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Grecian Shoals. 9. French Reef. 10. Pickle Reef. 11. Conch Reef. 19. Crocus Reef. 13. Alligator Reef. 14. The Washerwoman Shoal. 15. The American Shoals, near Key West.

One of the most experienced navigators of this coast, Captain Rollins, of the Isabel, who passes along the reef four times monthly, has already appreciated and handsomely acknowledged the aid of these signals.

The points have been designated, and the erection of the signals directed by Lieutenant James Totten, United States Army, assistant in the Coast-Survey.

ELECTRICITY APPLIED TO THE CAPTURE OF THE WHALE. The New Bedford Mercury gives an account of some interesting experiments, illustrating the effect of electricity to facilitate the capture of the whale. The most promi. nent features of this new method are thus described :

“Every whale at the moment of being struck with the harpoon is rendered powerless, as by stroke of lightning, and therefore his subsequent escape or loss, except by sinking, is wholly impracticable; and the process of lancing and securing him, is entirely unattended with danger. The arduous labor involved in a long chase in the capture of the whale, is suspended, and consequently the inconvenience and danger or the boats loosing sight of or becoming separated from the ship, is avoided. One or two boats only would be required to be lowered at a time, and therefore a less number both of officers and seamen than heretofore employed, would be ample for the purposes of the voyage.

" The electricity is conveyed to the body of the whale from an electric galvanic battery contained in the boat, by means of a metallic wire attached to the harpoon, and so arranged as to reconduct the electro-current from the whale through the sea to the machine. The machine itself is simple and compact in construction, inclosed in a strong chest weighing about 350 pounds, and occupying a space in the boat of about three and a half feet long by two in width, and the same in hight. It is capable of throwing into the body of the whale eight tremendous strokes of electricity in a second, or 950 strokes in a minute, paralyzing in an instant the muscles of the whale, and depriving it of all power of motion, if not actually of life.”

SEAMEN'S WAGES AT SAN FRANCISCO.
Pondicherry, by the run ...
Sandwich Islands, by the run.
Bataria, China, and back, by the month..
Oregon, Humbolt, and back, by the month.
San Diego and South, and back, by the month
Batavia, by the run.
China, by the run..
Manilla, by the run
East Indies, New York, and Boston, by the month.
Calcutta, by the run ....
United Slates vin Cape Horn, by the month..
Valparaiso and Callao, there discharged, by the month .
Harbor, by the month.....

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STETTIN AND SWIENEMUNDE.

STETTIN, 10th April, 1852. Pursuant to a new regulation of the Prussian Government, dated 2d of March, all ships bound for Stettin can be cleared at Swienemunde on and after the 1st of May, under sail

, and without any detention, if provided with a double set of manifests, containing as follows:Ship Captain

from Number Name Number

Mark Descrip- Gross Weight of bills of

of
of

and lion of
Consignee. Packages. Number. Goods. Measure.

or

Lading.

THE DIFFERENCES OF LONGITUDE OF SAVANNAH, The Superintendent of the United States coast survey reports to the Secretary of the Treasury under date, Coast Survey Office, May 11th, 1352, that from the preliminary computations of Assistant L. F. Pourtales, combined with previous results obtained by Assistant S. C. Walker, the differences of longitude of Savannah, Georgia, (the cupola of the Exchange,) Charleston, South Carolina, (Professor Gibb's Observatory,) Washington, D. C., (Seaton station of the coast survey,) and Greenwich, England. The differences between Savannah, Charleston, and Washington, rest entirely upon telegraphic determinations.

H. M. S. Savannah W. of Charleston..

0 4 37.12 W. of Washington..

0 16 22.39 W. of Greenwich..

5 24 20.95

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STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

DEAF, DUMB, BLIND, INSANE, AND IDIOTIC POPULATION OF THE U. STATES.
TABULAR STATEMENT OF DEAF AND DUMB, BLIND, INSANE, IDIOTIC, RETURNED BY THE

SEVENTH CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES.
States and Territories.

Deaf and dumb. Blind.

Insane. Idiotic, Maine.....

230
201
536

558 New Hampshire..

163
136
385

352 Vermont....

144
138
552

281 Massachusetts

529
497 1,647

791 Rhode Island...

64
64
252

107 Connecticut

389
192
462

300 New York

1,307 1,272 2,580 1,739 New Jersey..

203
213
386

426 Pennsylvania .

1,225

829 1,891 1,448 Delaware..

58
46
70

101 Maryland

254
307
553

393 District of Columbia.

19
23
22

11 Virginia ...

711

996 1,026 1,285 North Carolina..

407
532
491

774 South Carolina..

145
222
204

295 Georgia....

252
309
306

577 Florida...

26
8

37 Alabama

211
308
245

505 Mississippi.

108
217
149

210 Louisiana.

128
218
208

173 Texas.....

58
76
41

108 Arkansas

89
81
63

102 Tennessee.

377
468
478

854 Kentucky

539
530
507

849 Ohio

947

665 1,352 1,399 Michigan.

122
122
136

190 Indiana.

518
349
679

919 Illinois.

475
257
249

371 Missouri

259
211
282

333 Iowa ..

51
47
40

93 Wisconsin.

65
50

48 California..

6 Minnesota...

1 Oregon

4 Utah.....

2
3

2 New Mexico...

28
98
11

38

22

77

Total..

10,103

9,702

16,768

15,706

1836.....

POPULATION OF FRANCE. From the official report published in the Paris Moniteur of the 14th ult., we learn that the population of France in 1851, was 35,781,821. In France the census is taken every five years, and we may refer to the last eight enumerations as the best possible indication of the progress of the country during the half century :Population. Increase.

Population. Increase. 1801. 27,349,003

33,540,910 971,687 1806. 29,107,425 1,758,422 1841.

34,240,178 689,268 30,461,875 1,354,450 1846.

35,400,486 1,170,308 1831 32,569,223 2,107,348 1851.

35,781,821 381,335 The great falling off in the ratio of increase during the last five years, is no doubt attributable, partly to the political troubles which have driven so many French citizens abroad, and partly to the ravages of the cholera in 1849. But the births during 1846 and 1851 exceeded the deaths to the number of 512,000, so that the decrease must chiefly have been owing to emigration. One department les Basses-Pyrenees, has lost 11,000 inhabitants by this cause alone.

1821.

STATISTICS OF BRITISH EMIGRANT VESSELS. A very interesting return to the British House of Commons has been printed, showing the number of passenger ships which have sailed from ports in the United Kingdom with emigrants on board during the last five years, distinguishing the ports under the superintendence of an emigration office, and showing the number of such ships which have been wrecked, or destroyed at sea, and the number of lives so lost. It appears that from 1847 to 1851 inclusive, the number of emigrant vessels that sailed from ports in the United Kingdom was 7,129, of which 252 were chartered by the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioner, of which there was only one wreck. The per centage of loss was.396, or 1 in 252. Of ships dispatched from ports under the superintendence of government emigration offices there were 5,964, out of which there were 30 wrecks, and the per centage of loss was .503, or one in 199. There were 913 dispatched from ports not under the superintendence of government emigration offices, of which there were 13 wrecks, and the loss was 1.42 per centage, or i in 70. In the 7,129 ships which sailed in the five years there were 1,494,044 passengers. The number of lives lost by shipwreck was 1,043. The per centage of loss was .069 or 1 in 432. No lives were lost by the ships chartered by the Emigration Commissioners.

CHANCES OF LIFE AS DEVELOPED BY THE CENSUS. Among the interesting facts developed by the recent census, are some in relation to the laws that govern life and death. They are based upon returns from the State of Maryland, and a comparison with previous ones. The calculation it is necessary to explain, but the result is a table from which we gather the following illustration :

10,268 infants are born on the same day and enter upon life simultaneously. Of these 1,243 never reach the anniversary of their birth. 9,025 commence the second year, but the proportion of deaths still continues so great, that at the end of the third only 8,183, or about four-fifths of the original number survive. But during the fourth year, the system seems to acquire more strength, and the number of deaths rapidly decreases.' It goes on decreasing until twenty-one, the commencement of maturity and the period of highest health. 7,134 enter upon the activities and responsibilities of life-more than two-thirds of the original number. Thirty-five comes, the meridian of manhood; 6,302 have reached it. Twenty years more and the ranks are thioned. Only, 5,727, or less than half of those who entered life fifty-five years ago, are left. And now death comes more frequently. Every year the ratio of mortality steadily increases, and at seventy there are not a thousand survivors. A scattered few live on to the close of the century, and at the age of one hundred and six the drama is ended. The last man is dead.

POPULATION IN MONTREAL IN 1852. Montreal contains a population of 57,715; a large increase since the previous censas. There are 26,020 French Canadians, and 11,736 Irish residents. * In 1850 the population was 48,207. VOL, XXVII.-NO. I.

9

STATISTICS OF THE POPULATION OF HUNGARY. Dr. SCHUTTEs, in his Ungarn, puts down the population of Hungary in 1850 at about 15,000,000; of which 5,278,665 are Magyars ; about 1,000,000 Sclavacs, Croats, Ruthen, Raizen, and Schokazen; Wallacbs 2,908,876 ; Germans 1,377,484, and smaller tribes about 400,000. The entire population of Hungary in 1842, according to Fenyes, was 12,880,406. Fenyes is a Hungarian, and the most reliable statistician who bas ever written on Hungary. Haeunfler, an Austrian statistician, puts down the populatiob in 1842 at 13,876,170.

CIRCULATION OF THE LONDON PRESS. The returns of the English stamp office, published in the London Times of the 1st inst, give some extraordinary statistics relative to the London newspaper press. By these returns it appears that the circulation of the Times exceeds by over four-and-ahalf millions of copies, the aggregate circulation of all the other Löndup newspapers put together. Here is a full comparative list:

CIRCULATION OF LONDON PAPERS.

MORNING.

1845. 1818. 1849. 1850. Times...

8,100,000 11,021,500 11,300,000 11,900,000 Advertiser..

1,440,000 1,638,997 1,528,220 1,549,143 Daily News.

3,053,638 1,357,000 1,152,000 Herald..

2,018,025 1,335,000 1,147,000 1,139,000 Chronicle,

1,554,000 1,151,304 937,500 912,547 Post....

1,002,400 964,500 905,000 829,000

EVENING.

Sun...

1,098,500 899,312 873,000 834,500 Express

888,018 964,000 776,950 Glóbe.

852,000 720,000 630,000 585,000 Standard..

846,000 652,500 539,000 492,000 The circulation of the whole of these papers, exclusive of the Times, in 1850, (tested by the number of stamps issued at the stamp office) was not quite seven-andà-balf millions, while the number of stampe paid for by the Times was precisely 11,900,000, thus exhibiting the fact of the Times possessing a positive average circu. lation of over 38,000 copies per diem.. As the Times has no free list, and sells only for cash, this result is the more surprising. It is understood that the circulation in 1852 is over 40,000 copies a day. By the returns alluded to, it appears that wbile the Times has been gaining ground for the past seven years, all other newspapers, both morning and evening, have been rapidly sinking. In 1845 the Times circulated 8,100,000 papers, and all the other journals upwards of 9,000,000; but in 1850 the circulation of all the other papers had fallen to under seven-and-a balf millions, while that of the Times has risen to nearly 12,000,000, and is constantly augmenting. It is, in fact, conceded that most of the London morning newspapers are published at a loss, while the profits of the Times are known to exceed $500,000 a year. The Times pays for stamp advertisements and excise duty, about $500,000 a year to the government. The daily circulation of the London papers is now about as follows:Times......

40,000 Morning Advertiser.

5,000 Daily News.

3,000 Morning Herald...

3,000 Morning Chronicle..

2,900 Morning Post.....

2,800 Most of the papers are falling off in their circulation yearly, and the evening jodinals are in a still worse position.

Journal of Mining and Manufactures.

131

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.

660

COPPER MINING OF LAKE SUPERIOR, We give below a table of the several mining companies of Lake Superior, showing the capital, number of hands employed, and value of products, &c., &c. :

Annual
Names of Lake Superior

Power Male product. Nature of Value of Copper Companies. Capital. used. bands. Tops. product. product. North-West Mining Co.... $50,000 Water. 114 80 Native copper $17,000 Copper Falls Mining Co... 65,000 Horse. 30

10 Native copper 3,000 North-Western Mining Co... 10,000 Hand.. 14 Nortli American Miniog Co.. 70,000 Steam. 110

86 Native copper

17,000 Albion Mining Co...

13,000 Hand.. 9 Cliff Mine .

207,360 Steam* 180 1,028 Native copper 157,000 Lac le Belle Mining Co

28,000 Horse. 6

10 Gray ore .... Iron City Mining Co...

1,500 Horse. 15 Isle Royale Mining Co... 14,000 Steam, 19 Cape Mining Co....

600 Hurse. 6 Pittsburg & I. Roy. Min. Co.. 18,000 Hand.. 25

2 Ingot

760 Liskanett Mining Co....

30,000 Horse. 25
26 Native copper

7,500 American Mining Co.

3,000 Horse. 15

Native copper

190 Ontonagon Mining Co... 15,000 Hand.. 20 Sistagna Mining Co.... 3,000 Hand.. 10 Chesapeake Mining Co... 5,000 Hand.. 10 Minnesota Mining Co...

29,000 Steam* 80

257 Native copper 77,100 Algonquin Mining Co..

2,400 Hand.. 28 Ridge Mining Co...

5,000 Horse. 16
8 Native copper

1,250 Adventure Miping Co.

15,000 Horse. 16

8 Native copper

2,000 Forest Mining Cos

15,000 Horse, 30

6 Native copper

1,000 Ohio Trap Rock Jining Co... 15,000 Horse, 10

10 Native copper

2,500 Merchant Mining Co..

2,000 Horse. 1
Total...
$618,760 789 1,5253

$386,960

COTTON PLANTERS SHOULD BECOME COTTON SPINNERS. The Executive Committee of the Georgia Agricultural Association have put forth, in an extra, an address to the Southern cotton planters, in which is submitted a very valuable and important suggestion. The subject will be brought forward for discussion at the couvention to be held next month in Montgomery, Alabama. From this address we make the following extract, containing important considerations for the cotton planter :

« Great Britain habitually imports about one sixth more raw cotton than she manufactures, and, according to Baines, in his history of cotton manufacture, makes a profit of 10 per cent upon the exportation of a portion of that excess to Havre. And she converts iuto yarn and exports about one fifth more of the amount of her imports of raw cotton. This is not the place to inquire into the means hy which she is enabled to monopolize so large an amount of our raw staple, and to engross so large a profit by a mere transfer of what she cannot use at home across the channel. It is more german to the purpose of this paper to inquire if the cotton planters of the United States may not themselves spin and export part or all of that excess of yarn which Great Britain spins but does not make into cloth? The more direct and practical proposition is, may not the cotton planters look forward to the time wben the exportation of raw cotton will be as rare as the exportation of seed cotton was thirty or forty years ago ! There are not as great difficulties now to the spinning and exportation of yarns as existed some sixty years ago to the ginning and exportation of clean

• And horse-power.

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