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YONKERS

Is a beautiful town on the eastern bank of the Hudson river, seventeen miles north of New York. The Hudson river railroad passes through the town, which has also a number of steamboats, establishing water communication with New York. It has ten churches, several banks, four newspaper offices, and a number of manufactories, mills, and foundries. It also contains male and female schools, and academies.

Yonkers is a favorite summer resort for wealthy citizens of New York and Brooklyn, who have established in and around the town a number of splendid residences. Population in 1860, 11,848. (See views of Yonkers.)

WEST POINT.

West Point, the seat of the United States Military Academy, is on the western bank of the Hudson river, in Cornwall township, Orange county, fifty-two miles north of New York. The site of the academy is an elevated and nearly circular plain, from one hundred and seventy to one hundred and ninety feet high, and about one mile in circuit. This national military seat was established in 1802, by forty cadet artillerists and ten engineers, and is supported by the government. The tuition is free -each pupil connected with the institution, however, being obliged to serve the government eight years. The president is allowed to send ten cadets to the academy, and each member of congress, one; the latter from the districts which they represent. No person under sixteen or above twenty-one years of age, is allowed to enter. In 1808, six years after the academy was founded, the school numbered one hundred and fifty-six; in 1812, two hundred and fifty, the latter being the largest number allowed in the academy at one time. The course of study embraces four years: (1) Mathematics, engineering, fencing, and bayonet exercises; (2) French, mathematics, fencing, tactics of infantry, cavalry and artillery; (3) natural philosophy, chemistry, drawing and riding; (4) military and civil engineering, mineralogy, geology, chemistry, law, literature, practical military engineering, tactics.

West Point is picturesquely situated among the Highlands, on the summits of which are ruins of forts, where occurred many important battles between the Americans and British, during the revolutionary war. On one of these elevations, six hundred feet high, is old Fort Putnam, "surrounded on three sides by deep ravines and steep descents." Fortresses in the vicinity of West Point were captured by the British in 1777, but abandoned after the surrender of Burgoyne. Stronger forts were then constructed by the Americans, which the traitor, Arnold, bargained to betray--a plot foiled by the arrest of Major Andre. (See views at West Point.)

ELMIRA

Is a city of Chemung county, on the northern side of the Chemung river, on the route of the Erie railroad, two hundred and seventy-seven miles west by north of New York. It is connected by railroad with Philadelphia, Baltimore and Harrisburg, on the south, and is the southern terminus of the Rochester and Elmira railroad, which connects the Erie with the northern tier of the Central railroad. It is on the route of the Erie railroad, which crosses the Chemung at this place, and is connected with Seneca lake by the Chemung canal. The city contains a courthouse, a fine ladies' college, fifteen churches, four newspaper publications, five hotels, six banks, a piano manufactory, and a number of boot manufactories. Population, in 1865, 14,000. (See views at Elmira.)

LITTLE FALLS,

A thriving town of Herkimer county, is picturesquely situated in a narrow and romantic valley, on both sides of the Mohawk river, seventy-five miles north-west of Albany, and two hundred and fifty miles in the same direction from New York. The falls of the Mohawk at this place afford abundant water-power to the foundries and mills on its banks. "The Erie canal here passes, by a deep cut in the solid rock, through a picturesque defile, two miles in extent." (See views of Erie canal.) The elevations on either side of the canal frequently reach a great hight, and greatly resemble the Palisades of the Hudson. A

mass of rugged rock, in the outskirts of the town, is called Profile Rock. (See view of Profile Rock.) The town has eight churches, two banks, and four newspaper offices. Population, 5,989.

SARATOGA SPRINGS

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Is a fashionable watering place and summer resort in Saratoga county, in the eastern part of New York, thirty-eight miles north of Albany, and one hundred and sixty-seven miles in the same direction from New York. Saratoga owes its celebrity to its mineral springs, the surrounding scenery possessing few, if any, extraordinary attractions." A single street, lined with massive hotels, stores and elegant private residences, constitutes the chief portion of the town. There are about twenty-three springs, variously impregnated with iron, iodine, soda, magnesia, etc., and all highly charged with carbonic acid. Empire and Iodine springs have been but recently discovered. Congress, the most important of the springs at the present time, was discovered as early as 1792. The waters of High Rock spring, discharged through a conical limestone rock, about five feet high, are "strongly charged with carbonic acid gas. These waters are prescribed in cases of chronic dyspepsia, diseases of the liver, etc. Saratoga Springs is annually visited by from thirty thousand to forty thousand pleasure-seekers and invalids, who receive accommodations at a number of large and fashionable hotels. Congress Hall, in the centre of a finely ornamented. enclosure, has a commodious piazza, across the entire front of the building. Union Hall, though equaling the others in splendor and elegance, is in a more retired spot. There are also in the town several concert halls and opera houses, much frequented by the fashionable circle. Population of the town in 1860, 7,496. (See views of Saratoga Springs.)

OWEGO.

Owego is a finely built and prosperous town of Tioga county, New York, at the confluence of the Owego creek with the north branch of the Susquehanna river. The Owego creek is crossed at this place by the New York and Erie railway, about two

hundred and forty miles from New York. The Cayuga and Susquehanna railroad connects Owego with Ithaca. The town contains eight churches, three newspaper offices, a large number of stores, three banks, male and female academies, and numerous flour, plaster, cotton and woolen mills. Owego is extensively engaged in the lumber trade. Incorporated as a town in 1827; population, 5,000. (See views of Owego.)

STAPLETON HIGHTS,

A thriving town of Richmond county, New York, picturesquely situated among the hights, on the north-eastern side of Staten Island. It is seven miles south-west of New York, and five miles in the same direction from Brooklyn. It contains several churches, and some elegant private residences. It is, also, the seat of a Seamen's Retreat, an immense three story building, two hundred feet long, and fifty feet wide, erected at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars. (See view of Stapleton Hights.)

PORT JERVIS,

A thriving town of Orange county, New York, on the Hudson and Delaware canal and the Erie railroad, ninety-eight miles north-west of New York. It has five churches, two banks, and one engine house. Port Jervis is in a wild and picturesque region, surrounded by lofty elevations, the principal of which, Kittatinny mountain, changes the course of the Delaware from a south-westerly to a south-easterly direction. Population, about 4,000. (See views at Port Jervis.)

In 1860, New York had two thousand seven hundred and one miles of railroad, constructed at a cost of one hundred and thirty-one millions three hundred and twenty thousand five hundred and forty-two dollars. The Hudson and Erie canal, commenced in 1817, and completed in 1825, is three hundred and sixty-four miles long, and cost the state about seven millions of dollars. In regard to education, New York holds a prominent position among the United States. In 1860, the state contained seventeen colleges, attended by two thousand nine hundred and seventy students. The Normal School, at Albany, is attended

by about two hundred and seventy-five students annually. The People's College, at Havana, Schuyler county, has property valued at one hundred thousand dollars, and is attended by forty-five students. At Ithaca, is the Cornell University, named in honor of Hon. E. Cornell, who donated five hundred thousand dollars to found the school, and the increase of a million acres of land for its support. (See views of Cornell University.) In 1860, New York contained three millions eight hundred and eighty thousand seven hundred and thirty-five inhabitants, of whom three millions eight hundred and thirty-one thousand five hundred and ninety were white, forty-nine thousand and four colored, and one hundred and forty-one Indians. There are in the state five thousand and seventy-seven churches, eleven thousand six hundred and twenty-one public schools, one thousand five hundred and twenty private schools, two hundred and eight academies, seventeen colleges, and five hundred and fiftynine newspaper publications. The governor of New York receives four thousand dollars per annum for his services. The senate consists of thirty-two, and the house of representatives of one hundred and twenty-eight, members. New York sends thirty one members to the national house of representatives, and is entitled to thirty-three electoral votes for president.

NEW JERSEY.

New Jersey, one of the middle states, and one of the thirteen original United States, lies between latitude 38° 55′ and 41° 21' N., and longitude 73° 58' and 75° 29′ W. It is bounded on the north by New York, on the south and south-east by the Delaware bay and river, on the east by New York, separated by the Hudson river, and the Atlantic ocean, and on the west by Pennsylvania and Delaware. Its greatest length is one hundred and sixty-seven miles; greatest breadth, ninety-six miles; area, eight thousand three hundred and twenty square miles, or five millions three hundred and twenty-four thousand eight hundred acres.

New Jersey, as a general thing, is low and sandy. The northeastern portion of the state is traversed by a number of ridges,

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