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CHAPTER I.

NEW ENGLAND STATES.

MAINE.

Maine, the most eastern of the United States, and by far the largest of the New England States, lies between latitude 42° 57′ and 47° 32′ N., and longitude 66° 52′ and 71° 6′ W. It is bounded on the north by Canada East; on the south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by New Brunswick and Passamaquoddy Bay; and on the west by New Hampshire and Canada East. Its greatest length from north to south is 303 miles; from east to west, 212 miles; area, 31,766 square miles, or 20,330,240 acres. In 1860, only about one-eighth of this vast territory, or about 2,704, 133 acres, was under cultivation.

Maine, as a general thing, is hilly and mountainous, and has its culminating point at Mount Katahdin, at an altitude of 5,385 feet. A broken range of mountains, supposed to be a continuation of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, extends across the state in a north-easterly direction, and terminates with Mars Hill, in Aroostook county, about one mile from the eastern boundary of the state. This mountain chain forms the water-shed between the basin of the St. Johns river and the Atlantic ocean. Extensive quarries of granite, of the finest quality, are found upon the coast; and in the interior are metamorphic rocks and minerals. The coast line is very irregular, being indented with numerous bays, which receive some of the largest rivers of New England. Passamaquoddy, the largest bay, is at the south-eastern extremity of the state. It is fifteen miles long, and ten miles wide, and is entered by three passages. The other principal indentations are Englishman's, Frenchman's, Penobscot and Casco bays. The principal rivers are Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin and Saco. The Penobscot is the largest, and is formed by the junction of the Seboois river with the

West Branch. The extreme length of the river is above 300 miles, and it has a course, after its junction with the Seboois, of 135 miles. The western branch rises in the extreme western part of the state, at the foot of the Green mountains, and in its course drains the Chesuncook and Bamedumpok lakes. At Bangor, 58 miles from the mouth of the river, vessels of the largest size are received. The source of the Kennebec river is Moosehead lake, which is about 1,000 feet above the level of the sea. It has a length of 160 miles, and receives the waters of the Dead and Sebasticook rivers. The Androscoggin river originates in Coos county, New Hampshire, in Umbagog lake, and, after a very irregular course of about 150 miles, enters the Kennebec, about 20 miles above the mouth of the latter river. The Saco river rises among the White mountains, in the southern part of Coos county, New Hampshire, and, after flowing in a south-easterly direction, through Maine, enters the Atlantic in York county. The St. John river separates Maine from Canada East, and the St. Croix partially separates the same state from New Brunswick.

No other state in the union contains so great a number of beautiful lakes, as Maine. Of these, Moosehead, in a wild and picturesque region, lying between the counties of Somerset and Piscataquis, is the largest. It is 35 miles long and 10 miles broad. There is a steamboat upon the lake, used to convey lumber to the Kennebec river. The water is deep, and abounds with fish, among which trout are conspicuous. Chesumcook lake, 26 miles long and four miles broad, is merely an expansion of the Penobscot river. Schoodic lakes are two beautiful sheets of water in Washington county, drained by an affluent of the St. Croix river.

On the south-eastern coast of the state are a number of islands, of which the principal are Fox islands, and Grand Menan and Mount Desert Islands. The latter, in Frenchman's bay, is 15 miles long and 11 miles broad. The inhabitants numbering more than 200, are chiefly engaged in shipping and fisheries.

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Maine has extensive forests of pine, spruce, hemlock, and maple, and it is estimated that one-third of the ships of America are built in this state. The white and red oak abound in the vicinity of the coast; and in the districts at the headwaters of the Kennebec and Penobscot, are found the pine and spruce. Butternut and white walnut are scarce, but maple, birch and ash grow in abundance. The mineral productions of Maine are not very extensive. Considerable iron is found Considerable iron is found upon the Aroostook river, and small quantities of copper and lead are found in the vicinity of Dexter and Lubec. Large quantities of slate are found between the Kennebec and St. Johns rivers.

The climate of Maine is extremely regular, the temperature ranging from 30° below zero to 100° above. The soil in the mountainous regions, and in districts bordering upon the south eastern coast, is poor, and wholly unadapted to cultivation. The most fertile portions of the country comprise the basin of the St. John's river, and the territory lying between the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers. The staple products are corn, rye, barley, buckwheat, beans, potatoes, oats and hay. Wheat is produced, though in limited quantities. Hops and flax are also cultivated, and large quantities of maple sugar are manufactured.

No other state in the union has as great a number of good harbors, or affords such natural advantages for commerce, as Maine. The length of the coast, in a direct line, is 278 miles. Considering the irregularity of the coast, and following the same in all its windings, the former length is increased three times. The most of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic are safe for the largest vessels, from ten to fifty miles from the ocean. Lumber, which is produced by means of these rivers, is the chief export. The lumber produced in 1860 was valued at $6,598,565. In 1863 the exports amounted to $7,016,342; imports $3,911,468. The increase of exports of the latter year over 1862 was over $1,500,000.

AUGUSTA

Is the capital, and Portland and Bangor the largest cities of the state. Augusta is the seat of justice of Kennebec county,

and is sixty miles north-east of Portland, on both sides of the Kennebec, about forty-five miles from the mouth of that river. The business portion of the city lies under an elevation, which rises a short distance from the river. On the summit of this elevation are a number of hotels, and a large portion of the city residences. The state house, in the southern portion of the city, is an imposing building, of light granite construction, in front of which is a spacious park, containing ornamental trees and flowers, and intersected with gravel walks. Augusta contains twelve churches, ten hotels, six banks, several public schools, and a female academy. A dam, five hundred and ninety feet long, has been constructed across the river, in the northern limits of the city, which greatly improves the navigation above, and affords immense hydraulic power to the manufactories and foundries below. A passenger and railroad bridge span the river, about one-fourth of a mile apart, the former being five hundred and the latter nine hundred feet long. The Portland and Kennebec railroad passes through Augusta, and terminates at Waterville. Population in 1860, 7,609.

PORTLAND,

The capital of Cumberland county, is on the eastern side of Casco bay, one hundred and five miles north-east of Boston, two hundred and ninety-two miles south-east of Montreal, and three hundred and seventeen miles in the same direction from Quebec. It is the largest city of Maine, and is the southern terminus of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence railroad. Its site is a hilly peninsula, about three miles long, and averaging threefourths of a mile in breadth. The harbor, nearly surrounded by land, is one of the finest in the world, being of sufficient depth to receive the largest vessels, and guarded at its principal entrance by several strong fortresses. Portland is finely laid off, and contains a large number of handsome buildings, generally constructed of brick. Congress street, extending from Munjoy's to Bramhill's, the former on the eastern, and the latter on the western side of the peninsula, is the principal thoroughfare of the city.

The most prominent public building of the city is the city hall, erected in 1859. The building, of dark sandstone construction, is surmounted by a lofty dome. The other principal buildings. are the custom house, mechanics' hall, a natural history building, mercantile association and Maine charitable mechanics' association buildings, and a large number of churches. Portland is rich in commerce and manufactures. Her exports for the year 1864 amounted to $3,824,591; imports $3,018,063. The city is extensively engaged in ship building, and contains manufactories of locomotives, railway carriages, &c. Portland has an abundant supply of pure water, and is lighted with gas. Population in 1860, 26,342.

BANGOR,

The capital of Penobscot county, is sixty-six miles north-east of Augusta, and one hundred and twenty-six miles in the same direction from Portland. It is on the right bank of the Penobscot, and on both sides of the Kenduskeig, which enters the former river about sixty miles from the ocean. A bridge, one thousand three hundred and twenty feet long, extends to Brewer, on the opposite bank of the river, and a short distance below is the Portland harbor, five hundred yards long, and deep enough, at high water, to receive the largest ships. The city has a pleasant location, commanding a fine view of the river and surrounding country. Bangor has a large number of hotels, colleges, and churches. A first class hotel, called the Bangor house, is probably inferior to none in the state. The city contains four large foundries, four steam furniture manufactories, a large number of steam sawing and planing mills, fifteen banks, twelve churches, and a theological seminary. Bangor has railway communications with Old Town, and cities on the Penobscot and Kennebec railroad. Population in 1860, 16,407.

Main has six hundred miles of railroad, sixty-nine banks, and four thousand five hundred public schools. The latter are supported by money arising from the sale of public lands, and a tax of one-half of one per cent. on the capital of banks. The state also contains three colleges, twelve hundred churches, and forty

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