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171. 5. This philosophy of the Notrecht, "Necessity knows no law," as Bethmann-Hollweg put it, has been expounded with favor by many of the leading German authorities on International Law. (See International Law Imperilled, by Prof. E. S. Corwin, in the World Peril, Princeton University Press, 1917.)

172. 6. The Tartar conqueror, 1162-1227.

174. 7. Frederick of Hohenzollern came into possession of Brandenburg by very questionable methods in 1411, but the real power of the house in Europe dates back only to the time of the Great Elector who ruled from 1640 to 1688. In the latter year the population of Prussia was 1,500,000.

8. Frederick the Great, whose principles were given by Mr. Boot in the quotation on page 172. Born 1712, he ruled from 1740 to 1786 and laid the foundations both of Germany's present power and her present international morality.

176. 9. This characteristically imperialistic pronouncement was made by the German Kaiser to an Englishman who reported it to the English statesman, Joseph Chamberlain: "If I had had a larger fleet I would have taken Uncle Sam by the scruff of the neck." Probably the statement was not made at the time of the Venezuelan Dispute; in any case, the Emperor was referring to the time of our war with Spain in 1898. (See The Life and Letters of John Hay by William Boscoe Thayer, Boston, 1915. Vol. II., Page 279.)

The Emperor's conduct in the Venezuelan Dispute was none the less interesting. In 1902 Venezuela owed Germany, England, and Italy considerable sums, which she was either unwilling or unable to pay. Germany and England broke off relations with her and established a "pacific blockade" of Venezuelan ports. John Hay, our Secretary of State, protested and England and Italy came to an understanding. Germany refused. She stated that if she took possession of territory, such possession would be '' temporary.'' Such a threat of occupation of South American territory was a serious challenge to the Monroe Doctrine and President Roosevelt took up the challenge. He told Dr. Holleben, the German Ambassarage

dor, that unless Germany consented to arbitrate, Dewey's American squadron would in ten days be given orders to proceed to the coast of Venezuela and prevent any occupation. Eoosevelt refused to argue the question. When a week later, Holleben called upon the President, Eoosevelt inquired as he was leaving about Venezuela. When Holleben said he had received no word, Eoosevelt said he would send Dewey one day sooner unless the Emperor agreed to arbitrate within forty-eight hours. The Emperor agreed to do so the next day. (See Life and Letters of Way, Vol. II, pp. 288-289.)

|78- 10. In the Hague Peace Conference, at which the United States was represented, the rights and status of neutrals were defined.

What Democracy Means

,C4- 1. German industries are organized into combinations called "Kartells" which have some of the characteristics both of our pools and trusts. The government has consistently favored these Kartells in their efforts at home and also in their efforts to capture the foreign markets with subsidies direct or indirect. In many cases they are given especially low transportation rates over government owned or controlled railroad or steamship lines to foreign points, to enable them to get their goods there more cheaply than their competitors, the government accepting the loss in transportation charges. This leads to the policy of "dumping" goods at points outside of Germany. This process of "dumping" goods in the United States and selling them cheaper in one section than another is forbidden by our antitrust legislation. It was the basis of many indictments against the now discredited methods of the Standard Oil Company of former years. In fact, the German government acted like a gigantic 'trust and inaugurated a policy of "Cut-throat" international competition. Plans for economic domination after the war are receiving much attention in Germany at present. As German traveling salesmen will not be welcome in Eussia for some years after the war, it is reported on good authority that Eussian prisoners are being utilized to teach Eussian to thousands of young women who are to act as agents for German companies after peace is declared. The German government in 1917 voted a large sum to German ship owners on condition that they build ships now. Since, the cost of construction is greater now than in peace times, the government agrees to give as rebate to the builders from fifty to seventy percent of this added cost.

5- 2. Berlin to Bagdad railway. See Note 15 Flag Day Speech.

s- 3. The Pan-German movement has been a force in German politics, for at least two decades. It insisted upon a greater army and navy, and a policy of colonization and expansion directed toward world domination. It begins to find its reflection in the speeches of Wilhelm II. about 1896.

The designs of this very important party in Germany at present are best illustrated in the speeches of von Tirpitz, who loudly insists upon annexation and indemnities for Germany both from the East and the West. They of course plan to retain Belgium.

'' 4. Colonel E. M. House was head of the American Commission which arrived in London early in November, 1917, to take part in the Allied War Council to be held in Paris in that month. The Commission included Admiral Benson, Chief of Naval Operations, and General Bliss, Chief of War Operations, as well as representatives of the various war boards. In announcing the arrival of the Commission in London, Secretary of State Lansing was careful to emphasize that the Paris conference was primarily a war conference to bring about more effective cooperation of the Allies against the Central Powers.

"' 5. In the autumn of 1917 a number of persons in various parts of the country were seized by mobs and submitted to punishment and indignities for supposed or real pacifist or ProGerman sentiments. The most striking case was probably that of the Rev. Herbert Bigelow who was severely maltreated and beaten in the neighborhood of Cincinnati by a body of masked men. .

6. President Wilson doubtless had in mind groups like the Industrial Workers of the World, who in 1917 caused disturbances in various labor centers.

Pica

David Lloyd George (1863- —) David Lloyd George was born, 1863, in Manchester, England, of Welsh parentage, and was educated for the law. He became President of the Board of Trade 1905-1908 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1908-1915. Long before the outbreak of the war he was recognized as one of the leaders in the liberal movement in England. In 1915 he was made Minister of Munitions, in 1916 Secretary of State for War, and then Premier. His speeches are distinguished by their clearness of vision and tonic, optimistic spirit, as well as by their forceful, original, incisive manner of statement.

Meaning Of America's Entrance Into The Was

219 1. See President Wilson's War Message, April 2, 1917.

220 2. Against Denmark for a portion of her territory, 1864; against Austria, to establish Prussian supremacy over the German States, 1866; against France, for Alsace-Lorraine and a huge indemnity, 1870.

3. The Kaiser in his speeches to his troops has always impressed them with the idea of their invincibility. In them occur phrases such as: "The only pillar on which the Empire rested was the army. So it is today." (Oct. 18, 1894.)

4. Since the early sixties the main interest of the rulers of Germany has been in the development of the army, and since the nineties, of the army and navy.

221 5. With respect to the French Colonies in Africa Germany's course has been that of a swaggering bully and both in 1905 and 1911 she seemed to have brought France to the verge of war. On the latter occasion she forced France to a humiliating cession of African territory. That Germany did not precipitate actual war was looked upon as a regrettable weakness by many leaders of German opinion.

6. Delcasse, in connection with the African Colonies question (see note 5), was driven from his position as French Minister of Foreign Affairs by the Germans. 226 7. Battle of Vimy Bidge, April 9, 1917.

INDEX

Africa, 158 Agassiz, 20

Aid and comfort to enemies,
giving, defined, 274 Algonquin, sinking of the, 264 Alien enemies, proclamation re-
lating to, 205 Alliances, entangling, 111 Allies, help from United States,
132

Alsace-Lorraine:

Bitterly opposed to Prussian

government, 293
Zabern incident, the, 293

America, example of, 79

America First, 81-89, 259 .

American:

Constitution, framers of, 33;

text of, 227-246
History, fascination of, 82
Principles, defense of, 125
Revolution, memories of, 81
Spirit, meaning of, 91
Wealth, 95

Americanization, as regards im-
migrants, 97

Anarchy, 160

Ancona case, the, 271

Anglo-Saxon civilization, 158

Annexations, Germany's schemes
for, 287

"Anzacs," 158

Appropriations of public moneys,
206

Arabic, sinking of the, 179, 272 Arcadia, 22
Aristotle, 20, 249
Arras, battle of, 226
Asturias, sinking of the, 263

Austria-Hungary:

America declares war against, 203
Demands upon Serbia, 144, 291
Endorses Germany's sub-
marine policy, 137
Australia, 158
Autocratic governments, not to

be trusted, 134
Aztec, sinking of the, 264

Bacon, Lord, 37

Balance of power, 106, 171, 175, 260
Bailli of Mlrabeau, 44
Balkan states:

Problems of, 152, 198, 199,
210

Ruled by German Princes,
144
Banking system of U. S. re-
organized, 66
Bavarian, king, extract from speech by, 284
Belgian relief ships, sinking of, 263
Belgium, invasion of, 156, 171, 178
Berlin to Bagdad Railway, 185,

288, 292
Bernhardi, von, "mouthpiece of

the Prussian military caste,"

274
Bernstorff, Count von, dismissed by President Wilson, 273, 275, 276
Bethlehem Steel Works, 276
Bethmann Hollweg, fall of, 280

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