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BOSTON:
WALKER, WISE AND COMPANY,

245 WASHINGTON STREET.

1861.

DIVINITY

SCHOOL

LIBRARY.

HARVARD

UNIVERSITY

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by

LEICESTER AMBROSE SAWYER,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

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PRINCIPLES OF TRANSLATION.

ness.

1. To translate from the most improved texts of the originals. The New Testament follows the text of Tischendorf, and differs essentially from the received text. The text of Tischendorf is formed entirely from ancient authority, embracing the ancient Greek manuscripts, the ancient versions, and the church fathers. The received text is formed from modern manuscripts, with very slight correction, and is in many cases erroneous.

2. To translate as exactly as may be, and as literally as may be, word for word, and particle for particle. Absolute exactness is not possible. The best translation is only an approximation to exact

Neither is it possible or necessary always to translate to the letter. Some degree of freedom is allowable in respect to idiomatic forms, in order to make the style of a translation agreeable. The present work endeavors to avoid extremes, but is considerably more literal and more exact than the common version.

3. To translate general terms by those equally general, not the more general by the less general, or the less general by the more general. This rule can not be always observed; the imperfection of language and unfavorable associations sometimes require a deviation from it, as in the case of the word which in Rev. 4:6, etc., is translated beasts in the common version, and cherubs in mine. The corresponding English word is not beast, nor cherub, but animal. The animal intended, however, is the cherub, and I therefore adopt its specific name in the place of its general one. So in a few other cases. The Old Testament is translated from the Hebrew Bible of Hahn.

4. To translate the same words by the same, as far as may be, and different words by different corresponding words. This is a principle of great importance. I have had it continually in view, and

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