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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædiaare the following :

Hon. Benjamin F. Clayton,

President of the Farmers' Congress. FARMERS' CONGRESS.

Charles Henry Cochrane,

Author of “The Wonders of Modern Mechanism." AËRIAL NAVIGATION, CALCULATING MACHINES, KINETOSCOPIC PICTURES, KITE-FLYING, TIN-PLATE MANUFACTURE, WIRE GLASS,

and other articles.

William F. Coston,

Joint Inventor of the Coston signals. SIGNALS, NIGHT.

Mrs. Bessie Nicholls Croffut.

LITERATURE, AMERICAN, IN 1897,
LITERATURE, BRITISH, IN 1897.

SURETY COMPANIES.
Thomas R. Dawley, Jr.

CUBA.

Oscar Fay Adams,

Author of "A Dictionary of American Authors."
CORSOX, JULIET,
GOULBOURN, EDWARD MEYRICK,
NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM,
OLIPHANT, MARGARET,
PEARSON, JOHN LOUGHBOROUGH,
THAYER, ALEXANDER WHEELOCK,

and other articles. Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

Editor of department of chemistry in the “Standard

Dictionary." ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, COPE, EDWARD DRINKER, MAYER, ALFRED MARSHALL, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NEW YORK CITY,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

Of the “Cleveland Plain-Dealer."
OHIO.
John Henry Boner,

Of the “Standard Dictionary" staff.
ALABAMA,
CONNECTICUT,
MAINE,
MARYLAND,
NEW JERSEY,
VIRGINIA,
VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA,

and other articles.
Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.,

Superintendent of New York Free Libraries.
PHYSICS.
William G. Bowdoin.

BOOK-PLATES.
Thomas Campbell-Copeland,

Formerly of United States Census Bureau.
MECHANICS, JUNIOR ORDER OF,
STREET RAILWAYS,
UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY,

UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY.
Mrs. Helen C. Candee.

ILLINOIS,
MUNDY, Johnson MARCHANT,

Charles Fitzgerald,

Art critic of the “Evening Sun."
LINTON, WILLIAM JAMES,
MARTIN, HOMER DODGE.

Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D. D.,

Formerly Professor of Physics in the University of

Tokio. JAPAN, KOREA.

George J. Hagar,

Associate Editor of the “Columbian Cyclopædia." GIFTS AND BEQUESTS,

OBITUARIES, AMERICAN. Rev. Moses Harvey,

Author of "Text-book of Newfoundland History.” NEWFOUNDLAND. J. Castell Hopkins,

and other articles. James P. Carey,

Formerly Financial Editor of the "Journal of Com-
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1897.
John Denison Champlin,

Editor of “Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings."
FINE ARTS IN 1897.

Editor of "Golden Canada."
CANADA, DOMINION OF,
MANITOBA,
NEW BRUNSWICK,
QUEBEC,
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND,

and other Canadian articles.

merce.'

Frank Huntington, Ph. D.,

Col. Charles L. Norton,
Of the “Standard Dictionary” staff.

Author of "Political Americanisms."

ABYSSINIA,

DISASTERS IN 1897,

EVENTS OF 1897.

AUSTRALASIA,

BULGARIA,

CHINA,

Rev. Solomon E. Ochsenford, D. D.

COLOMBIA,

LUTHERANS.

EAST AFRICA,

FRANCE,

Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor.

GREAT BRITAIN,

COLORADO,

Mexico,

GEORGIA,

OBITUARIES, FOREIGN,

GEOGRAPHICAL PROGRESS IN 1897.

RUSSIA,

Iowa,

SPAIN,

KENTUCKY,

and other articles.

LOUISIANA,

MICHIGAN,

Prof. Andrew J. Hutton,

MONTANA,

Of Wisconsin State Normal School.

PENNSYLVANIA,

WISCONSIN.

TEXAS,

and other articles.

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D.,

Editor of the “Jewish Messenger."

Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, D.D.,

JEWS.

of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

Herman Justi,

Chief of Department of Publicity and Promotion, Lewis Swift, LL. D.,

Tennessee Centennial Exposition.

Formerly Director of Lowe Observatory.

TENNESSEE EXPOSITION.

ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1897.

Miss Florence K. Johnson.

James B. T. Tupper,

KLONDIKE, THE.

Formerly of Internal Revenue Office.

Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson,

SUPREME COURT (in article UNITED STATES).

INGELOW,

Jean.

J. Kendrick Upton,

William H. Larrabee, LL. D.

Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

BAPTISTS,

UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE.

CONGREGATIONALISTS,

FEDERATION OF FREE CHURCHES,

Frank H. Vizetelly,

FRIENDS,

Associate Editor of " Home and Country."

METHODISTS,

DAUDET, ALPHONSE,

OLD CATHOLIC CHURCH,

and other articles.

ORIENTAL CHURCHES IN THE UNITED STATES,

PRESBYTERIANS,

Frank Weitenkampf,

UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH,

of the Astor Library.

and other articles.

LITERATURE, CONTINENTAL.

H. T. Newcomb,

Chief of Section of Freight Rates, U. S. Department William J. Youmans, M. D.,

of Agriculture.

Editor of "Appletons' Popular Science Monthly."

RAILWAY SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES.

CHEMISTRY,

METALLURGY,

Mrs. Joanna Nicholls Kyle.

METEOROLOGY,

REVENUE-CUTTER SERVICE.

PHYSIOLOGY.

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ALVA ADAMS.
RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER
GEORGE W. ATKINSON
FRANK S. BLACK
CORNELIUS N. Bliss
WILLIAM D. BLOXHAM
WILLIAM O. BRADLEY
JAMES H. BUDD
Asa S. BUSHNELL
DAVID M. CLOUGH
John W. COLLINS
LORRIN A. COOKE
CHARLES A. DANA
ALPHONSE DAUDET
EDWARD S. DEEMER
NEAL Dow
FRANCIS MARION DRAKE.
HENRY DRUMMOND
ELISHA DYER
WILLIAM H. ELLERBE
SIR JOHN EVANS
ALBERT FINK
LYMAN J. GAGE
JAMES A. GARY
HENRY GEORGE
OLIVER Wolcott GIBBS
THEODORE N. GILL.
Josiah GROUT.
ISHAN GREEN HARRIS
DANIEL H. HASTINGS
SILAS A. HOLCOMB
JEAN INGELOW .
ANDREW E. LEE
Joux W. LEEDY

PAGE 141 | JOHN DAVIS LONG 776 WILLIAM P. LORD 823 JOSEPH MCKENNA 556 LAFAYETTE MCLAWS 777 | ALFRED MARSHALL MAYER 323 JAMES A. MOUNT 436 MARGARET OLIPHANT

97 HAZEN S. PINGREE 650 ALFRED PLEASANTON 529 GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN 713 GEORGE A. RAMSDELL 238 ALEXANDER COLDEN RAIND 270 WILLIAM A. RICHARDS 272 John R. ROGERS 504 DANIEL L. RUSSELL. 588 JOHN HENRY RUSSELL 416 PRAXEDES MATEO SAGASTA 635 | John SARTAIN 714 EDWARD SCOFIELD 731

John SHERMAN. 39 CHARLES F. SHOEMAKER 591 | ROBERT B. SMITH 776 LON V. STEPHENS 777 | ROBERT L. TAYLOR 592 | EBE W. TUNNELL 31 J. HOGE TYLER 32 DANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES 810 | FRANCIS AMASA WALKER 595 | HIEBER M. WELLS 661 | JAMES WILSON. 540 | JUSTIN WINSOR 414 ROGER WOLCOTT 734 John LORIMER WORDEN 432

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. COLORED PLATES

MAP OF NORTHWESTERN INDIA
MAP OF ALASKA
MAP OF THE KLONDIKE REGION
MAP OF GREATER NEW YORK

NIGHT SIGNALS.
VIEW OF HAVANA
THE NEW BUILDING FOR THE CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY
West Point, FROM Fort PUTNAM
ANNAPOLIS NAVAL ACADEMY .

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ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

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MAXIM'S FLYING MACHINE
LILIENTHAL'S LAST SOARING APPARATUS
LANGLEY'S AËRODROME
RUDOLPH Kosch's MECHANISM FOR ILLUS-

TRATING THE POWER OF CIRCULAR WINGS
STENTZEL'S FLYING MACHINE .
MYER'S SKY CIRCLE.
HERRING'S FLYING MACHINE
ONE OF THE TEMPLES AT QUECHMICTOPLICAN,

MEXICO SCULPTURED HEAD IN STONE, QUECHMICTO

PLICAN HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS, QUECHMICTOPLICAN EARLY FRENCH BOOK-PLATE-PERIOD PRIOR

TO 1650 FRENCH BOOK-PLATE UNDER NAPOLEON I ENGLISH TRICKED BOOK-PLATE-PERIOD PRIOR

TO 1738 EARLY AMERICAN NAME LABEL AMERICAN ARMORIAL Book-PLATE OF CHARLES

HOPKINS RECENT AMERICAN PICTORIAL BOOK-PLATES

(two illustrations) FIGURE WHEELS FOR CALCULATING MACHINE ADMINISTRATOR'S HOUSE ON PLANTATION, CAR

MEN DEL CRESPO

4 | A STREET SCENE IN VILLA CLARA

258 5 A SPANISH SENTRY .

260 5 SPANISH SOLDIERS BREAKFASTING. FORT NEAR MATANZAS .

264 6 A BARRICADED STREET IN GUANABACOA

267 7 CHARLES A. Dana's SUMMER HOME, NEAR 7 GLEN COVE, L. I.

271 GENERAL GRANT'S TOMB IN RIVERSIDE PARK, NEW YORK

320 20 BRONZE BUST OF ABRAHAM COLES, WASHINGTON PARK, NEWARK, N.J.

321 21 STEVENSON MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN IN SAN 21 FRANCISCO

322 DIAGRAMS OF KITES (six illustrations) 440-443 86 THE “FORWARD"

711 86 METHOD OF IGNITING SIGNAL CARTRIDGE 730 IMPROVED SIGNAL HOLDER

738 86 STREET RAILWAYS (seven illustrations): BROADWAY CABLE

740 BROADWAY GRIP MECHANISM

741 87 CROSS SECTION OF ELECTRICAL SUBWAY, SHOWING TROLLEY MECHANISM

742 88 DANGER OF A SLACK CABLE

744 96 RESULT OF A BROKEN STRAND

745 A DOUBLE-DECKED CAR 255 VIADUCT, CINCINNATI, OHIO.

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa. The youth in grammar, poetry, religious ceremonial, ruler, styled Negus Negusti

, or King of Kings, is and song. The judicial magistrates are the govMenelek II, who after the death of Johannes II in ernors, chiefs, and landed aristocracy. The people battle with the dervishes overcame his rivals and raise cattle, sheep, and goats, and cultivate the established himself on the throne in 1889 by the land to a limited extent. Cotton, coffee, the inaid of arms furnished by the Italians. He had en- digo plant, the sugar cane, the date palm, and tered into a treaty with Italy, signed at Ucciali on the vine grow wild. There are extensive forests May 2, 1889, at the beginning of the struggle, while abounding in valuable woods. The principal exhe was still only King of Shoa, and this treaty was ports, sent mostly through Massowah, are skins, confirmed in October of that year. The Italian ivory, butter, gums, and mules. Besides the forces version gave to Italy & protectorate over the Empire of the feudal chiefs, the Negus has a trained army of Abyssinia, otherwise called Ethiopia. Menelek of enlisted men armed with modern rifles. denied that the treaty conferred such right. The The climate is varied, producing the fruits of all relations between him and the Italians became zones, for Abyssinia is composed of a succession of strained on account of his refusal to recognize the table-lands rising from 4,000 to 8,000 feet in height, protectorate, and his denouncement of the treaty intersected with deep valleys and ravines. In the in 1893 led to a rupture. In 1895 the Italians lower plateaus rice, sugar cane, indigo, and other occupied Tigre, the northern kingdom, and ad- tropical products grow wild; in the more tempervanced into Amhara ; but after the forces of Ras ate regions vines and nearly every species of EuroMangascia, King of Tigre, had been driven out by pean fruits and vegetables are found in great luxuthe Italians, Menelek marched into the north with riance; while the loftiest plains are suited to the a large army from Shoa, surprised the Italian gar- cultivation of barley and some native species of risons, surrounded the main body of Gen. Bara- grain. The southern districts are the natural tieri's army near Adowa, and well-nigh destroyed home of the coffee tree. The principal crop is it in a general engagement fought on March 1, doura, from which the Abyssinians make a great 1896. Through the friendly intervention of Rus- part of their food. The banana is the principal sia a treaty of peace was concluded on Oct. 26, fruit eaten by the natives. There are excellent 1896, at Adis Abeba. By this treaty Menelek rec- breeds of horses and mules in the country. The ognized as Italian possessions all territories lying mineral wealth of Abyssinia is unquestionable, and north of the Mareb, Balesa, and Muni rivers, and the lack of expert labor has been the obstacle to Italy recognized the absolute independence of the production and manufacture of the useful Abyssinia and the dominion of Menelek over all metals. The sale of gold is forbidden by law. It territories south of that line. The government of is forbidden also to traffic in ivory, though eleAbyssinia, or Ethiopia, is of a feudal character. phants are numerous. The kingdom of Tigre in the northeast, the ad- The ruling caste is of the Hebrew race, formed joining province of Lasta, the central kingdom of of successive immigrations from Palestine. The Amhara, Gojam next to it, and the powerful king- Jewish religion was established in Ethiopia by dom of Shoa in the south make up Abyssinia Menelek, son of Solomon and Makeda, or Nicaula, proper, the dependencies of which extend into the Queen of Sheba. King Solomon provided his Somaliland as far as Harrar and embrace a large favorite son, when he went to join his mother, with part of the country of the Gallas. The port of a guard of 12,000 Israelitish soldiers, with whose Massowah, formerly disputed between Abyssinia aid, after Makeda's death, he founded the Soloand Egypt, has been annexed by Italy with the monian dynasty of Ethiopian emperors. Jerusalem other dependencies to the north of the Abyssinian became from that time the center of pious pilgrimplateau and a part of the highland district in the ages of the Abyssinian people. An important Jewnortheastern part of Tigre. The area of the em- ish immigration took place during the first cappire is estimated at 150,000 square miles, and the tivity, and another during the reign of Salmanpopulation at 3,500,000. The Abyssinians once These exiles became rapidly acclimatized followed Jewish rites, and still practice some of and absorbed in the bulk of the Ethiopian nation. them, but since the fourth century they have been A last exodus followed after the destruction of the Christians of the Alexandrian rite. The head of Temple, but these later comers have remained to their Church, called the abuna, is a Copt selected the present day outside the pale of Abyssinian soand consecrated by the Patriarch of Alexandria. ciety, maintaining their ghettos in the prorince of There are about 12,000 monks, presided over by a Samen, where they follow metal working and renative ecclesiastic, called the echegeh, and these main faithful to their ancient creed. The Ethioand the priests instruct a select portion of the pians, on the other hand, embraced Christianity at

VOL. XXXVII.—1 A

asar.

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