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of the land:- And the king spake unto the Hebrew the remainder, all in the country were closed. In a midwives, &c.—Exo. Chap 1. Now says the doctor, war of such atrocity there was no safety, where memMlet an act of parliament be made, enjoining the co. bers, however peaceful, were collected; we have 'lony midwives to stile, in the birth, every third seen that the British tories* violated the sanctity for fourth child. By this means may you keep the of private dwellings by their' murders, and how 'colonies to their size. And if they were under the could it be expected they would be awed by the he. 'hard alternative of submitting to one or the other liness of a church? In a camp where was no permeof these schemes for checking their growth, I dare nency, and but little rest, there was no place for *answer for them they would prefer the latter.' chaplains-and at home there was no security, even

Note by the transcriber. They seem to have found for the pastors of the church; consequently they out since that time, another method or scheme which, were compelled to go into exile. Had they gone out bye the bye, they never have dared to own, and have of their own families to administer comfort, it always disavowed'it personally to our ambassadors, would have been said they were stirring up sedition; 'though they have never discontinued it in practice, and, like some bigots of old, they would have until general J. made an example of two of their made themselves voluntary martyrs. They took notorious assistants; and could he have been so for the wiser course of retiring with their families from tunate as to have caught the two principal agents, the murderous rage of the times." col. W- -e and Col. N-9, and made them also the objects of 'exact justice,' we should not hear for a “Near the close of the year 1780, there took place length of time of any more ‘secret schemes for the de. a skirmish between a small patrole of wbigs, under 'population of the frontiers of the United States.' capt. Melton, and a large party of tories, under

Bost. Pat, major Ganey, near White's Bridge, two miles from

Georgetown; a few shots were exchanged, and GENERAL MARION.

Melton was obliged to retreat. But, in this short A biography of this revolutionary hero, it ap. affair, Gabriel Marion, nephew to the general, was pears, by an article in the Southern Patriot, has first taken prisoner, and when his name was announ: been written by judge James, of South Carolina; ced, inhumanly shot. The instrument of death was and the following extract has been given in that placed so near that it burnt his linen at the breast. paper as a specimen of the work about to be pub. He was a young gentleman, who had received a good lished:

education--of whom high expectations were formed, "To people of good principles, particularly the and who was much beloved in the brigade. The religious, at this period (1780 and 1781), was truly general bad no children, and he mourned over this distressing. Those fit for military service, includ-youth, as would a father over an only child, and all ing men of sixty years of age and boys of four. his men condoled with him, but he soon publicly teen, few of whom dared to stay at home, were en- expressed this consolation for himself that his negaged in active warfare, and had their minds in con- phew was a virtuous young man--that he died in de stant occupation, which, in whatever situation man

fence of his country, and that he would mourn orer may be placed, brings with it a certain degree of

him no more. satisfaction, if not content. But to the superanuat.

At that same place a worthy man, Mr. Swainesu, ed and the female sex, no such satisfaction was af. was killed. Ere this he had been a schoolmaster, forded. Most of those had relatives to whom but, finding there was no emyloyment for men of his they were bound by the most tender and sacred peaceful profession now, he boldly shouldered the ties, who were exposed to constant danger, and for musket and died a soldier. But so prone are man. wbose fate they were unceasingly anxious. As a

kind to pass over the merits of this useful class of comfort in this situation, they might employ them.

citizens, that, had he not fallen by the side of a selves in housebold affairs, or resort to private de. Marion, perhaps bis memory would have been for votion; but those refined pleasures, which arise gotten. About the same time Mr. Bently, another from social intercourse, were wanting; and particu. *The British, under Tarlton, had already, (in larly that faint picture of heaven, the consolation May, 1780), cut to pieces Mr. Samuel Wyley, in bis which is derived from meeting one's friends in pub- brother, John Wyley, who was sheriff of the district

own house, at Camden, whom they mistook for bis lic worship, was wholly denied them. Most of the and the tories, under Harrison, bad murdered in churches in towns and in the country were burnt or their dwellings, the two Mr. Bradleys, Mr. Roberts, made depots for the military stores of the enemy-Lynch's creek. Lord Cornwallis soon made Anti

and others, in that part of Salem which lies of some, in fact, were converted into stables; and, ofl son a colonel.

schoolmaster, was killed in action. The suspension times white satin breeches. Buckles were fashionof all public education, which led to the fate of such able till within 15 or 20 years, and a man could not men, and the fact stated above, that all public wor- bave remained in a ball room with shoe-strings. It ship was now at an end, most forcibly shewed the was usual for the bride, bridegroom and maids, and calamitous state of the country during this eventful men attending, to go to church together three sucperiod."

cessive Sundays after the wedding, with a change

of dress each day. A gentleman who deceased not «Men at this time, and their general too, had no- long since, appeared the first Sunday in white broad thing but water to drink-they commonly wore

cloth-the second in blue and gold; the third in homespun clothes, which lacked warmth-they slept peach bloom and pearl buttons. It was a custom in damp places, according to their means, either to hang the escutcheon of a deceased head of a with or without a blanket; be was well off who bad family out of the window over the front door, from one to himself; the one half of the general's had been the time of his decease until after the funeral. The burnt-they were content to feed upon sweet po. last instance which is remembered of this, was in tatoes, either with or without beef; there being the case of gov. Hancock's uncle, 1764. Copies of neither mills nor leisure to grind corn-but all sigh. the escutcheon, painted on black silk, were more ed for salt-for salt! that article of the first neces. anciently distributed among the pall-bearers-rings sity to the human race. Little do the luxurious of afterwards-and, until within a few years, gloves. the present day know of the pressure of such a Dr. A. Eliot had a mug full of rings which were want. Salt, when brought from the sea-shore off presented to him at funerals. Till within about 20 Waccanaw, where it was coarsely manufactured, years gentlemen wore powder, and many of them brought at that time ten silver dollars, each more sat from thirty to forty minutes under the barthan ten at present; tbus bay salı,one balf brine,sola ber's bands, to have their hair craped; suffering no for at least one hundred dollars value of this day. inconsiderable pain most of the time from hair-pulo As soon as general Marion could collect a sufficient ling, and sometimes from the hot curling tongs.quantity of this desirable article, be distributed it Crape cushions and hoops were indispensable in full out from Snow's Island, on Pedee, in quantities not dress, till within about 30 years. Sometimes ladies exceeding a busbel, to each Whig family, and thus were dressed the day before the party, and slept in endeared bimself the more to his followers." easy chairs, to keep their bair in fit condition for the

following night. Most ladies went to parties on

foot, if they could not get a cast in a friend's carTHE OLDEN TIME.

riage or chaise. Gentlemen rarely had a chance There is in course of publication, in the Boston to ride. Gazette, the long-hoarded literary treasures of an The latest dinner hour was 2 o'clock; some offi. accurate observer's common-place-book, giving us cers of the colonial government dined later occaan amusing view of the society and manners of Bos- sionally. In genteel families ladies went to drink ton, rather less than a century ago---differing some tea about 4 o'clock, and rarely staid after candle what, it will be seen, from those of the present day, light in summer. It was the fashion for ladies to These sketches, one of the numbers of which will propose to visit--not to be sent for. be found below, are appropriately headed

The drinking of punch in the forenoon, in public

houses, was a common practice with the most reDress, &c.—Seventy years ago cocked bats, wigs,

spectable men, till about five and twenty years; and and red cloaks, were the usual dress of gentlemen,

evening clubs were very common. The latter, it

is said, were more common formerly, as they atboots were rarely seen, except among military men.

forded the means of communion on the state of the Shoe strings were worn only by those wbo could not buy any sort of buckles. In winter round coats country. Dinner parties were very rare. Wine was were used, made stiff with buckram; they came

little in use; convivial parties drank punch or

very down to the knees in front.

toddy. Half-boots came into fashion about 30 years

ago. Tbe first pair that appeared in Boston were Before the revolution boys wore wigs and cocked worn by a young gentleman who came here from hats; and boys of genteel families wore cocked New York, and who was more remarkable for his bats till within about thirty years.

boots than any thing else. Within 20 years gentle. Ball dress for gentlemen was silk coat, and breech. men wore scarlet coats with black velvet collars, cs of the same, and embroidered waistcoats- some.land very costly buttons, of mock pearl, sut steel, or


painted glass-and neckcloihs edged with lace, and a tradesman--(it was not a common thing in those laced cuffles over the hards. Before the revolution, days for tradesmen to eat fresh meat---) the justice from 5 to 6001. was the utmost of annual expendi. went out, saying, he would send the tradesman a ture in those families where carriages and corres. sallad for his lamb. He sent an overdue and un. pondent domestics were kept. There were only paid tax-bill. Soon after, the tradesman met the two or three carriages, that is, chariots or coaches, justice near this place, and told him be would rein 1750. Chaises on four wheels, pot phætons, turn his kindness; which he did, by hanging the jus. were in use in families of distinction.

tice up by the waistband of his breeches to the The history of Liberty Tree is said to be this: butcher's hook, and leaving him to get down as he That a certain capi. Mclatosb illuminated ibe tree,

could. and hung upon it effigies of obnoxious characters, and that these were taken down by the liberty boys FROM BOTTA'S AMERICAN REVOLUTION and burnt; and the tree thus got its name.

One of the most interesting works that has ever ap. The Popes--A stage was erected on wheels; on peared as a history of "the war of the indepenthis stage was placed a figure in the chair, called dence of the United States of America," was writ. the pope; behind him a female figure, in the atti. ten by Mr. Charles Botta, an Italian, a translation tude of dancing, whom they called Nancy Dawson; of which has been made by Mr. George Alexander behind her Admiral Byng hanging on a gallows; and Otis. From these volumes we extract the two behind him the devil. A similar composition was speeches that follow-previous to the insertion of made at the south-end, called south-end pope. In wbicb, it is necessary to give the "notice of the the day time the processions, each drawing with author” in relation to them. By way of preface them their popes and their attendants, met and to his work, Mr. Botta sayspassed each other, on the mill or drawbridge, very “There will be found, in the course of this biscivilly; but in the evening they met at the same tory, several discourses, of a certain length. Those points, and battle ensued with fists, sticks, and I bave put in the mouth of the different speakers stones; and one or the other of the popes was capo have really been pronounced by them, and upon tured. The north-end pope was never taken but those very occasions which are treated of in the once, and then the capiain bad been early wounded work. I should, bowever, mention that I have, and taken from the field. These pope conflicts sometimes, made a single orator say what has been were held in memory of the powder-plot of Nov. 5, said in subsiance by others of the same partyan i were some sort of imitation of what was done sometimes, also, but rarely, using the liberty, grantin England on the same anniversary.

ed in all times to historians, I have ventured to add A man used to ride on an ass, with immense jack a small number of pbrases, which appeared to me boots, and his face covered with a horrible mask, to coincide perfectly with the sense of the orator, and was called Joyce, Jr. His office was to assem- and proper to enforce his opinion: this has happen. ble men and boys in mob style, and ride in the mid. ed especially in the two discourses pronounced dle of them, and in such company to terrify the ad. before congress, for and against independence, by berents to royal government, before the revolution. Richard Henry Lee and John Dickinson. The tumults which resulted in the massacre, 1770, "It will not escape attentive readers, that in some was excited by such means. Joyce, Junior, was said of these discourses are found predictions which to have a particular whistle, which brought his ad. time has accomplished. I affirm that these remark. herents, &c. whenever they were wanted.

able passages belong entirely to the authors cited. About 1730 to 1740, there was no meat market; In order that these might not resemble those of there were only four shops in which fresh meat was

the poets, always made after the fact, I have been sold-one of thein was the corner of State-street so scrupulous as to translate them, word for word, and Cornhill, where Mr. Hartshorn now keeps.- from the original.” Gentlemen used to go the day before and have their On the 8th of June (1776), says Mr. Botta, a monames put down for what they wanted. Outside tion being made in congress to declare independence, of this shop was a large hook, on which carcasses Richard Henry Lee, one of the deputies from Vir. used to hang. A little man who was a justice of the ginia, spoke as follows and was heard with profound peace, came one day for meat; but came too late. attention: He was disappointed, and asked to wbom such and "I know not, whether among all the civil dis. such pieces were to ge? One of them was to go to cords which bave been recorded by historians, and which have been excited either by the love of lib , have found among all other nations. And as at erty in the people, or by the ambition of princes, first our forbearance, and then our resistance, have there has ever been presented a deliberation more proved equally insufficient, since our prayers were interesting or more important than that which now unavailing, as well as the blood lately shed; we engiges our attention; whether we consider the fu. must go further, and proclaim our independnece. ture destiny of this free and virtuous people, or Nor let any one believe that we have any other opthat of our enemies themselves, who, notwithstand- tion left. The time will certainly come when the ing their tyranny and this cruel war, are still our fated seperation must take place, whether you will bretbren, and descended from a common stock; or or no; for so it is decreed by the very nature of finally, that of the other nations of the globe, things, the progressive increase of our population whose eyes are intent upon this great spectacle, the fertility of our soil, the extent of our territory, and who anticipate from our success more freedom the industry of our countrymen, and the immensi for themselves, or from our def-at apprehend heavi. ty of the ocean which seperates the two states.er chains and a severer bondage. For the question And if this be true, as is most true, who does not is not whether we shall acquire an increase of ter. see that the sooner it takes place the better; and ritorial domision, or wickedly wrest from others that it would be not only imprudent, but the height their just possessions; but whether we shall pre- of folly, not to seize the present occasion, when serve, or lose forever, that liberty which we have British injustice has filled all hearts with indigna inherited from our ancestors, which we have pursued tion, inspired all minds with courage, united all opin. across tempestuous seas, and which we have defend. ions in one, and put arms in every band? And how ed in this land against barbarous men, ferocious long must we traverse three thousand miles of & beasts, and an inclement sky. And if so many and stormy sea, to go and solicit of arrogant and insodistinguished praises have always been lavished lent men either councils of commands to regulate upon the generous defen:lers of Greek and of Ro- our domestic affairs? Does it not become a great, man liberty, what will be said of us who defend a rich, and powerful nation, as we are, to look at liberty which is founded not upon the capricious home, and not abroal, for the government of its will of an unstable multitude, but upon immutable own concerns? And bow can a ministry of strar. statutes and tutelary laws; not that which was the gers judge, with any discernment, of our interests, exclusive privile, e of a few patricians, but that when they know not, and when it little importe which is the property of all; not that which was them to know, what is good for us, and what is not? stained by iniquitous ostracisms, or the borrible r'ne past injustice of the British ministers should decimation of armies, but that which is pure, tem. warn us against the future, if they should ever perate and gentle, and conformed to the civiliza. seize us again in their cruel claws. Since it has tion of the present age. Why then do we longer pleased our barbarous enemies to place before us, procrastinate, and wherefore are these delays? Let the alternative of slavery or of independences us complete the enterprize already so well com. where is the generous minded man and the lover menced; and since our union with England can .no of his country who can hesitate to choose? With longer consist with that fiberty and peace which are these perfidious men no promise is- secure, no our chief delight, let us dissolve these fatal ties, pledges sacred. Let us suppose, which heaven and conquer forever that good which we already avert, that we are conquered; let us suppose an enjoy; an entire and absolute independence. accommodation. What assurance have we of the

"But ought I not to begin by observing, that if British moderation in victory, or good faith in treawe have reached that violent extremily, beyond ty? Is it their having enlisted and let loose against which nothing can any longer exist between Ameri. us the ferocious Indians, and the merciless solca and England, but either such war or such peace diers of Germany? Is it that faith, so often pledged as are made between foreign nations, this can only and so often violated in the course of the present de imputed to the insatiable cupidity, the tyranni. contest; this British faith, which is reputed more cal proceedings, and the outrages, for ten years re. false than Punic? We ought rather to expect, that iterated, of the British ministers. What have we when we sball have fallen naked and uparmed into not done to restore peace, to re-establish barmony?) their hands, they will wreak upon us their fury and Who has not heard our prayers, and who is igno. their vengeance; they will load us with heavier rant of our supplications? They have wearied the chains, in order to deprive us not only of the pow. universe. England alone was deaf to our complaints, ler, but even of the hope of again recovering our end wanted that compassion towards us which we liberty. But I am willing to admit, although it is


a thing without example, that the British govern- glorious a destiny. There are some who seem tə ment will forget past offences and perform its dread the effects of this resolution. But will Eng. promises; can we imagine, that, after so long dis. land, or can she, manifest against us greater visentions, after so many outrages, so many com- gour and rage than she has already displayed? She bats, and so much bloodshed, our reconciliation deems resistance against oppression no less rebel. could be durable, and that every day, in the midst lioa than independence itself. And where are those of so much batred and rancour, would not afford formidable troops tbat are to subdue the Americans? some fresh subject of animosity. The two nations What the English could not do, can it be done by Gerare already seperated in interest and affections; the mans? Are they more brave or better disciplined? one is conscious of its ancient strengh, the other. The number of our enemies is increased; but our has become acquainted with its newly exerted own is not diminished, and the battles we have sus. force; the one desires to rule in an arbitary manner, tained have given us the pratice of a, ms and the ex. the other will not obey even if allowed its privil-perience of war. Who doubts then that a declaration eges. In such a state of things, what peace, what of independence will procure us allies! All nations concord, can be expected. The Americans may are desirous of procuring, by commerce, the pro. become faithful friends to the English, but subjects, duction of our exuberant soil; they will visit our never. And even though union could be restored ports hitherto closed by the monopoly of insatiawithour rancour, it could not without danger.—ble England. They are no less eager to contem. The wealth and power of Great Britain should in- plate the reduction of ber bated power; they all spire prudent men with fears for the future. Hav- loathe her barbarous dominion; their sudcours will ing reached such a height of grandeur that she has evince to our brave countrymen the gratitude they no longer any thing to dread from foreign powers, bear them for having been the first to sbake the foun. in the security of peace the spirit of her people dation of this Colossus. Foreign princes wait only will decay, manners will be corrupted, her youth for the extinction of all bazard of reconciliation to will grow up in the midst of vice, and in this state throw off their present reserve. If this measure of degeneration, England will become the prey of a is useful, it is no less becoming our dignity. Ame. foreign enemy, or an ambitious citizen. If we re. rica has arrived at a degree of power which assigns main united with her, we shall partake of her cor-her a place among independent nations; we are not ruptions and misfortunes, the more to be dreaded less entitled to it than the English themselves. If as they will be irreparable; seperated from her, on they have wealth, so also have we; if they are brave, the contrary, as we are, we should neither have to so are we; if they are more numerous, our popula. fear the seductions of peace nor the dangers of tion, through the incredible fruitfulness of our war. By a declaration of our freedom, the perils chaste wives, will soon equal theirs; if they bave would not be increased; but we should add 10 the men of renown as well in peace as in war, we like. ardour of our defenders, and to the splendour of wise have such; political revolutions usually provictory. Let us then take a firm step and escape duce great, brave, and generous spirits. From what from this labyrinth; we have assumed the sovereign we have already achieved in these painful begin. power, and dare not confess it, we disobey a king, pings, it is easy to presume what we shall hear. and acknowledge ourselves his subjects; wage war after accomplish, for experience is the source of sage against a people, on whom we incessantly protest counsels, and liberty is the mother of great men. our desire to depend. What is the consequence of Have you not seen the enemy driven from Lexing. so many inconsistencies? Hesitation paralyzes all ton by thirty thousand citizens armed and assemour measures; the way we ought to pursue is not bled in one day? Already their most celebrated marked out; our generals are neither respected nor generais bave yielded in Boston to the skill of ours; obeyed; our soldiers have neither confidence nor already their seamen, repulsed from our coasts, zeal; feeble at home, and little considered abroad, wander over the ocean, where tbey are the sport of foreign princes can neither esteem nor succour so tempest, and the prey of famine. Let us bail the timid and wavering a people. But independence favorable omen, and fight, not for the sake of know. once proclaimed, and our object avowed, more man. Jing on what terms we are to be the slaves of Eng. ly and decided measures will be adopted, all mindstand, but to secure to ourselves a free existence, to will be fired by the greatness of the enterprize, found a just and independerit government. Animathe civil magistrates will be inspired with new zeal, ted by liberty, the Greeks repulsed the innumerathe generals with fresh ardour, and the citizens ble army of Persians; sustained by the love of inwith greater constancy, to attain so high and so dependence, the Swiss and the Dutch humbled the

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