTHER RECOMMENDS a corresponding reduction of national armed forces, and a general progressive and balanced reduction of national armed forces.
"8. Nothing herein contained shall alter or limit the resolution of the General Assembly passed on January 24, 1946, creating the Atomic Energy Commission.
"9. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
CALLS upon all Members of the United Nations to render every possible assistance to the Security Council and the Atomic Energy Commission in order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and collective security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources."
At the seventh meeting of the Commission on December 5, the Representative of the United States presented certain items which he proposed be adopted at a subsequent meeting of the Commission for inclusion in the findings and recommendations contained in its report to the Security Council. At its eighth and ninth meetings on December 17 and 20, the Commission met to discuss these proposals (Verbatim Records of Meetings of the Atomic Energy Commission on December 17 and 20, documents AEC/PV/8 and AEC/PV/9). On December 20 the Commission approved and accepted the principles on which these proposals were based, in the terms of the following resolution:
"Resolved that the Commission approves and accepts the principles on which the Findings and Recommendations, proposed by
the Representative of the United States of America and contained in document AEC/15/Rev. 1, are based, and instructs the Working Committee to include these Findings and Recommendations in the draft of the Commission's report to be delivered to the Security Council by December 31, 1946, having conformed the wording of such portions of these Findings and Recommendations as deal with the same subject matter to the wording of the relevant parts of the Text of the General Assembly Resolution of December 14, 1946 on the 'Principles Governing the General Regulation and Reduction of Armaments"."
Many important questions, which have been considered only in broad outline during the course of its deliberations, remain to be further studied by the Commission. These questions include: the detailed powers, characteristics, and functions of the international control agency for which the need is expressed in the "First Report on Safeguards Required To Ensure the Use of Atomic Energy Only for Peaceful Purposes", including such matters as organization, financing, and staffing; the relationships between the agency, the various organs of the United Nations, and the participating States; powers of the agency in matters of research, development, and planning; the provisions for transition to the full operation of the international system of control; and other specific matters which should be included in the international treaty or convention establishing control over atomic energy.