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where the shipper and consignee may deliver or collect their freight with vehicles of their own selection.

These freight stations would be union stations, served by all the railroads of the port district and should be located at such points as will minimize the truck mileage between the shipper or consignee and the freight station. This function will make for economies for all concerned.

Exhibt "A" shows- tentative locations of suitable platforms for the transfer of freight between car and motor truck-existing ferry routes to be utilized-water routes to be utilized for the ferriage of motor trucks or containers by the railroads having no ferries available, and interior union freight stations located on the sites selected in the Bi-State Commission's report for the inland stations of the automatic electric system.

Exhibit "A" also designates by numbers and areas alternately shaded, the trucking zones in lower Manhattan arrived at in the studies of the Bi-State Commission. One day's trucking to and from each railroad pier and freight station on Manhattan was observed. The location of each pick-up and delivery was spotted on the map and from this spotting twelve zones were outlined, each containing equal numbers of pick-ups and deliveries. The sites for the automatic electric terminals were based as far as possible on this zoning.

This system as outlined will reduce the present use of Manhattan's streets and waterfront for freight purposes; will reduce congestion and will reduce existing costs. But as the tonnage of Manhattan grows, the cost of operating under the system will grow the congestion of streets and waterfront will recur and a better system should supplant it.

The automatic electric system offers a better and cheaper method between Manhattan and the railroads. As its tonnage expands its operating cost lessens. Its tunnels are far below the city's streets and its terminals are inland from the congested waterfront.

It will bring containers from a point which does not congest the waterfront of New Jersey by a route which does. not congest the waterfront of either New York or New Jersey to points which will minimize the congestion on Manhattan's streets and waterfront. Store door delivery can be made from its stations with no extra handlings. It will utilize the trucks, containers and Manhattan terminals which serve for present relief. There is therefore no waste in the plan for present relief which serves merely as an evolutionary step of the final plan.



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