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1839.

1840...

1846.

POUNDS OF IMPORTED RAW BROWN SUGAR INTO THE UNITED STATES.
Cuba.

Brazil. West Indies. East Indies. Total 1837.

40,965,998 3,287,401 49,166,140 26,996,632 120,416,071 1838.

65,624,855 7,885,067 66,093,202 9,597,781 139,200,705 70,286,903 9,848,738 86,681,537 15,783,149 182,540,327

49,127,706 5.413,316 45,676,480 8,838,531 107,155,033 1841.

90,384,397 9,070,626 60,838,901 5,659,259 165,963,083 1842.

67,586,332 6,822,217 68,179,055 12,328,234 155,414,946 1843.

31,628,319 1,915,115 31,475,613 4,515,284 69,434,331 1844.

114,362,368 2,709,099 64,763,060 7,932,964 179,857,491 1845.

51,699,108 6,258,288 46,571,976 6,532,720 111,967,404

61,624,973 4,926,304 50,057,329 9,656,444 126,731,661 1847.

169,274,024 6,896,447 45,366,660 3,642,895 226,683,261 1848.

174,979,362 6,003,609 64,035,761 13,182.395 248,201,117 .1849.

179,754,020 9,516,004 56,710,138 7,835,323 253,815,495 1850.

127,767,543 7,033,366 49,530,181 13,320,729 197,651,819

275,327,497 14,557,699 62,883,757 10,768,908 364,537,861 Under the term of West Indies is included Porto Rico and some of the South American countries, other than Brazil. It will at once be seen that the supply from Cuba, from being one-third only of the whole import in 1837, has gradually risen until it is become two-thirds of the whole importation of raw sugar into the Union. The supplies from Brazil fluctuate more in proportion to the European demand and prices than do those from Cuba. The figures, however, embrace only the brown sugar. If we add the aggregate of white sugar

in each

year, and also the crops of Louisiana, we arrive at the supply of raw sugar in the United States for each fiscal year. The figures for the year 1843 are for nine months only. It was in

year that the date of the the fiscal year was changed.

1851.

that

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Such has been the annually increased supply of raw sugar. Since 1842, the trade has undergone a change in refining. Thus the tariff of 1833 charged a duty of 2} cents upon raw sugars, but in order to encourage refining it allowed a drawback of 5 cents per pound on refined sugar exported. It is ascertained that 100 pounds, one-third white Havana and two-thirds brown, will yield 517 pounds refined. Hence, refunding 5 cents of the refined sugar was giving back a little more than the duty on the raw sugar. That is to say, 100 pounds raw sugar, $2 60 duty, and produced 517 pounds refined, on which the drawback was $2 687; and further, as under the terms of the compromise act, the duty on the raw sugar underwent biennial reductions, while the drawback was unaltered, the drawback became a direct bounty, and the business was increased as follows :

Sapply.

Exports. U. S. consump. 1837.

206,139,819 45,047,008 161,092,811 1838.

218.879,243 17,254,524 201,624,719 1839.

265,231,273 23,969,100 241,262,173 1840.

235,890,585 41,125,648 194,764,937 1841.

271,197,662 39,094,265 232,103,397 1842.

261,879,236 18,604,814 243,274.422 1843.

211.632,356 3,576,607 209,056.749 1844.

284.589,007 6,324,954 278.264,053 1845.

313,119,928 15,391,058 298,728,920 1846.

314,775,4971 27,715,733 287,959,764 1847.

385,879,361 9,223,517 376,655,814 1848.

494,208,125 19,570,352 474.637,773 1849.

478,919,226 21,462,893 453,456,333 1850.

465,572,231 20,097,870 445,474,361 1851..

679,627,298 11,220,723 568,406,575 In these figures we have taken no account of maple sugar, because, although that article is a valuable product in the new States, it does not conflict with the cane sugars where the latter are introduced through the operation of the public works, the returns, of which all show an increasing market for the cane sugar, as the districts through which they run become more settled. The prominent fact in the above table is, that while Louisiana aud Cuba afford equal supplies for the consumption of the Union, the former has far outrun Cuba, notwithstanding that the latter has become so much more dependent upon the United States for a market.

IMPORT AND EXPORT OF REFINED SUGAR.
Foreign. Domestic. Total exports.

Imports. Excess exp. 1837.....

72,786 1,844,167 1,916,953 9.899 1,907,055 1838.

2,610,649 2,610,649 4,556 2,606.093 1939.

136,191 4,781,723 4,918,915 57,751 4,861,164 1840.

74,674 10,741.648 10,816,822 1,682 10,814,640 1841.

3,033 13,435,084 13,438,117 68,333 13,369,784 1842.

1,320,181 3,430,346 4,750,527 1,985,319 2,765,208 1843.

157,700 598,884 756,584 699,090 57,594 1844

1,679,410 1,671,187 3,350,517 2,215,517 1,185,000 1845.

1,840,909 1,997,692 3,838,901 2,044,862 1,794,039 1846.

910,263 4,128,512 5,038,775 253,379 4,785,396 1847

185,878 1,539,415 1,725,293 1,089,477 638.816 1848.

439,220 3,370,773 3,817,993 2,121,628 1,696,365 1849.

100 1,956,895 1,956,995 400,015 2,356,880 1850.

286,078 2,786,022 3,072,100 796,217 2,275,883 1851

1,107,295 2,689,541 3,796,836 12,077,726 The great increase in the import of refined sugar in 1851 was from Belvium and Holland, stimulated by the low price of raw sugars there. Under the operation of the falling duty upon raw sugar, and the unchanged rate of drawback, the export of refined sugars rose from 2,000,000 pounds in ,1837, to nearly 14,000,000 pounds in 1841. With the close of that fiscal yrar, the draw back was reduced from 5 cents to 3 cents, and after January, 1842, to 2 cents. The effect was the instant cessation of the trade, making a difference of near 27,000,000 pounds in the quantity of brown sugar reexported in the shape of refined sugar. This was a very important item, and its effect upon the market was by no means properly estimated. We may now take a table of the whole export of sugar from the United States, that is, raw sugar of foreign and domestic origin, and of refined sugar equal to raw, at the rate of two pounds raw for one of refined, as follows :

TOTAL EXPORT OF RAW SUGAR, FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC, AND OF REFINED EQUAL TO BAW.

Domestic Raw. refined equal

Total Foreign. Domestic. to raw.

exporte. 1837...

41,052,073 306,602 3,688,334 45,047,008 1938.,

11,624,324 408,802 5,221,398 17,254,524 1839..

13,018,461 387,203 9,563,446 23,969,100 1840..

18,872,344 769,903 21,483,396 41,125,648 1841..

11,811,233 312,864 26,970,168 39.094,265 1842..

11,677,589 166,533 6,860,692 18,604,814 1843..

1,729,276 58,563 787,768 2,575,607 1844.

2,795,622 187,118 3,342,214 6,524,964 1845.

11,199,089 195,985 3,995,984 15,391,058 1846..

19,347,414 109,295 8,259,024 27,716,733 1847..

5,756,260 388,457 3,078,830 9,223,547 1848.

12,677,790 135,006 6,757,656 19,570,352 1849..

17,149,894 399,209 3,913,790 21,462,893 1850..

13,866,987 458,839 6,772,044 20,097,870 1851..

5,279,813 661,825 5,379,082 11,220,723 This table gives the whole annual export demand for raw sugar.

The sugar trade of Great Britain in 1849 and 1850 exbibited the following results. The importation of sugar amounted to the quantities here stated :

1840. 1850. From West Indies......

.cwts. 2,839,912 2,584,162 From Mauritius

897,814 1,003,312 From East Indies.

1,474,474 1,346,081 Foreign

1,725,149 1,352,476 Refined

304,392 355,387 Molasses....

1,311,435 1,249,796

Total......

8,553,176 7,891,214 The total quantities of all kinds of sugar and molasses re-exported in the same two years, together with the exports of sugar refined in England,

were

Re-exports ...
British refined.

.cwts.

1849. 761,286 223,273

1850. 466,219 209,235

Total....

984,559 675,454 The gross amount of duty received on the imported sugar was 4,139,9991. in 1849, and 1850, 4,130,8191.

The duties on the importation of sugar into England have varied very considerably. Between the years 1661 and 1815 the duty was gradually raised from ls. 6d. to 303. per cwt. on British plantation sugar. From 1815 to 1844 it varied from 245. to 30s. East India sugar paid a higher duty than West India until 1836, when the two were assimilated. Foreignsugar paid a duty of 603. to 633. per cwt, until the recent legislative changes. In 1844 a change was made, whereby sugar from certain foreign countries, under certain defined circumstances, might be admitted at 34s. instead of 63s. duty. In 1845 another act fixed the duty on sugar, from either the East Indies or West Indies, at sums varying from 14s. to 21s., according

Refined sugar

8

the quality. By an act passed in 1846, there was to be a gradual reuction of duties from 1846 to 1851, at the expiration of which period the uty on foreign sugar was to be the same as that on East or West India ugar. By another act of the British parliament passed in 1848 this principle of gradual reduction is to extend until July, 1854, after which time sugars from all countries will be placed on the same footing. They will all pay at that time the following import duties per cwt. :

13s. 4d. White clayed

11 Brown clayed..

10 0 Brown raw

10 0 Molasses

3 9 Since preparing the preceding pages on “Sugar and the Sugar Trade," the London Morning Chronicle comes to our hands with the following description of a patent method of sugar manufacture, which has been introduced into Cuba and other sugar producing countries. It increases the quantity of sugar produced besides improving its quality. Patents for the improvement have been secured, as we learn, in the United States.

The new processes are fourfold in their character, comprising, first, a new mode of obtaining the saccharine juice from the cane; secondly, a new mode of defecating and filtering the juice so obtained; thirdly, the boiling and concentrating of the juice; and fourthly, the crystallization and final curing of the sugar. The varied processes are to be seen at å model sugar-house, at the works of Mr. Bessemer, Baxter-house, Old St. Pancras Road, London. By the first improvement, in the construction of the cane-press, a difference in the yield of the cane is obtained, as compared with the old rolling mill, of about 20 per cent. In the new machine, the pressing tubes are reduced in length from 30 inches to 12, the first four of wbich are parallel, and 3 inches wide-the next four inches of their length being taper, and terminating with a width of but 14 inch, the smaller contracted point extending as far as the exit end of the tube. By this change of form, the entire removal of the elasticity in the “ magas” occupying the tubes is removed, and after the cane has been collapsed by the severe pressure, and its breadth at the same time gradually lessened, every fiber and cell is made to assume new relative positions-not one remains unruptured and an increased quantity of the juice is consequently expelled at the trongh. In addition to this ad. vantage, there is obviously a more equal distribution of power in each revolution of the machine; the deleterious chlorophyl or coloring matter of the outer portion of the cane is not expelled with the juice, as in the ordinary apparatus; the machine may be more easily fed, and weighs considerably less than rolling machines generally in use.

The juice, when expelled from the cane, is unavoidably mixed with numberless minute fragments of cellular tissne, albumen, and other extraneous matter, which, if not speedily removed, tend to produce the acidification of the liquid. At this stage comes in the second of the processes invented by Mr. Bessemer.

The present mode of defecation and filtration consists in raising the temperature of the liquor to 15 degrees Fahrenheit, when a quantity of lime is thrown in for the purpose of neutralizing the free acid, and assisting in the coagulation of the albumen; the temperature is increased to 180 degrees Fahrenheit, when, after allowing time for settling, the scum is removed and the clear liquor drawn off into the “grand” copper, where it is subjected to boiling heat, when the feculent and other albuminous matters are kept constantly removed from its surface. The more completely these impurities are removed, the greater will be the brightness and value of the finished product. In the new process the juice passes through a wire strainer direct from the spout of the mill into the clarifiers, where it is raised to boiling heat by the application of steam, at which temperature it is kept for about three minutes, by which time the whole of its albuminous constituents and feculent matter will have been coagulated and chemically separated, but will, of course, still remain mechanically mixed, and, in the form of light flock, pervade the entire bulk of the fluid. These substances are then effectually removed by a process similar to that employed in the manufacture of paper. A drum of about two feet in diameter and from four to five feet in length, is made to revolve slowly in a small semi-circular tray or vessel. This drum is covered with fine wire cloth, through which the water forces its way, leaving a muddy coating of extraneous matters on the other side, which coming in contact as it revolves with a fixed scraper, similar in principle to the "doctor” employed in calico printing, is made to fall off in a state something like dry mud into a receptacle prepared for it. The process is self-acting. It takes in its own supply of foul liquor from an elevated cistern, delivers the clear juice into the evaporating pan, and discharges the refuse as we have already stated. Up to this stage, the

advantages obtained must be evident to all who are acquainted with this interesting branch of manufacture. The liquor being received direct from the press, avoids the necessity of the use of liquor pumps; the clarifiers, not being used as subsiding vessels, are not required to be so large; the loss of juice in the removal of the scum and in the sediment is prevented; the use of the “mont-jus” is rendered unnecessary; the coagulation of the albumi. nous matter is more rapidly obtained; the evaporating process may follow immediately after the pressing of the canes; and finally, the self-cleansing filter performs its work much better than any continuous process of skimming, and renders unnecessary that watchful attendance which is now so imperatively necessary in order to obtain the required brightness and color of the sugar. The saving of manual labor by those improvements is self-evident.

On the various modes of boiling and concentrating the juice at present in use, whether by a series of semi.globular pans, the vacuum pans, Gadsden's pan, or the apparatus of Mr. Crossley or Mr. Schroder, it is not necessary now to speak; the principle in one and all of them being the same—that of evaporating the duid from the saccharine matter. The inventor of the process now under consideration, contends that, in all the existing arrangements for the separation of the water from the sugar, boiling under any form, or the use of surfaces or pipes heated by steam, must be totally excluded if the formation of molasses is to be prevented. It is a well established fact that a thermometer placed in a solution heated by steam or the direct action of fire, furnishes no indication of the tem. perature to which the liquid is exposed, as a vast amount of latent beat is absorbed by fluids in their formation into steam. To the forgetfulness of this simple fact, are to be traced many of the fatal mistakes at present connected with the manufacture of sugar.

Thus, while the temperature of the sirup during ebullition in a vacuum-pan indicates as low perhaps as 180 degress Fahrenheit, the copper worm against which portions of the sugar are constantly brought in contact, is equal to and often above 220 degrees Fahrenheit : the consequence of which is the destruction of the color, and an injury to the crystallizing powers of the sugar. By an arrangement which Mr. Bessemer terms a hot air evaporator, the concentration of saccharine fluids may now, however, be affected without the slightest injury to color or quality, and in an increased quantity.

This apparatus consists of a tank of thin plate iron, of about 10 feet by 8 feet, and 24 feet in depth, which has a false bottom, curved so as to form two parallel segments of a cylinder. Above these and coincident with them is a hollow drum of eighteen inches in diameter, mounted on an axis, and upon which is formed a broad spiral blade in the shape of a screw, or “creeper," the thread of which is about fifteen inches in depth, and the convolutions three-quarters of an inch apart; and between each of the blades or threads of the screw, holes are formed spirally from one end of the drum to the other. At one end of the hollow drum, air, supplied by a blowing fan, and heated to 150 degrees by passing along a flue, is made to enter, which escapes through the holes in the drum in the radial direction, and sweeps like the hot breath of the simoon over the wet surfaces of the various revolving blades, absorbs the moisture thus exposed to its action, and

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