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ANCIENT AND MODERN;

BEING

A HISTORY

OF

DENMARK, SWEDEN, AND NORWAY:

COMPREHENDING

A DESCRIPTION OF THESE COUNTRIES ;

AN ACCOUNT OF THE MYTHOLOGY, GOVERNMENT, LAWS, MANNERS, AND
INSTITUTIONS OF THE EARLY INHABITANTS; AND OF THE PRESENT
STATE OF SOCIETY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, ARTS, AND COMMERCE.

WITH

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THEIR NATURAL HISTORY.

BY

ANDREW CRICHTON, LL. D.,
Author of the History of Arabia, &c.;

AND

HENRY WHEATON, LL.D.,
Anthor of the History of the Northmen, &c., Honorary Member of the Scandinavian and Icelandic

Literary Societies, and lately American Charge d'Affaires at Copenhagen.

WITH A MAP, AND TWELVE ENGRAVINGS BY JACKSON.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

SECOND EDITION.

CEDINBURGH:
OLIVER & BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT;
AND SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., LONDON.

MDCCCXXXVIII.

Scan 103.1

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

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[ENTERED IN STATIONERS' HALL.]

Printed by Oliver & Boyd,
Tweeddale Court, High Street, Edinburgh.

37-99

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

CHAPTER I.

FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR.

New Epoch in Scandinavian History—The Throne of Sweden made

Hereditary in the Family of Wasa-Death of Gustavus, and
Accession of Erik XIV.-Fickle Character of this Prince_His
Courtships-His Quarrels with the Russians and Poles-Perse-
cution of the Sture Family—Rupture with Denmark—Expedition
of Frederick II. against the Dithmarschen— Their brave Resist-
ance and final Subjugation_Seven Years' War with Sweden
Naval Battles in the Baltic-Erik XIV. deposed—Peace of
Stettin_Death and Character of Frederick II.-Attempts to
restore the Catholic Religion in Sweden-Hostilities with Russia
-King of Poland succeeds to the Swedish Crown-Abdication
of Sigismund, and Accession of Charles IX-War of Calmar be-
tween Denmark and Sweden_Peace of Knærod_Military Ex-
ploits of Gustavus Adolphus Auspicious Commencement of his
Reign-Hostilities with Poland-Peace concluded ....... Page 13

CHAPTER II.
FROM THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR TO THE DANISH

REVOLUTION OF 1660.
The Thirty Years' War-Its Causes and Progress—Christian IV.

chosen Captain-general of the Protestant Army-Victories of

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