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* After a few trips, the wooden wheels of the Best Friend' gave way, and were replaced by cast iron ones, the pattern for which was made, and the wheels cast by another of Dotterer's apprentice boys, J. D. Petsch, then the foreman of that well known establishment. These, it is believed, were the first cast-iron wheels used on railroads in this country.

.“ The Best Friend blew up after a brief career, and from its wreck another engine was built by Mr. Petsch, at the company's workshop, of which he was then in charge. It was called the “ Phenix.” Previous to this the crank axle had been used; but in the reconstruction of this engine, Mr. Petsch introduced the straight axle with outside connections, and also wrought iron tires on the cast-iron driving wheels, neither of which, it is believed, had before been tried in this country. Mr. Petsch is now the able and efficient superintendent of the motive power and transportation department of the South Carolina railroad, in which important position he has rendered valuable service, by the many improvements he has embodied in the plan and construction of locomotives, machinery, workshops, etc."

HAMILTON, EATON, AND RICHMOND RAILROAD. From a recent statement of the president of this company, it appears that the cost of the road from Hamilton to Richmond, Ind., 44 miles, including water and other stations, will be $713,103 35, of which the sum of $532,767 has been provided, requiring only $280,335 35 to finish the whole line. The estimate of the work remaining to be done is $178,548 11. The road is to be finished as a first class road in every respect, and will open a great thoroughfare into Indiana. Arrangements have been made with the Cincinnati and Hamilton Company to run the road as soon as ready; and it is supposed cars will run out some distance to Eaton, the middle of the present month, (June, 1852,) and to Richmond in the fall of 1852.

THE RIGAT OF WAY OVER LAND BELONGING TO THE STATE. Judge Hurd, of the Supreme Court of Ohio, has decided that the State of Ohio, by granting a charter for a railroad from Columbus to Zanesville, very clearly granted the right of way over the canal, which, of necessity, must be crossed in making the road. The judge held that if the legislature bad the power to grant the right of way for a railroad over the lands of private individuals who derived their title from the United States goveroment, they had the power to grant the same right of way over

the land belonging to the State. It will be recollected that the Board of Public Works of Ohio enjoined this road from proceeding with the work on the ground of the unconstitutionality of the charter which authorized it to cross the canal

VALIDITY OF A PATENT FOR IMPROVEMENT IN CARS. An action was recently brought before the United States District Court (Judge Kane) by Ross Winans vs. the York and Maryland Railroad Company, to recover damages for the infraction of a patent granted to the plaintiff for an improvement in the construction of cars, rendering them better adapted to American railroads.- The object of the invention is, among other things, to make such an adjustment of the wheels

, axles, and connection with the body as shall cause the car to pursue a more smooth, even and safe course, than it does as they are ordinarily constructed. It was proved to be indispensable to comfort and safety at the speed now run by passenger trains. The jury brought in a verdict for $5,400 damages and costs.

PROFITABLE RAILROAD STOCKS. The Utica and Schenectady Railroad Company have probably done the most profitable business of any railroad corporation in the world. This road, seventy-eight miles in length, was constructed and put into operation for a million and a half of dollars. The total receipts in about fourteen years have been $6,866,046. Expenditures for the same period, $2,637,842. Excess of earnings over current expenses during that time, $4,218,204-reimbursing the whole cost of the road and yielding a clear net profit of $2,718,204 or over 183 per cent per annum.

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.

COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND COSTA RICA, The following is a correct copy of the “ Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation between the United States of America and the Republic of Costa Rica,” concluded and signed in the city of Washington on the 10th of July, 1851, and duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications exchanged at Washington od the 26th day of May, 1852:TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF

AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA. In the name of the Most Holy Trinity :-Commercial intercourse having been for some time established between the United States and the Republic of Costa Rica, it seems good for the security as well as the encouragement of such commercial intercourse, and for the maintenance of good understanding between the United States and the said republic, that the relations now subsisting between them should be reg. ularly acknowledged and confirmed by the signature of a treaty of amity, Commerce, and navigation.

For this purpose they have named their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States, Daniel Webster, Secretary of State ;

And his Excellency the President of the Republic of Costa Rica, Senor Don Felipe Molina, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of that republic to the United States;

Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:

Art. i. There shall be perpetual amity between the United States and their citizens, on the one part, and the government of the Republic of Costa Rica and its citizens on the other.

Art. 2. There shall be, between all the territories of the United States and the territories of the Republic of Costa Rica, a reciprocal freedom of Commerce. The subjects and citizens of the two countries, respectively, shall have liberty freely and securely to come with their ships and cargoes to all places, ports, and rivers in the territories aforesaid, to which other foreigners are or may be permitted to come; to enter into the same, and to remain and reside in any part thereof respectively; also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their Commerce; and generally the merchants and traders of each nation, respectively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their Commerce, subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries respectively.

In like manner the respective ships of war and post-office packets of the two countries shall have liberty freely and securely to come to all harbors, rivers, and places to which foreign ships of war and packets are or may be permitted to come; to enter into the same to anchor there and refit; subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries respectively.

By the right of entering the places, ports, and rivers mentioned in this article, the privilege of carrying on the coasting trade is not understood; in which trade national vessels only of the country where the trade is carried on are permitted to engage.

Art. 3. Ít being the intention of the two high contracting parties to bind themselves, by the preceding articles, to treat each other on the footing of the most favored nation, it is hereby agreed between them that any favor, privilege, or immunity whatever, in matters of Commerce and navigation, which either contracting party has actually granted, or may hereafter grant to the subjects or citizens of any other State, shall be extended to the subjects or citizens of the other high contracting party gratuitously, if the concession in favor of that other nation shall have been gratuitous; or in return for a compensation, as nearly as possible of proportionate value and effect, to be adjusted by mutual agreement, if the concession shall have been conditional.

Art. 4. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article being of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Republic of Costa Rica, and no higher or other duties shall be imposed

on the importation into the territories of the Republic of Costa Rica of any article being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, than are or shall be payable on the like articles being the growth, produce, or manafacture of any other foreign country; nor shall any other or higher duties or charges be imposed in the territories of either of the high contracting parties, on the exportation of any articles to the territories of the other, than such as are or may be payable on the exportation of the like article to any other foreign country; nor shall any pro hibition be imposed upon the exportation or importation of any articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, or of the Republic of Costa Rica, to or from the said territories of the United States, or to or from the Republic of Costa Rica, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.

Art. 5. No higher or other duties of payment, on account of tonnage of light or harbor dues, of pilotage, of salvage in case either of damage or shipwreck, or on aecount of any other local charges, shall be imposed in any of the ports of the Republic of Costa Rica, on vessels of the United States, than those payable in the same ports by Costa Rican vessels; nor in any of the ports of the United States on Costa Rican Fessels

, than shall be payable in the same ports on vessels of the United States. Arr. 6. The same duties shall be paid on the importation into the territories of the Republic of Costa Rica of any article being of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, whether such importation shall be made in Costa Rican or in vessels of the United States; and the same duties shall be paid on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article being the growth, produce, or mannfacture of the Republic of Costa Rica, whether such importation shall be made in United States or Costa Rican vessels.

The same dues shall be made, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation to the Republic of Costa Rica of any articles being the growth, pro duce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, whether such exporta tions shall be made in Costa Rican or in United States vessels; and the same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any article being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Republic of Costa Rica to the territories of the United States, whether such exportation shall be made in United States or in Costa Rican vessels.

Arr. 7. All merchants, commanders of ships, and others, citizens of the United States, shall have full liberty, in all the territories of the Republic of Costa Rica, to manage their own affairs themselves, or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they pleaso, as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter; nor shall they be obliged to employ any other persons in those capacities than those employed by Costa Ricans, por to pay them any other salary or remuneration than such as is paid in like cases by Costa Rican citizens; and absolute freedom shall be allowed in all cases to the buyer and seller to bargain and fix the price of any goods, wares, or merchandise imported into or exported from the Republic of Costa Rica as they shall see good, observing the laws and established customs of the country. The same privileges shall be enjoyed in the territories of the United States by the citizens of the Republic of Costa Rica under the same conditions.

The citizens of the high contracting parties shall reciprocally receive and enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property, and shall have free and open access to the courts of justice in the said countries respectively, for the prosecution and defense of their just rights; and they shall be at liberty to employ in all cases the advocates, attorneys, or agent of whatever description, whom they may think proper, and they shall enjoy, in this respect, the same rights and privileges therein as native citizens.

Art. 8. In whatever relates to the police of the ports, the lading and unlading ships, the safety of the merchandise, goods, and effects, the succession to personal estates by will or otherwise, and the disposal of personal property of every sort and denomination, by sale, donation, exchange, testament, or in any other manner whatsoever, as also the administration of justice, the citizens of the two high contracting parties shall reciprocally enjoy the same privileges, liberties, end rights as native citizens, and they shall not be charged in any of these respects with any higher imposts or duties than those which are paid or may be paid by native citizens; submitting, of course, to the local laws and regulations of each country respectively.

If any citizen of the two high contracting parties shall die without will or testament in any of the territories of the other, the consul general or consul of the nation to which the deceased belonged, or the representative of such consul general or comzul in his absence, shall have the right to nominate curators to take charge of the

property of the deceased, so far as the laws of the country will permit, for the benefit of the lawful heirs and creditors of the deceased, giving proper notice of such nomination to the authorities of the country.

Arr. 9. The citizens of the United States residing in the Republic of Costa Rica, and the citizens of the Republic of Costa Rica residing in the United States, shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whatsoever, either by sea or by land, and from all forced loans or military exactions or requisitions; and they shall not be compelled, under any pretext whatsoever, to pay other ordinary charges, requisitions, or taxes, greater than those that are paid by native citizens of the contracting parties respectively

Art. 10. It shall be free for each of the two high contracting parties to appoint consuls for the protection of trade, to reside in any of the territories of the other party; but before any consul shall act as such, be shall, in the usual form, be approved and admitted by the government to which he is sent; and either of the high contracting parties may except from the residence of consuls such particular places as they judge fit to be excepted. The Costa Rican diplomatic agents and consuls shall enjoy in the territories of the United States whatever privileges, exemptions, and immunities are or shall be granted to agents of the same rank belonging to the most favored nation; and in like manner the diplomatic agents and consuls of the United States in the Costa Rican territories, shall enjoy, according to the strictest reciprocity, whatever privileges, exemption, and immunities are or may be granted in the Republic of Costa Rica, to the diplomatic agents and consuls of the most favored nation.

Art. 11. For the better security of Commerce between the citizens of the United States and the citizens of the Republic of Costa Rica, it is agreed that, if at any time any interruption of friendly intercourse, or any rupture should unfortunately take place between the two high contracting parties, the citizens of either of the two high contracting parties, who may be within any of the territories of the other, shall, if residing upon the coast, be allowed six months, and if in the interior, a whole year to wind up their accounts and dispose of their property; and a safe conduct shall be given them to embark at the port which they themselves may select; and even in the event of a rupture, all such cítizens of either of the two high contracting parties, who are established in any of the territories of the other, in the exercise of any trade or special employment, shall have the privilege of remaining and of continuing such trade and employment therein without any manner of interruption, in the full enjoyment of their liberty and property as long as they behave peaceably, and commit no offense against the laws; and their goods and effects of whatever description they may be, whether in their own custody or intrusted to individuals or to the State, shall not be liable to seizure or sequestration, nor to any other charges or demands than those which may be made upon the like effects or property belonging to the native citizens of the country in which such citizens may reside. In the same case debts between individuals, property in public funds, and shares of companies, shall never be confiscated, sequestered, por detained.

Art. 12. The citizens of the United States and the citizens of the Republic of Costa Rica respectively, residing in any of the territories of the other party, shall enjoy in their houses, persons, and properties, the protection of the government, and shall continue in possession of the guaranties which they now enjoy. They shall not be disturbed, molested, or annoyed in any manner on account of their religious belief, nor in the proper exercise of their religion, either within their own private houses, or in the places of worship destined for that purpose, agreeably to the system of tolerance established in the territories of the two high contracting parties; provided they respect the religion of the nation in which they reside, as well as the constitution, laws, and customs of the country. Liberty shall also be granted to bury the citizens of either of the two high contracting parties who may die in the territories aforesaid, in burial places of their own, which in the same manner shall be freely establisbed and maintained; por shall the funerals or sepulchers of the dead be disturbed in any way or upon any account.

Art. 13. In order that the two bigh contracting parties may have the opportunity of hereafter treating and agreeing upon such other arrangements as may tend still further to the improvement of their mutual intercourse, and to the advancement of the interests of their respective citizens, it is agreed that at any time after the expiration of seven years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, either of the high contracting parties shall have the right of giving to the other party notice of its intention to terminate articles 4, 5, and 6 of the present treaty; and that, at the expiration of twelve months after such notice shall have

been received by either party from the other, the said articles, and all the stipulations contained therein, shall cease to be binding on the two high contracting parties.

ART. 14. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington or at San José de Costa Rica within the space of one year, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same and have affixed thereto their respective seals.

Done at Washington this tenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.

DANIEL WEBSTER. [L. s.)
F. MOLINA. (1. 9.]

RECIPROCAL TRADE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

The following act proposing a reciprocal trade between the Hawaiian Islands and the United States, has been officially published in the Polynesian, the organ of that government. It only remains for the congress of the United States, in order to secure a free import into the Hawaiian Islands, of four, fish, coal, lumber, staves and heading, the produce or manufacture of the United States, to pass an act admitting the sugar, syrup, molasses, and coffee of the Hawaiian Islands into all the ports of the United States. AN ACT PROVIDING FOR RECIPROCAL DUTIES OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF THE UNITED

STATES OF XORTI AMERICA. Be it enacted by the King, the Premier, and Chiefs of the Hawaiian Islands, in council assembled :

Sec. 1. All flour, fish, coal, lumber, stave and heading, the produce or manufacture of the United States, shall be admitted into this kingdom free of all duty, provided the government of the United States will admit the sugar, syrup, molasses and coffee, the produce of the Hawaiian Islands, into all the ports of the United States on the same

Sec. 2. The evidence that articles proposed to be admitted into the ports of this kingdom under the preceding section, are the produce or manufacture of the United States, shall be a certificate to that effect from the Hawaiian consul of the port from which such articles are imported,

or in case there shall be no such consul resident in such a port, a certificate to that effect from the collector of the port.

SEC. 3. This act shall take effect the day it is concurrred in by the government of the United States, and continue in force until annulled by the government of the Hawaiian Islands, or of the United States. Provided always, that previous to such annulment, the government desiring to make the same, shall give twelve months notice of their intention so to do.

Done at the Palace in Honolulu this first day of March, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.

terms.

KAMEHAMEHA.
KLONIANA.

OF THE RELIEF OF SICK AND DISABLED SEAMEN.

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TO COLLECTORS OF CUSTOMS AND OTHER OFFICERS ACTING AS AGENTS UNDER

FOR THE RELIEF OF SICK AND DISABLED SEAMEN AND BOATMEN.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, May 11, 1852. With the view of bringing together into one circular all existing regulations, and prescribing for your government such additional instructions as the enlargement of the fund and the increased demands upon it seem to require, the following regulations have been adopted by the department, viz:

Ist. Hospital relief is to be confined to American seamen and such foreign seamen as have served for three consecutive years on board American vessels, and to boatmen who are liable to pay hospital money.

2d. The agent of the fund is the only person authorized to admit patients to its benefits, and in all cases he will furnish the applicant with a written order of admission after being fully satisfied of his right to relief; and where provision is made by contract with a private institution, or an individual, these orders must be produced as vouchers in all settlements under such contracts.

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