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prayers,—who has no heart to feel, no petitions to pour forth in wrestling with God for his Spirit, upon the instrumentality used. We repeat it, the obligation is unfelt. How few are there who act as if it was their duty to inquire for ways of doing good,—who are on the alert to seek out the means of transmitting their contributions, to make them tell on the cause of Christ in other lands ! The most that is done, is to respond to the call when it meets them with its urgent appeals. But is this all that is required by the great Head of the church? Has one man a right to be idle, and exert no activity for Christ, while another is wearing himself out in labors for the same cause ? The brotherhood,—the brotherhood of christian churches,—where is it? How shall the world around be made to feel the power of those vital principles of holy living, which the gospel contains, so long as the present state of things exists ? There is no want of objects to call forth the feelings and stimulate the exertions of all.. Souls, perishing without Christ every where around us, in a christian land, are going to the bar of God, with all their guilt upon them, and uttering their accusing cry against their neighbors and friends, in whose skirts their blood may be,—and some of these might be rescued from perdition. The myriads in pagan and Mohammedan lands without bibles or religious instruction, unblessed by the prayers and holy living of christians, are crowding the gates of death, while christian obligation is unfelt, christian activity is withheld. Predictions, glowing in all the brightness of eternal truth, are blazoning, throughout the pages of God's word, the future triumphs of the Redeemer's kingdom, but christians will not read and act. Commands, breathed forth from the lips of him who died for their deliverance, and enforced by all the exhibitions of bis amazing love, address their consciences and urge compliance; but they feel not their obligations, and refuse to obey. Witnesses of his power and grace, revivals of religion, crowning with success the efforts of his people, and tidings of his manifested love among the nations afar, encourage ; but faith droops, and christians sleep. Eternity, with its amazing revelations of bliss and despair, enough to thrill through the dead in their

upon their apathy, and summons them to live for heaven, and rescue sinners from hell; but obligation is unfelt, the people of God are inactive.

If we look back and survey the progress of effort, and the consequent success, we shall see that just in proportion as the professing disciples of Christ have begun to revert to the original principles of the christian church, the gospel has extended at home and abroad. Everything proves that nothing but this is wanting, as the grand preparation for the brightest day of Zion's glory. Churches must be aroused, and enter themselves into the work. The youthful members of Christ's flock must begin their

graves, breaks

pupilage of christian life, in activity. Their obligations must be spread out before them, while they are counting the cost; and their resolutions to be his, must be made in view of the unceasing devotedness of heart, and soul, and all, to their Savior. Every arrangement of mere convenience which interferes with the great design of Christ's church, must give way to the certainty, wherever it exists, of better securing the benefits of brotherly love, unity of Spirit, and combination of strength and effort, in building up his kingdom in the hearts of men. The simple, over-ruling purpose of securing his triumphs over a rebellious world, must be kept in view in every thing pertaining to bis worship, in the intercourse of life, and in the daily employment of time, talents, and influence. As a perpetual priesthood, offering acceptable sacrifices, proclaiming his truth, anointed by his Spirit, and interceding for the guilty, the church of Christ on earth, without spot or blemish, as before the shekinah of his heavenly temple, 'must stand and behold his glory, and own his majesty and grace. Infidels must look on it, and see the imperishable evidence of his promise, who suffers not the gates of hell to prevail against it. The universe must behold it, and own what grace cav do for the ruined and lost race of man; while, as hereafter to be united in the general assembly and church of the first-born, angels, and redeemed, glorified spirits, delight to mingle their praises for its triumphs, and rejoice over every repenting sinner who is brought to share in its prospects and hopes.

We have omitted some of the topics which are embraced in this volume, not because we do not consider them important, but rather that we wished to confine ourselves more particularly to those on which we have dwelt. We will, however, say in passing, that we esteem the directions which Mr. Bacon has given in reference to discipline, and the conduct of one church to another, as deserving of careful perusal and reduction to practice, We deem them highly proper and useful; and feel assured, that were they followed in the spirit of the gospel, many of the scandals which exist in our churches would be unknown. with him, too, in the feelings which he expresses with respect to our own New England. The land of the pilgrims is destined, we doubt not, to make her influence yet more felt. It was not in vain, that the brotherhood in persecution left their native shores, and came to this asylum of liberty, and erected the banner of the cross in the wilds of this then inhospitable country. That banner will be carried by future churches, burning with the same holy love to God, and speeded by favoring heaven, while, leaving their brethren in possession of the rich privileges of a christian land, they go to plant it anew, and to wave it in triumph over heathen realms, given to Jesus for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth, his possession. Brotherhoods of enlightened piety

We agree

and humble faith, will trace back their existence to the same spirit of devotedness that bore the fathers of New England across the bosom of the great deep, to mingle their prayers and praises in the forests, where no song to Jehovah had ever before been heard. New England will live in the memory of redeemed men until time is past, and God has no more work for his children to perform.

We close this part of our subject, and our review, with the following extract from our author's chapter entitled Responsibility of the New England Churches :

How much then, in view of all these particulars, is depending on the continued and increasing purity, diligence, holiness and zeal of the New England churches. If these churches should prove recreant and reprobate—if they should become cold, worldly, corrupt—if through their sloth, darkness should come in to cover the land consecrated by the prayers, and rich with the “garnered dust” of the puritans—oh, what hopes on which the minds of angels are now intent, would be blasted!But if these churches are faithful to their Savior, faithful to themselves, and faithful to those great interests of the human race which are committed, as it were, to their keeping-how may they spread the triumphs of the gospel! how may they hold up the light of God's salvation till its beams shall flash broad and bright over all the nations of a dying world!

Are you a member in one of these churches ? A portion of that boundless responsibility, a greater portion than you can estimate, rests on you. You are teaching, perhaps, a class of little children in the Sabbath school. In that humble office you are forming their minds, as you hope, to all the virtues of benevolence and piety. But what minds are you teaching, and what is to be the sphere of their influence in the years of their maturity? Who dreams that those children are to live and die upon the spot where they were born? They are gathered, it may be, from lowly dwellings, and come to their Sabbath lessons clad in the coarse but clean attire of laborious and cheerful poverty; but who dreams that they are all to live and die in the same humble circumstances in which you find them now? By your labors with them, we will suppose, they are converted to God, and are prepared to “ shine as lights in the world, holding forth the word of life." "Who can tell from what stations, and on what distant places, the light which you are now kindling shall shed its salutary radiance in years to come? Who can tell what souls sitting in the shadow of death, shall by and by be enlightened by the christian example and efforts of those who are now your pupils ? What a responsibility then, is this ! And if you are not teaching such a class, when by a little self-denial you might be doing so, and when you have a direct call to undertake the work, what a responsibility are you neglecting!

Look again. There is a revival of religion in the church with which you are connected; and a hundred souls, newly converted, are gathered into its communion,-most of them, as is always the case, from among the young. Five years hence, where will be those hundred converts ? Some of them indeed will be gone to the dead; and their graves will be growing green among the green graves of their kindred. Others will be still among you, in your sanctuary, in your Sabbath schools, in your prayer meetings, in your benevolent associations, sharing in all the privileges and responsibilities of your happy New England congregation. But there are others still; and where are they? Scattered over all the earth, by the New England spirit of adventure. One is far off upon the sea, praying and reading the bible with his rough shipmates, sending up the songs of Zion from among the winds and billows of the ocean; and it is his, perhaps, to unfurl the Bethel flag, with its dove and olive branch, in some distant port, amidst the frowning symbols of heathen or Mohammedan superstition. Another is in some European country; and there, if his piety is enlightened and strong enough to withstand the temptations that assail him, he is telling of the privileges, the peace, the light, the spiritual blessings of these favored shores Others are in the places of education, preparing themselves to preach the gospel, or are already hastening to the post of peril and of toil beyond the frontier line of christendom. Others, more numerous, are scattered here and there in the cities of the Atlantic, and over the boundless regions of the west, generally much respected for their virtues and usefulness in society, acquiring wealth by their diligence and skill, extending the range of their influence, and, except in rare cases of apostasy, glorifying God by a life of devotion. And wherever they are scattered, there are felt the blessed effects of that revival in New England which converted them to God? And there—if your prayers, your holy zeal, your labors of faith and love, had any thing to do in bringing on or promoting that revival—are felt the blessed effects of your influence as a church-member.

But if you are unfaithful as a servant of Christ; if by your perverseness, or your want of public spirit, the sanctuary of God goes to ruin, and the ministrations of the word cease in the place of your habitation ; if your worldliness and selfishness, and your deadness to the things of religion, are such as to grieve the Spirit of Christ, and hang with a dead weight on the activity of your brethren; if your example or your temper of heart is hindering the revival of religion around you ; nay, if any influence which you could contribute to increase the purity and strength, the active and efficient piety of your own church and its sister churches, is withheld,—who shall tell us where the mischievous effects of your unfaithfulness shall terminate ?—who can estimate the extent of evil for which God may hold you in a fearful sense responsible ? pp. 169—173.

ART. VII.- SLAVERY.

Letters on Slavery ; addressed to the Cumberland Congregation, Virginia. By J.

D. Paxton, their former pastor. Lexington, Ky. 1833. 12mo. pp. 207.

The author of this book is an intelligent and able minister of the gospel, in the Presbyterian church. A few years ago, he was pastor of a congregation in Prince Edward County, Virginia. Born and educated in that State, and having spent more than forty years there, in the midst of a slave-holding population, he entertained those views of slavery, which, we believe, are common to pious and reflecting men in all parts of the country ;-he believed in " the moral evil of slavery, and the duty of christians to let no selfish interest prolong the sin and injustice, but, in the fear of God, to do all they can, in consistency with duty, to fit for and restore to freedom those in bondage.” This view led him to favor the Colonization Society, to take up contributions for that object, and to attempt founding an auxiliary society among his people. Occasionally he made some little reference to the subject in his public preaching ; but, as there were usually slaves in the congregation, and as he knew how readily some persons might take offense, his allusions to the “delicate subject,” as the southrons call it, were few and slight. By marriage he had become the master of one or two families of slaves. He felt it to be his duty—and his wife's views were entirely coincident with his—to make those persons free, as soon as it could be done, with a fair prospect of improving their condition. Accordingly, he says, “ we watched the progress of the colony at Liberia, for several years; and, in the mean time, used means to prepare our slaves for freedom.

As soon as we were satisfied that they had better prospects there of doing well for themselves, than they could have with us, we encouraged them to go; gave them such an outfit as our means afforded, and sent them to the colony." These slaves, eleven in number, sailed from Norfolk, on board the Indian Chief, in February, 1826; and were among the first of the slaves manumitted for the purpose of sending them to Africa.

Not long after the going forth of these freed-men, and while the excitement naturally produced in the neighborhood by such an event, had not yet entirely subsided, our author commenced a series of essays on slavery, in the Family Visitor, a religious paper which had some circulation among the families of his charge. The third number of this series, contained an energetic exposition of the inconsistency between slavery, as constituted by the statutes of Virginia, and the requisitions of the law of love. It gave great offense to those members of the congregation, who had been previously dissatisfied with their pastor's liberating his own slaves ; and as Mr.

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