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Heavy faced numbers in parentheses, like (210), refer to consecutively numbered paragraphs of the national and state constitutions, pages 612 to 676.

Numbers separated by colon from a date refer to chapters of the state laws of that year; thus 521:1901 is chapter 521 of the laws passed by the New York legislature of 1901.

B with roman and Arabic numerals refers to the second edition of Bryce's American Commonwealth; thus B ii.612 refers to page 612 of the 2d volume.".

Prentice, stands.for.Prentice's History of New York; Hadley, for Hadley's Education of the American Citizen.

PREFACE

It is now a quarter of a century since I first published Northam's Civil Government, the early editions of which bore upon the title-page the words " for common schools ", the distinction of the book. Civil government had been hitherto a high school study, ranked in common estimation in the group with logic and mental and moral philosophy. The book was a great assistance to the movement that began about that time to introduce the subject lower down, especially in the 8th and 9th grades. The success of the book may be judged from the fact that it has passed through 177 editions, and that only last October 1,150 copies were ordered for a single institution, the New York City Normal college.

D

As a presentation of the facts of civil government that book has never had a rival: But there has recently developed, especially in regents schools, a demand for more of the history and the philosophy of civics. In deference to that demand this book has been written, and is believed to present all the valuable features of its predecessor, with an adequate response to the requirement for broader treatment. The regents

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