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out of the bible ; but finds no new revelation coming in the place of that which he has got rid of. We say then that there is a dis tinction to be made between the two systems as they exist at present. Yet we cannot but acknowledge that the distinction is, ar least in some points, a little recondite, and perhaps too nice for the perception of common observers, that often the line is altogether imperceptible, and that there are many signs of an approaching amalgamation.

The question is sometimes asked, In what is Universalism better than infidelity? We have no hesitation in saying, that its influence, as a system of faith, is decidedly worse than the influence of that inadelity which occurs so often in the form of simple deism. There is much truth in a remark which we once heard from a venerable friend, now deceased, --The difficulty with the infidel is, he does not know that there is a future retribution; the difficulty with the Universalist is greater, he knows that there is none. The deist capnot deny that there may be a punishment for sin hereafter; and therefore he can feel the force of motives drawn from that possibility. When he thinks of death, he may try to hope that beyond, there will be only a state of unconsciousness and repose; yet, spite of his wishes, he cannot but soliloquize sometimes with Hamlet,

" To die ;-10 sleep ;-
To sleep! perchance to dream ;-aye, there's the rub;
For in that'sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we bave shufiled off this mortal coil,

Must give us pause." Nay, deists generally profess to believe in the strong probability of a retribution hereafter. But the Universalist has nothing to do with probabilities. He acknowledges no ignorance on the subject. He knows. He has a revelation from God; and that revelation, according to his account of it, was given for the express purpose of soothing his fears, and assuring him that all the terrors which conscience conjures up beyond the grave, are mere chimeras. Was there ever a system which could more peremptorily claim the first and most eminent right to that title applied by Cotton Mather to certain schemes of ethical philosophy, Impietas in artis formam redacta ? This view of Universalism and its downward progress,

within a short half century, suggests some reflections of a practical sort, which—as we write not for theologians only, but for the people—we will set down in order.

The first lesson which the reader may derive from the history of this error, respects the importance of clear, sound, and consistent views of christian truth. A confused, distorted, traditional orthodoxy, an orthodoxy deformed and embarrassed by an unblessed union with philosophy falsely so called, is often the parent of all

sorts of errors. Whence came Winchester's scheme of the final restoration of all? From the narrowness of his previous views respecting the atonement. He had not been thoroughly indoctrinated. He had not attained to a sound and consistent knowledge of the truth. He was embarrassed and perplexed; because, as a preacher, he knew not how to justify the ways of God to men. He must needs find something that should seem more consistent; he found it at last in his plan of universal restoration. Whence came Relly's chimera of the identity of all men with Christ? To state its essential feature, is to declare its origin. To that false philosophy of Christ's union with the elect, a philosophy which traditional orthodoxy had sanctified, he only added the truth that Christ gave himself a ransom for all; and behold the result. What is the corner-stone of modern Universalism? It is the dogma that whatever is, is just as God would have it to be; that the decree of God determines nothing as merely incidental to his great design, and in the nature of things inseparable from it ; that his infinite benevolence appoints and fixes every thing as good in itself, or good in its necessary tendency. Can the heresy which rests on such a basis find converts among those who have clear views of God's system as a system of MORAL GOVERNMENT ?

We say then, this throws light on the duty of “pastors and teachers, and all who are set for the defense of the gospel. Christianity was revealed that it might be understood. It brings the evdence on which its doctrines rest. Else, surely, it is not a revelation. It is addressed to all the faculties of man, as an intelligent and reasoning being. It is treated unfairly, it is dishonored, its author, the author of man's intelligent nature, is dishonored, if the intelligent faculties of men are not employed upon it actively and to their full extent. Understand then what you preach.

Be sure you see it clearly, as in the perfect light of day. Be sure you receive it, each particle of it, not merely by tradition from the elders, but by the perception of its proper evidence. Then see that your hearers and learners understand it likewise. Carry into their minds such views of truth as are clear, thorough, and well supported by evidence. Make them see the truth, and make them see good reasons for believing it, and you have done your part towards securing them against the influence of all seducers.

But this is not the duty of public teachers alone ; no man can escape from the responsibility of thinking for himself. The disclosures of christianity demand the action of your own intelligent faculties. If you are content with such impressions about religion, as may be made on your mind without any effort or attention on your part; you may be assured that you will know but very little of what God has revealed; and you will be likely either to settle down under the dominion of some worthless and obstinate, if not VOL. V.

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most pernicious, prejudices; or else to be blown about by every wind of false and ruinous doctrine.

The history of Universalism reads us another lesson; it illustrates strikingly the downward tendency of error. It may be made a general proposition, that errors—by which we mean not every misunderstanding or misapplication of the scriptures, but such errors as an apostle calls heresies of destruction, (aipiosis arwasias,) the errors of evil men and seducers, errors that contradict the essentials of christianity-grow worse and worse. Errors of enthusiasm and excess are often corrected by time, just as the fiery and turbulent spirit of youth is softened and subdued by age. Fanaticism not unfrequently dies away by degrees with the excitement which gave it birth. Great errors, not directly subversive of the faith, may even become general in the churches, and may be in a great measure stationary for a long period. But these are exceptions to the general order of things. All error tends downward, one false principle still leading to another. And especially errors of a more malignant type, errors that spring from a disposition to be rid of restraint, or that are particularly adapted to please such a disposition, are sure to be progressive. Such errors, if they obtain a permanent footing in the community, if they become the creed of a distinct and embodied sect, especially when they constitute the characteristic features of the system to which they belong, grow worse with an appalling rapidity.

This is commonly true not only of the sect, but also of the individuals who embrace its heresies. Especially may the remark be applied to Universalism and its disciples, Nemo repente turpissi mus. Few become thorough Universalists, but by a gradual pro

We would say, therefore—if any reader whose mind is unsettled and doubtful shall peruse what we have written, we would say especially to him,-Beware of adopting any principle which will weaken in the least any of the restraints of religion. If you have opinions, whether instinctive to your moral nature, or instilled into your mind from early childhood, which operate as a restraining power, which check you when you are tempted to any wrong doing, which give pungency to the monitions of conscience, which urge you with an inexpressible strength of motive to become immediately a follower of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises, be careful how you renounce one of those opinions; be very careful how you admit as true anything which tends to weaken them, or to neutralize their influence. Be very careful how you adopt any principle which will make you less afraid of sinning against God,which will speak peace to your conscience while you live in the transgression of the command, Repent,-or which will loosen a single bond that checks the violence of propensities to evil. The first change that sets you loose from one religious restraint, may be your first step in a rapid career of ruin.

cess.

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ART. VII.-MEMOIR OF JAMES BRAINERD TAYLOR.

Messir of James Brainerd Taylor. By John Holt Rice, D. D. and BENJAMIN

Holt Rice, D.D. 12mo: pp. 330: New-York, 1833. We have seldom experienced such a train of delightful emotions,—so sweet, so unmixed with alloying considerations, so continuous from page onward to page, till we closed the book, and laid it down, and blessed God for such an example of youthful piety,—as we have felt in reading the volume before us. Seldom, if ever, have we read a religious memoir, with which, in regard to most of the topics it embraces, we have felt so spontaneous and so entire a sympathy. The cast of piety which it exhibits—full of love, benignity, candor, and kindness, and yet burning with quenchless ardor to be useful to the souls of men-is more in accordance with our views of what is wanted in christians at this day, than any thing we have met with for a long time in the department of religious biography. We love to see such a spirit: we think it peculiarly demanded at this period : and the judgment of our readers, who have drank into the spirit of the gospel, and who, in the midst of conflicting opinions, have preserved their love for the Savior and for a sinning, dying world unquenched, will accord, we are satisfied, with our own. For, after all, the great object of a christian-whatever subordinate objects he may be pursuing —is to save souls : and he is the best christian, who most intelligently and devotedly labors to secure this object. With these views we come to the Memoir before us.

The history of the subject of this little volume, is soon told. He was born at Middle Haddam, in Connecticut, in 1801,—was constitutionally of a warm, cheerful, buoyant heart,-social, gay, and early in life fond of fashionable amusements.

When quite young he was placed as a clerk in a merchant's store in the city of New York, where he had relatives residing, some of whom survive to deplore his early decease. In 1816, being then but fifteen years of age, he made a profession of religion, and became a communicant in the church in Cedar-street, then under the care of the Rev. Dr. Romeyn. His desire for the ministry, which seems to have been his ruling passion almost from the commencement of his religious course, was awakened particularly by witnessing the departure of Dr. Scudder, as a missionary of the American Board of Foreign Missions to the East Indies, who sailed from NewYork, May 24, 1819. On that occasion young Taylor thus wrote to a friend. « On seeing Dr. Scudder take his last leave of his friends, and of the people on shore, with a true missionary spirit, I felt a tenderness towards the poor heathen to whom he was going, which caused my eyes to overflow. That time can never be obliterated from my memory. I thought that I could be willing to change my situation for his. On returning home, I felt that I could not attend to business. My desire was to spend that day with the Lord. I retired for prayer, and found the exercise sweet. My mind was impressed with the necessity for more ministers of the gospel; and many reasons presented themselves, why I should devote my life to the good of my fellow-men in that situation."

At the beginning of the year 1820, being then nineteen years of age, we find him removed from his situation as a merchant's clerk in New-York, and commencing his preparatory studies for college, at Lawrenceville in New Jersey, under the care of the Rev. Isaac V. Brown. This change in his situation was effected through the agency of his pastor, Dr. Romeyn. In November, 1823, he entered the Sophomore class in Nassau Hall college, Princeton, N.J., being then twenty-one years old. At the end of three years from that time, he took the usual degree with his class at the annual commencement, and immediately, that is, the very next month, December, 1826, connected himself with the Theological Seminary at New Haven, Conn. under the care of the Rer. Dr. Taylor. To this institution and its instructors he was very warmly' attached, and thought himself 'much benefited by the course of instruction there given, though he was not permitted in the providence of God to enjoy its advantages but for a short time. In the beginning of 1828, a little more than one year after he had become a member of this institution, his health had become so alarmingly impaired, that we find him preparing for a tour to the South. His disease appears to have been a pulmonary affection, and it was hoped that the milder temperature of our southem country might allay, if not remove it. He left Connecticut in January, and remained for a short time with his friends in New-York. On the 7th of March he set sail for Charleston, S. C., and arrived there on the 15th. From Charleston he proceeded, after baving been refreshed by the kind and christian attentions of that hospitable people, to Savannah, Augusta, Columbia, Fayetteville, Petersburgh, Richmond, and back to New-York. In the month of June, we find him returned to the bosom of his kindred and friends in the last named city, and in the month following welcomed home to his dearly loved native spot in Middle Haddam. From this place he thus writes, to his brother in New-York, under date of September 9, 1828. « Dear Brother K.

Cell *“I am here at anchor; no head wind but blows some one good. I hope to ride out the storm patiently, and especially amidst so many comforts. Often the sky, long lowering, clears away; and hope, as if on wings, places me where I have longed to be, in the vineyard.

“I read, the other day,

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