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Is an important town of Ecuador, fifty miles north-east of Quito, at the foot of the volcano of Imbabura. It is in a fertile region, well built, and has about fifteen thousand inhabitants. (See views at Ibara.)


Is a city and port of entry of Venezuela, and capital of a province of its own name, on the western side of the entrance from Maraycabo Gulf into Maraycabo Lake. It has several monasteries and convents, and a large and handsome parish church. The harbor is obstructed by a bar, on which there is only eight feet of water at ebb tide. Population, eighteen thousand. (See views of Maraycabo.)

Within sight of Maraycabo is the town of Los Haticos, the streets of which are finely shaded with magnificent palms and cocoa-nut trees. (See views at Los Haticos.)

South America was discovered by Christopher Columbus, who landed at the mouth of the Orinoco river in 1498. All the country, except Brazil and Guana, was claimed by Spain, and remained subject to that power till the beginning of the present century, when the different provinces threw off the Spanish yoke, and established themselves as independent republics. Brazil was claimed by Portugal, and remained in her possession till 1822, when a peaceful separation was effected. Guana is divided between the British, French, and Dutch.







The British islands are west of Europe, and comprise England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and many adjacent islands.

England, the seat of government of Great Britain, is situated south of Scotland, and east of Wales. The surface is generally level or undulating, the climate moist and mild, and the soil fertile and productive.


The capital of the empire, and the largest city in the world, is situated on both sides of the Thames, in England. It had, according to the census of 1865, a population of three millions and fifteen thousand. It is the first city in commercial importance, and covers an area of one hundred and twenty-two square miles.

In the beginning of cold weather the city is sometimes enveloped in fogs so dense, that it is necessary, in the business part of the city, that the buildings should be lighted, and vehicles are unable to pass through the streets. The thick atmosphere and the cloud of smoke constantly hovering over the city, renders it difficult to view the whole metropolis from any one point. But from a number of positions views of portions of the great mass of buildings may be obtained, the magnificent dome of St. Paul's cathedral forming a conspicuous object in nearly every one. This church, in point of architecture, is the greatest ornament of the city. Its foundation was laid on Lodgate Hill in 1675. It is five hundred and ten feet long and two hundred and fifty wide, exclusive of the porticos. The building is surmounted by a massive and handsome dome, on the top of which is a lantern with a ball and cross, the hight of which is four hundred and four feet above the ground. The west front has a beautiful double portico of coupled columns and two clock towers,

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