Слике страница

nine periodical publications. The government consists of a governor, senate, and house of representatives. Excepting criminals and paupers, persons have the right of suffrage after residing in the country three months. Maine sends six members to congress, and is entitled to eight electoral votes for president.


New Hampshire, one of the original thirteen United States, and next to Maine, the largest of the New England states, lies between latitude 42° 41′ and 45° 11' N., and longitude 70° 40′ and 72° 28′ W. It is bounded on the north by Canada East, on the south by Massachusetts, on the east by Maine and the Atlantic ocean, and on the west by Vermont and Canada East. Its greatest length from north to south is one hundred and seventy-six miles; width, forty-five miles; area, nine thousand two hundred and eighty square miles, or five million nine hundred and thirty-nine thousand two hundred acres. New Hampshire is often called the "Granite State," on account of the abundance of that mineral. From the magnificent scenery of the White mountains, it is also styled the "Switzerland of America."

With the exception of a small district in the south-eastern portion of the state, the country is hilly and mountainous. The White mountains extend nearly across the state from north to south. They commence near the head waters of the Aroostook river, in Maine, and reach their culminating in Coos county, New Hampshire. The base of the mountains is a broad platteau, from sixteen to eighteen hundred feet high. The White mountains are more admired by travelers, and attract a larger number of tourists than any other natural objects in the United States, excepting Niagara. The lofty mountains, wild valleys, beautiful lakes, grand cascades and torrents, alike contribute beauty and grandeur to this delightful region. Twenty bold peaks, with deep, narrow gorges, rise abruptly to the hight of five thousand feet. Mount Washington, the highest summit, and culminating point of New England, is eighty-five miles north of Concord, in Coos county, and has an altitude of six thousand

two hundred and eighty-five feet. The sides, which are remarkably steep, are covered for about three-fourths of the distance from the base to the summit, with a thick growth of trees. The upper part has a conical form, and is frequently enveloped in mist and fog. Mount Adams, next in hight to Mount Washington, is in the same county, and has an altitude of five thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine feet. Mount Jefferson, directly north of Mount Washington, between the latter peak and Mount Adams, has an altitude of five thousand six hundred and fiftyseven feet. Mount Lafayette is a peak of the Franconia range, in Grafton county, seventy-five miles north-west of Concord. Hight, five thousand five hundred feet. Immediately across the valley is Profile or Cannon mountain, which is covered with dense forests, till you arrive in the vicinity of the summit. This peak, though exceeded in hight by the surrounding mountains, is none the less interesting. At the foot of this mountain, near the Franconia notch, is the Profile house, a favorite resort of tourists.

Other elevations of importance are Mount Madison, five thousand four hundred and fifteen feet high, Mount Monroe, five thousand three hundred and forty-nine feet high, and Mount Franklin four thousand eight hundred and fifty feet high. (See views of White mountains.) The principal elevations, independent of the main chain, are the Kearsarge mountains, in Merrimac county, two thousand four hundred and sixty-eight feet high, and the Blue hills, in the south-eastern portion of the state, one thousand one hundred and fifty-one feet high. The upper portions of the former consist of bare granite rock.

The most important rivers of New Hampshire are the Connecticut and Merrimac. The Connecticut has its source in a small sheet of water, a few miles north of Connecticut lake. The Merrimac river, formed by the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnipiseogee rivers, flows first in a southerly, and, after entering Massachusetts, in a north-easterly direction, and reaches the Atlantic near Newburyport. Winnipiseogee, the principal lake in the state, is drained by the river of the same name. This large and beautiful sheet of water, lying between Carroll and

Belknap counties, is twenty-five miles long and ten miles wide. Its multitude of islands, and irregular form, in connection with the romantic beauty of the surrounding scenery, render it one of the most pleasing places in the state. Its waters are very deep and pure, and it is thought by some to rival Loch Lomond in beauty.

The forest trees of New Hampshire are various. On the mountain slopes are vast forests of pine, which sometimes grow over two hundred feet high. The other principal trees are the oak, maple, spruce, beech and hemlock. The climate of New Hampshire resembles that of Maine, the summers being short, and the winters long and severe.

Though there are some fertile districts, the state, as a general thing, is not adapted to agricultural pursuits. In 1860 there were two hundred and thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and sixty-six bushels of wheat, and one million four hundred and fourteen thousand six hundred and twenty-eight bushels of corn produced.

Concord is the capital. Manchester and Portsmouth are the principal towns.


The capital of New Hampshire, and seat of justice of Merrimac county, is on the western bank of the Merrimac river, fiftynine miles north-west of Boston. The ground on which the city is built is slightly elevated, and comprises a district two miles long, and three-fourths of a mile broad. Main street, the principal thoroughfare, extends through the entire length of the city from north to south, and contains the business houses, hotels, churches, etc. State street contains a Methodist general biblical institute, and a huge state prison of granite construction. The state house is a hewn granite edifice, one hundred and twentysix feet long, forty-nine feet wide, and two stories high, standing in the center of a common, finely ornamented with maple and elm trees. The falls in the Merrimac at Concord afford valuable water power to the foundries, mills, etc. The city contains nine churches, four newspaper offices, eight banks, and a state lunatic asylum. Population in 1860, 10,896.


A town of Hillsborough county, and chief city of New Hampshire, is on the eastern bank of the Merrimac river, eighteen miles south-east of Concord, and fifty-nine miles north-west of Boston. The city is finely laid off on an elevated plain ninetyfive feet above the river. The principal street is a mile and a half long, and one hundred feet broad, and divides the city into two nearly equal parts. The western portion of the city is chiefly built of wood, and contains a number of handsome villas and residences. The eastern portion, or the part bordering on the river, is built almost wholly of brick, and contains the business establishments, hotels, etc. The most important buildings are the town house, the different churches and public schools, and the athenæum. The latter, established in 1844, has a free reading room, and a library of thirty-five hundred volumes. "The system of public instruction comprises a high school, two grammar schools, an intermediate, six middle, and twelve primary schools, besides others not classed." The city is furnished with gas by a company established in 1851, having a capital, at the present time, amounting to about one hundred thousand dollars.

Near Manchester the Merrimac has a descent of fifty feet, called Amoskeag Falls, which, in connection with a dam a short distance below, affords sufficient hydraulic power to run several hundred thousand spindles.

The most important corporations of Manchester are the Amoskeag manufacturing company, and the Stark mills, the former employing twenty-five hundred persons, both male and female, and producing daily sixty-five thousand yards of tickings, drillings, sheetings, and pantaloon stuffs, and the latter twelve hundred persons, and manufacturing daily thirty thousand yards of sheetings, seventeen thousand yards of drilling, and upwards of five thousand seamless bags.

The city contains twelve churches, ten newspaper publications, five insurance companies, and four banks with a capital exceeding five hundred thousand dollars. Population, 20,107.


A city and semi-capital of Rockingham county, is on the southern bank of the Piscataqua river, three miles from its mouth, and fifty-five miles north-east of Boston. The site of the city is a slightly elevated peninsula, formed by the Piscataqua river. It is connected by bridges with Grand island and Kittery, directly opposite in Maine. Prominent among the public buildings are the state arsenal and athenæum, the finest structures in the city. The latter has a library of ten thousand choice volumes. On an island facing the city is a United States navy yard, containing "three immense ship houses, and a floating balance dock, constructed at a cost of about eight hundred thousand dollars."

The harbor,

Portsmouth is the only port of entry in the state. having an average depth of about fifty-five feet, lies between the city and the sea, and is large enough to accommodate upwards of two thousand vessels. The city contains nine churches, four newspaper publications, five banks, a large number of manufactories, and an excellent system of public schools. Population in 1860, 9,335.

New Hampshire has forty-four cotton, sixty-one woollen, and twenty-nine iron factories; a large number of paper mills, fiftyone banks, seven hundred churches, thirty-eight newspaper publications, and numerous and well conducted free schools. Population of the state in 1860, 326,073, of which 325,579 were white, and 494 colored.

In New Hampshire the governor, senate, and house of representatives are elected annually. The senate is composed of twelve and the house of representatives of two hundred and eighty-six members. The governor receives a salary of one thousand dollars per annum.


Vermont, one of the United States, and the first state admitted after the adoption of the federal constitution, lies between latitude 42° 44′ and 45° N., and longitude 71° 33′ and 73° 25′

« ПретходнаНастави »