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Part II: Findings
A. Findings on the Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Problem of Control
HE REPORT OF THE Scientific and Technical Committee on Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Problem of Control, included in its entirety as Part IV of this report, was accepted by Committee 2 as a basis for its future work. The Commission now records its approval of that report and incorporates in its present findings the conclusions summarized therein in Chapter 6, as follows:
"The substances uranium and thorium play a unique role in the domain of atomic energy, since as far as we know these are the only raw materials from which the nuclear fuel required for the development of atomic energy can be obtained. There is an intimate relation between the activities required for peaceful purposes and those leading to the production of atomic weapons; most of the stages which are needed for the former are also needed for the latter. The character of the different stages of the activities has been discussed in order to explore at each stage the elements of danger and to some extent the problem of safeguards against these dangers.
"With respect to mining operations, which are of special significance as the first step in these activities, it appears hopeful that safeguards are not too difficult. Particular attention should be paid to the installations in which concentrated nuclear fuel is produced since the product lends itself immediately to the production of bombs. Unless appropriate safeguards are taken at each of these stages, it will be difficult to ensure that no diversion of material or installations will take place.
"With regard to the question posed by Committee 2, 'whether effective control of atomic energy is possible', we do not find any basis in the available scientific facts for supposing that effective control is not technologically feasible. Whether or not it is
In accordance with this resolution, a program of work was outlined by the Secretariat (Annex 7, A Suggested Program of Work). The Committee, on October 14, agreed to consider, first, the types of safeguards necessary for preventing diversion at various stages in the process of producing atomic energy; measures for detecting and preventing clandestine operations and seizure of plants would be considered later. Topics for consideration were based upon the sequence of activities set forth in the Scientific and Technical Committee's report as follows:
1. Uranium and thorium mines
2. Concentration plants
4. Chemical and metallurgical plants
5. Primary reactors and associated chemical separation plants 6. Isotope separation plants
7. Secondary reactors
Beginning on October 15, informal conversations were held about twice a week in order to discuss in detail the types of safeguards necessary at each of the above steps and to hear statements by experts. The discussions carried forward by this informal group resulted in a draft report, completed on December 13, dealing with safeguards against diversions and clandestine activities. Preliminary consideration was given to the problems of seizure and of the coordination of safeguards.
The Atomic Energy Commission meantime held its sixth meeting on November 13 and resolved to prepare a progress report to be presented to the Security Council by December 31, 1946, when the membership of the Commission changes in consequence of the election of new Members to the Security Council. The report was to include an account of the proceedings, findings, and recommendations of the Commission based on its deliberations to date. The report was to be drafted by Committee 2.
While this report was being prepared, the Second Part of the First Session of the General Assembly was considering various proposals concerned with the regulation and reduction of armaments, including atomic weapons. Accordingly, the chairman called the seventh meeting of the Commission on December 5 and invited comments on the implications for the Commission of the discussion going forward in the Assembly. The sense of the meeting was that the chairman should convey to the appropriate committees of the Assembly the view of the Commission that the work of the Commission should not be prejudged and that no
action should be taken which would preclude or delay the Commission from the early completion of its task. (Verbatim Records of Meetings of the Atomic Energy Commission on November 13 and December 5, documents AEC/PV/6 and AEC/PV/7.)
On December 14, 1946, the General Assembly approved unanimously the following resolution, which includes many important clauses affecting the Commission:
"PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE GENERAL REGULATION AND REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTS
"1. In pursuance of Article 11 of the Charter and with a view to strengthening international peace and security in conformity with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations,
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOGNIZES the necessity of an early general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS that the Security Council give prompt consideration to formulating the practical measures, according to their priority, which are essential to provide for the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces and to assure that such regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces will be generally observed by all participants and not unilaterally by only some of the participants. The plans formulated by the Security Council shall be submitted by the Secretary-General to the Members of the United Nations for consideration at a special session of the General Assembly. The treaties or conventions approved by the General Assembly shall be submitted to the signatory States for ratification in accordance with Article 26 of the Charter.
"3. As an essential step towards the urgent objective of prohibiting and eliminating from national armaments atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now and in the future to mass destruction, and the early establishment of international control of atomic energy and other modern scientific discoveries and technical developments to ensure their use only for peaceful purposes, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
URGES the expeditious fulfilment by the Atomic Energy Commission of its terms of reference as set forth in section 5 of the General Assembly Resolution of January 24, 1946.
"4. In order to ensure that the general prohibition, regulation and reduction of armaments are directed towards the major weapons of modern warfare and not merely towards the minor weapons,
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS that the Security Council expedite consideration of the reports which the Atomic Energy Commission will make to the Security Council and that it facilitate the work of that Commission, and also that the Security Council expedite consideration of a draft convention or conventions for the creation of an international system of control and inspection, these conventions to include the prohibition of atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now and in the future to mass destruction and the control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes.
"5. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
FURTHER RECOGNIZES that essential to the general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces is the provision of practical and effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violations and evasions.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
RECOMMENDS to the Security Council that it give prompt consideration to the working out of proposals to provide such practical and effective safeguards in connection with the control of atomic energy and the general regulation and reduction of
"6. To ensure the adoption of measures for the early general regulation and reduction of armaments and armed forces, for the prohibition of the use of atomic energy for military purposes and the elimination from national armaments of atomic and all other major weapons adaptable now or in the future to mass destruction, and for the control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes,
THERE SHALL BE ESTABLISHED,
Within the framework of the Security Council, which bears the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, an international system, as mentioned in paragraph 4, operating through special organs, which organs shall derive
their powers and status from the convention or conventions under which they are established.
"7. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, regarding the problem of security as closely connected with that of disarmament,
RECOMMENDS the Security Council to accelerate as much as possible the placing at its disposal of the armed forces mentioned in article 43 of the Charter;
IT RECOMMENDS the Members to undertake the progressive and balanced withdrawal, taking account of the needs of occupation, of their armed forces stationed in ex-enemy territories, and the withdrawal without delay of armed forces stationed in the territories of Members without their consent freely and publicly expressed in treaties or agreements consistent with the Charter and not contradicting international agreements;
IT FURTHER RECOMMENDS a corresponding reduction of national armed forces, and a general progressive and balanced reduction of national armed forces.
"8. Nothing herein contained shall alter or limit the resolution of the General Assembly passed on January 24, 1946, creating the Atomic Energy Commission.
"9. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
CALLS upon all Members of the United Nations to render every possible assistance to the Security Council and the Atomic Energy Commission in order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and collective security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources."
At the seventh meeting of the Commission on December 5, the Representative of the United States presented certain items which he proposed be adopted at a subsequent meeting of the Commission for inclusion in the findings and recommendations contained in its report to the Security Council. At its eighth and ninth meetings on December 17 and 20, the Commission met to discuss these proposals (Verbatim Records of Meetings of the Atomic Energy Commission on December 17 and 20, documents AEC/PV/8 and AEC/PV/9). On December 20 the Commission approved and accepted the principles on which these proposals were based, in the terms of the following resolution:
"Resolved that the Commission approves and accepts the principles on which the Findings and Recommendations, proposed by