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on being threatened with eviction set those houses vessels to enter the Bay of Canea. The proposal to on fire.
Provisional tribunals composed of Mo- extend the military zone round Candia, which hammedans and Christians were appointed by the Djevad Pasha urged in order to enable some of the Governor here and at Candia and Retimo. On refugees in the city to settle down in their homeJune 14 Ismail Bey, the acting Governor, issued a steads again among their Christian neighbors and proclamation announcing that the international fleet thus make a step toward the restoration of peaceful would prevent foreign vessels from landing cargoes relations, was accepted by the insurgents on conon which no customs duties had been paid. This dition that the international troops should form the order was not effectively carried out; hence no rev- outer line. Col. Chermside, however, had not enue was obtained from this source. On June 24 enough troops for the purpose, and he found that the Governor informed the Turkish irregulars at the Mohammedans were less anxious than they had Heraklion that he had no more rations to give been to return to their farms, for the crops had althem. At the same time the killing of Moslems ready been gathered by Christians. The plan was from ambuscades exasperated the latter, and on therefore abandoned. There were in August 2,020 June 26 they made a raid on the Christians who had British, 1,412 Italian, 1,400 Russian, 1,250 French, taken possession of the Moslem village of Kani Kas- 600 Austrian, and 11 German troops in the island, teli, where a desperate combat took place. Sharp while a French, an Italian, and a Russian battalion friction occurred in July between the native Mo- stood in readiness to embark for Crete. The Turkhammedans and the foreign troops both at Hera- ish regular troops consisted of 15 battalions, each klion and at Hierapetra. Col. Sir H. Chermside numbering from 550 to 600 men. issued a proclamation forbidding the people of The Cretan Assembly.-On their departure Candia or Heraklion to carry arms, and on July from Crete, Col. Vassos and the late Consul-General 16 the disarmament was carried into effect, as simi- Gennadis, acting as Greek royal commissioner,called lar orders had been at Canea and Retimo. On the upon the Cretans to nominate members to a revofollowing day the Christian insurgents attacked lutionary assembly and to elect a provisional govthe whole front of Turkish outposts, which had re- ernment, with the mandate of carrying on the adcently been doubled in order to check the raids of ministration and national policy initiated by Greece. Bashi-bazouks, who had sanguinary fights with the The constituencies, however, despairing of union insurgents in Episcopi and other neighboring vil- with Greece, instructed their delegates to accept lages. In Canea the Mohammedans assumed a the proffered autonomy and discuss its details, with truculent demeanor toward Christians. All rights the proviso that the Turkish troops should be withof property in the island were in hopeless con- drawn. The admirals encouraged the holding of fusion. The land and movables of one faction the Assembly and offered to consult with the delehad been treated as lawful spoil by the others. gates as a representative body expressing the desires Houses that they had not rifled and burned, olive of the Christian population. There was a long groves not yet devastated, and crops that were left struggle over the place of meeting, which was finally standing had been quietly appropriated by Chris- decided by the Assembly sitting for the first two tians in the country districts. They had driven off weeks in Armeni, a village of A pokorona, the center flocks and herds to their own pastures or had seized of the warlike agitation in the west, after which it them with the land from which the owners had was to be held among the moderate and pacifically been forcibly evicted. In the towns the Mohamme- disposed eastern Cretans the village of Arkhanes. dans had in like manner taken possession of desira- The western districts were very much overrepreble residences and shops in good locations.
sented, but their delegations were cut down by the The admirals determined to extend the zone of Assembly so as to make the representation of the military occupation. When columns of European east and west more nearly equal. troops marched out into the country, the insurgents The Christian delegates met at Armeni on July fired upon them, saying afterward that it was by 10, and, assuming the style of the General Insurrecmistake. The admirals, disbelieving the excise, an- tionary Assembly of Cretans, elected Dr. Sphakinounced that the columns would henceforth take anaki, President, and Dr. Tsouderous and M. A, cannon with them and severely repress any attack. Criaris, Vice-Presidents. The delay in assembling. The Porte issued a circular to the powers, inform- due largely to the neglect of the Cretan question by ing them that, if they could not maintain order, a the powers during the peace negotiations, had given Turkish army would be dispatched to the island. the Athenian committees a chance to resume their The admirals and consuls had many weeks before influence over the Cretan delegates, many of whom urged their respective governments to send re-en- during the long weeks of preliminary negotiations forcements to Crete, but their representations had had to depend on the Greeks for the money to pay been without effect. After the meeting of the Cre- their board. The delegates were warned by their tan Assembly the task of preserving order became Greek advisers not to declare for the proffered much easier. The insurgents who had besieged autonomy, and to insist on the withdrawal of the Heraklion and other places dispersed to their homes Turkish troops as a preliminary condition of any to attend to the crops. On July 24 Djevad Pasha, negotiations; then, after the last soldier had deformer Grand Vizier and once Vali of Crete, arrived parted, to ask for union with Greece, and, failing to assume command of the imperial troops in the this, to abate their demands gradually to a Greek ocisland. This caused an effervescence of excitement cupation on the model of Bosnia, next independent among the Mohammedan population, but there was autonomy, then antonomy under the suzerainty of the no serious recurrence of violence, the Bashi-bazouks Sultan, under conditions to be decided by a newly having been disarmed and the desperate characters elected Assembly, and last the continuance of the arrested and deported. The European troops now régime. The annexationist party was not numerous marched through the country unmolested. The in the Assembly, though resolute; a large section irregular troops in the outposts, composed of Mo- was undecided, and preferred waiting till the conhammedan Cretans, were replaced by Turkish regu- clusion of the Greco-Turkish peace negotiations; lars, who effectually averted disorders. The in- while opposed to either policy was a strong autonsurgents promised the admirals not to cut off the omist party, willing to accept the settlement offered water supply of Candia. Some attempt was made by the powers on condition of the withdrawal of to extend the grazing areas. When the Porte pro- the Turkish garrison. The annexationists carried the posed to send war ships and troops to Crete the Assembly with them in the beginning and induced admirals announced that they would not permit the it to send an address to the Athens committee and to adopt Greek insignia, causing the admirals to who for a long time refused to deal with or work decline to hold communications with the delegates for Cretan Christians, and the Christians who had unless they abandoned their Greek programme. held them besieged and deprived them of food and After many of the western delegates had gone to water, began to fraternize once more: but where their homes the Assembly was adjourned by the there were no European troops or gendarmerie to autonomists, to meet again in Arkhanes. Mean- keep order collisions occurred. The insurgents dewhile some districts voted in favor of autonomy. clared that the Mohammedans were at liberty to
The Assembly convened at Arkhanes on July 31, return to their homesteads, provided they were not and after recording a protest against the presence escorted by Turkish troops, but the admirals did of Djevad Pasha in Crete and rejecting a motion to not consider it safe until a large and efficient nominate a provisional government, as calculated to gendarmerie were organized to provide for their perpetuate the insurrection, appointed a committee security. The Turkish gendarmerie were found to to draft an administration and judicial organization be useless, as they would not arrest their coreliof the country. The followers of the Ethnike gion ists. European experts estimated the damage Hetairia afterward gained the upper hand, elected done to their property at 20 to 35 per cent. Col. Benizelos president, and nominated a provisional Schaefer, of the Luxemburg army, was proposed in government, consisting of subsidized agents of the October as a provisional commissioner for the Athens committee. This action roused the people powers, to assume military direction for the restoraof the surrounding districts, whese Deputies re- tion of order, but the Ottoman Government obturned to the Assembly, and on Aug. 26, by a ma- jected, and Germany supported the objection. jority of 60 to 12, adopted a memorandum declar- CUBA, the long irregular-shaped island lying ing that the Assembly, acting in behalf of the about 87 miles south of Florida.It is the largest Christian population, would abide by the decision of the West India group, and, with the exception of the powers, accepted the proffered complete of Puerto Rico, is the last of the Spanish possesautonomy, and emphasized the fact that no auton- sions in the New World. [The condition of affairs omy could be carried out if the Turkish troops re- in Cuba during the present insurrection has been mained. M. Benizelos was dismissed from the presi- such as to make it next to impossible to obtain acdency of the Assembly.
curate information of events there. The articles Preparations for Autonomy:-The French in this “ Cyclopædia” have been compiled from the Government on June 1 submitted to the powers best available sources, but were necessarily liable certain proposals as to the measures to be taken to inaccuracy from the very nature of the case. toward the establishment of the new autonomy in This year we are enabled to present a consistent Crete. They comprised the enrollment of a foreign account, written by a gentleman who has followed gendarmerie, the arrangement of a loan for the ex- the campaigns there for two years, has been in penses of this gendarmerie and of inaugurating the both camps, and has traveled widely through the new administration, and the selection of a governor. territory affected by the military operations, and These proposals had the support of the Russian Gov- who, moreover, being simply an American citizen ernment and they were finally accepted by the powers in search of information, may be trusted for a disas the basis of the new autonomy. Lord Salisbury, interested account.-EDITOR.] seconded by the Italian Government, expressed in Population.-The latest census of Cuba, taken August the view that it would be inexpedient to in 1887, gave the total population as 1,631,619. Of organize autonomy pending the conclusion of the these, 950,000 were white creoles, 500,000 were colpeace negotiations between Greece and Turkey: ored, and 160,000 Spaniards, emigrants from Spain. M. Droz, of Switzerland, was invited to the post of In addition, there were about 50,000 Chinese, imGovernor, for it was decided to have a European ported originally to replace slave labor, which was Governor; but he declined. It was decided to con- freed ultimately in 1886. This population was very voke the General Assembly on the inauguration of unevenly distributed in the several provinces, being autonomy. The withdrawal of the Turkish troops to each square kilometre as follows: Santiago de was to take place gradually. The admirals decided Cuba, 7.75; Puerto Principe, 2.10; Santa Clara, on Aug. 12 to institute a military commission to 15:34; Matanzas, 30-59; Havana, 52.49; Pinar del administer justice in a summary manner. Against Rio, 15.09. To classify this population as white this the Porte protested as a violation of the sover- and colored creoles and native Spaniards seems ineign rights of the Sultan. It was decided to main- sufficient. It is generally supposed that the Cubans tain the blockade for the present to prevent the are a mixed race, whereas the greater mass of them landing of volunteers or arms. The Turkish out- are pure whites, and the social lines between white posts were gradually called in and replaced by Eu- and black are drawn very much as they are in our ropean troops. The Cretan representatives having Southern States. The present insurrection has accepted autonomy without making it conditional brought forth a strange and incomprehensible peoupon the departure of the Turkish troops, the Rus- ple known as the pacificos. Although little undersian Government proposed to raise the blockade on stood by the foreigner, the pacifico is rightly named Sept. 10, but the other cabinets would not consent. by both his Spanish oppressor and his insurgent The Turkish gendarerie were placed under the com- brother in the field. He is truly pacific. He repmand of European officers, the powers agreeing to resents fully half of the Cuban population, and his bear the expense of maintaining the force, in con- submissive character is reflected upon the rest of sideration of which they received half the customs the Cuban people. It is this submissiveness, more revenues and the surtax. Suddenly the Porte made than anything else, that has caused the Spaniards a demand that the powers should sanction the ap- to appear as tyrants in the island of Cuba. The pointment of a Christian Turk as Governor with the pacifico will not oppose, retaliate, or fight. The title of Vali, and that the Turkish troops should be tax collector may come round with his exorbitant maintained in the chief towns. Outrages were still list, but the Cuban peasant has no word of protest. committed by insurgents in various parts of the On the contrary, he orders his fattest pig killed island. Near Canea they fired upon Austrian and roasted, and not only serves it to the repretroops on Oct. 3. The Mohamınedans were not yet sentative of an avaricious Government, but in all restored to their lands, although the seedtime was probability slips a coin into his hand. The pacifico passing: The admirals extended indefinitely the seems incapable of hatred. Peace at any price, is delay of two months decreed for the restitution of his motto. The economic question is nothing to land and houses. The Mohammedans in the cities, him, and he cares little whether the mill grinds or not. A mere patch surrounded by a prickly hedge the form of a hollow square with cell-like apartserves to supply his immediate wants of sweet ments opening into the inner court, is termed the potatoes and yams. The necessity of work and barricon. Since the abolition of slavery the cells economy is incomprehensible to him, and his idea or apartments are let out to the negro and Chinese of happiness seems to consist in letting things run laborers employed on the plantation. The owner's as smoothly as possible. Although professedly a residence is often little else than a palace surRoman Catholic, he little understands the religion, rounded with gardens of tropical plants and fruit and cares less. He is apt to look upon the priest trees, and ornamented with marble statuary and and the guardia civil with an equal amount of fountains. Porcelain-lined baths contributed to fear, they both being Spaniards. His only vice be- the enjoyment of these abodes, and there were few sides indolence is his love for cockfighting and a of the luxuries of foreign civilization that did not mild form of gambling. He is fond of poetry and add their share to the comfort of the wealthy song, and, when not too indolent, he may be found planter. These estates were flourishing in Havana, composing verses of his own. Next to the Cuban Matanzas, and Santa Clara provinces at the beginpeasantry in numbers comes the negro. The negro ning of the present outbreak, but during the insurhas been badly represented in Cuba, and as a real rection of 1868–79 many of those in the extreme political factor he has counted for much less than east and south of the last-named province were deis generally supposed. Neither the white creolestroyed. In the valley of San Luis there were 40 nor the Spaniard has taken very kindly to him, of these estates, supplying a lucrative commerce and he looks on both with suspicion. Although with the city of Trinidad and the port of Casilda, many negroes had obtained their liberty long be- the harbor of which was then alive with American fore the final abolition of slavery, in 1886, they do ships. Although, after centuries of cultivation, not seem to have followed the example of the there is no appreciable diminution in the fertility Spanish colonists and taken to the occupation of of this valley, only two of its estates are still dethe rural districts as small farmers; they have pre- voted to the sugar industry, and these two have ferred to labor in the field for the sugar planter or only been kept from destruction during the preshave looked for employment within the towns and ent war by the continual presence of Spanish solcities. Standing between the peasant and the ne- diers. The tobacco industry has been confined gro is the mulatto, who usually lives in the towns almost exclu vely to the western province of the and follows occupations that require skilled labor- island known as Pinar del Rio, although its cultias the making of cigars, shoes, clothes, and carpen- vation had been taken up successfully in that porter work. The really industrious class of Cuba are tion of Santa Clara bordering the Siguanea mounthe Spanish colonists. They are encouraged to tains. immigrate from Spain under such inducements as Coffee was at one time the principal source of exemption from military duty, and they come to Cuba's wealth. In the early part of the present Havana usually as apprentices determined to work century 91,000,000 pounds of coffee were produced their way to the front, and for a generation at least in Cuba in a single year, representing a money value they form a small class of hard-working and indus- of $20,000,000. The industry was originally started trious people. Then follow the intelligent, well- by the French, who made their escape from the educated Cubans, who are mostly sons of rich fami- negro revolts and massacres in Santo Domingo in lies, not so far removed from Spanish ancestry as the latter part of the last century. With what they the peasants usually are. These are the Cubans had been able to rescue from their shattered formostly met with in the United States.
tunes they established themselves in Cuba, resortResources. The agricultural resources of Cuba, ing to the inountains, as resembling the spots previthough generally understood to be great, are really ously cultivated in coffee by them in the other astonishing when it is considered how little they island. It was then supposed that coffee could be have been developed. While tobacco and sugar grown only on the mountains, but others found that have been considered the great wealth producers it would grow as well on the lowlands, and extensive of the island, little attention has been given to the plantations were the result. The French planters other products of its abundant fertility. Of the were driven from Cuba while the Spanish Cortes 35,000,000 acres composing Cuba, it is estimated was in power, but returned to their possessions when that only 2,000,000 ever have been under cultiva- the ancient régime was restored. The expulsion of tion. There are 17,000,000 acres of virgin forest the French settlers has been given as the cause of and 9,000,000 acres of fertile plains, which have the decline of the coffee industry, but careful reonly served as natural pastures. Of Cuba's com- search has revealed the fact that in 1828 plantamercial wealth, $68,000,000 worth of sugar and tions of coffee extended within a few miles of Ha$9,000,000 worth of tobacco have been exported vana westward, beautifully laid out and in a high annually. Owing to the profitableness of the sugar state of cultivation, where to-day nothing remains industry, when it was practically destroyed in the but vacant fields. These plantations were owned English West Indies by the emancipation of the by Americans and Spaniards, those of the French slaves vast sums were invested in the Cuban sugar being chiefly in the mountains. It was estimated estates, rendering many of them comparable to the that there were then six coffee estates to one of abodes of Eastern princes. Extensive tracts of land sugar, and the tobacco industry was in its infancy. were mapped out for the planting of the cane, which One plantation of coffee is mentioned as having a could be cut year after year without replanting, as million trees, and the writer has found an authentic is required to be done in Louisiana. In the center account of a plantation containing 750,000 trees and of these tracts were constructed the edifices consti- 450 slaves in a part of the island where at present tuting the ingenio (as they are termed in Spanish) there is neither the vestige of a coffee plantation for the manufacture of the sugar, the guarding of por even a negro population. The price of coffee the slave help, and the business offices, as also the had begun to decline in 1828, and it was undoubtresidence of the owner. On the larger estates the edly this decline in price, with the expense of cartmost elaborate and perfect machinery known for ingover bad roads, which caused it almost to disapthe manufacture of sugar from the raw cane juice pear as an article of commerce from the island. At was procured, and on many plantations a fortlike the outbreak of the last insurrection there still edifice forming an angle with the other buildings remained many plantations in the mountains of Sanwas constructed, in which were quartered the slave tiago de Cuba and Trinidad, but these were destroyed. help before its emancipation. This edifice, built in during the ten years of war that followed.