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BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION
HIS book is a news record of the Great War, since "ancient history closed at midnight of July 31, 1914." It consists of pictures, poetry
and prose, made and written for The Independent during this period. Perhaps its most striking claim to distinction is its difference from the conventional history we studied in school. The history in this book was written at the time of the event and its pictures were made on the spot-photographs of the events themselves. So in this book one follows the vivid drama of the war just as The Independent has followed it week by week.
In the days of peace—now so strangely remote when the magazines of entertainment flooded the land with their garish girl covers and their plethora of fiction and when the sensational dailies maintained their vast circulations by featuring "sport" for the men and "love" for the women, The Independent pursued the path it had set for itself, proud in the conviction that it was exerting a vital influence on the thought and action of the times and leaving to its rivals the cultivation of 'romance rather than reality.
But the Great War has changed the situation. Now truth is stranger than fiction. Now the simple narration of war's valor and sacrifice grips the mind and heart as no imaginary tale of adventure can possibly do. If war is the greatest of all games, as Ruskin has said, because the stake is death, who would now prefer to read an article on the strategy of the Yale-Harvard football game, when the correspondents are telling us of Pershing's preparations to match his might with Hindenburg? And who cares to dally with the cooing of Phyllis and Adonis when the little tear-stained war brides are bidding their khaki-clad husbands good-by?
As nowadays the old files of The Independent and Harper's Weekly are recognized everywhere as containing the best interpretation of the times that tried men's souls from '61 to '65, so today these two magazines, now united in one, are doing again a similar public service, not only for this generation, but for those to come.
The present book, assembled and edited by my discriminating and efficient colleague, Miss Hannah White, is an attempt to preserve in permanent and convenient form the moving picture of the Great War from its beginning to January 1, 1918. It opens with a brief history of the war. The successes and failures of each year are separately summarized. A day-to-day chronology is also added which should prove of unique value for historical reference. It
concludes with a brief section of editorial comment entitled “The Kings Must Go," a prophecy by H. G. Wells on "Reconstruction After the War," an article by William H. Taft on “The Last Great War," and my editorial “The League to Enforce Peace.” I would especially call attention to the editorial “Whom the Gods Would Destroy" written by Professor Franklin H. Giddings and published as the leader in the first issue of The Independent after the declaration of war. In my opinion, this is the greatest editorial, all things considered, that has appeared in The Independent during the twentyfour years that I have been connected with the magazine. Perhaps I may be pardoned for adding that my editorial was one of the primary factors in the establishment of the League to Enforce Peace, whose program, first given to the world at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, June 17, 1915, has now been accepted by most of the responsible statesmen of the world as the cornerstone of the war's aims.
Since the issues of Harper's Weekly during the Civil War are most highly prized for their illustrations we have made the main portion of this book chiefly pictorial. There is a section on “The War in the Air,” “The Fight at Sea," "The Men in the Trenches," "Come Across-The United States Answers the Call,” “War-By the Way,” “War Time Leaders,” and a particularly good collection of original and reproduced cartoons. Scattered among these are a few special war articles: "Follow the Flag" by Theodore Marburg, “The First Ten Thousand" by Herbert Reed, “Sailing Past Submarines” by Harold Howland, “Courage, Mon. Vieux” by Henry G. Dodge, “The Aerial Coast Patrol" by John Hays Hammond, Jr., and others. I would especially call the reader's attention to the touching episode of French heroism in the true incident narrated by Mr. Dodge in “Courage, Mon Vieux.” Shall we, too, see such scenes in the coming months in our beloved United States?
But this Holy War is not yet won. It is plain, therefore, that we must follow this volume with another. This we hope and expect to do. But let us pray that the third volume may deal with the happier days of the coming reconstruction, when the stricken but rejoicing people will be busied rearing their new civilization on the ashes of the old, and when, as Victor Hugo prophesied, “the only battlefield will be the market opening to commerce and the mind opening to new ideas."
HAMILTON HOLT Editor of The Independent
© Underwood & Underwood
ABOVE THE BATTLE Shell holes and bayonet charge—the battle of Soyécourt, photographed by an air scout. After days of artillery fire the French soldiers are leaving their trenches in the foreground to attack. In the distance is the burning village
THE FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR
BY WILLIS FLETCHER JOHNSON
the spoils of France, to her eastern EITHER party expected for
THE WAR BY SE A marches, smash Russia, crush Serbia, the war the magnitude or
and dictate a second peace at Warsaw. the duration which it has al S u b m a ri ne E x ploits Finally, with the Continent subdued, ready attained. Each looked
she would try conclusions with her for an easier triumph.” These words of
September 2--British cruisers “Cres
most hated foe, Great Britain, which Abraham Lincoln, uttered after nearly
sy,” “La Hogue,” “Aboukir” sunk
she regarded as the most unready of four years of our Civil War, might with
in North Sea by German submarine
them all, and indeed as a power which
“U-9," Captain Otto Weddigen in equal fitness be applied to the Great
could never be formidable on land, but
command War and its belligerents at the ending
October 10.-Russian cruiser “Pallada"
would be dealt with on the sea alone. of its first year. A month of declara sunk in Baltic by German sub
One city spoiled that plan. Liège was tions of war, a year of waging war, in
the new Thermopylae. The four days' estimable months or years of war yet
October 16--British cruiser “Hawke" delay of the German advance, in hurlto be waged, and generations of slow
sunk in North Sea by “U-9"
ing first men and then eleven-inch shells and incomplete recovery from the re
December 14 - British submarine at Brialmont's domed fortresses, was sults of war: Such in epitome is the
“B-11” dore under five lines of
brief, but it served. It gave France time
mines at Dardanelles and sank record of the past, present and future
to awaken to her nceds and Great Brit
Turkish cruiser “Messoudiyeh” of the Great War.
January 1---British battleship “For
ain time to respond to the call of her Between July 28 and August 28, 1914, midable” sunk in English Channel
ally. The German tide flowed on, bearno fewer than fourteen individual wars, January 30—Three merchantmen sunk
ing all before it, all thru that month “all parts of one stupendous whole,” in Irish Sea by German submarine of August, headed straight for Paris, were declared or recognized to exist; February 18 - German war zone which the Germans expected to occupy and half a dozen more at later dates.
around British Isles in effect. Ger by mid-September. The French GovernThey were: Austria-Hungary against
many threatens to sink all enemy
ment fled to Bordeaux, and Paris, with Serbia, against Russia, against Japan,
merchantmen in this area. 225 ves
the thunder of German guns heard in
sels sunk to date and against Belgium; Germany against
her streets again after forty-four years,
March 28-British liner “Falaba” Russia, against France, and against
sunk in St. George's Channel. One
grimly awaited siege and storm. The Belgium; Great Britain against Ger American citizen lost
German van was within four days' many, and against Austria-Hungary; May 1-American tanker “Gulflight" march of the city. But the four days Montenegro against Austria-Hungary, sunk off Scilly Islands. Three deaths. which would have carried them to its and against Germany; Serbia against Germany promises indemnification walls had been lost at Liège; and now Germany; France against Austria
May 7- British liner “Lusitania” a million French and British troops Hungary; and Japan against Germany.
sunk west of Queenstown by Ger
were massed along the Marne, under
man submarine. 1152 deaths, includLater acts of war involved Turkey as
orders to die rather than to retreat.
ing 114 Americans an ally of Germany and Austria-Hun
May 2.5 — American merchantman
Another decisive battle of the world, gary, and Portugal and Italy on the
"Nebraskan" torpedoed but not
and probably the greatest in human side of the Allies.
sunk, off Fastnet, Ireland
history, began on September 6 and The grand plan of campaign was Ger May 25 and 27-German submarine raged for five whole days; and at its many's. That was to fight her three “U-51” sinks "Triumph” and “Ma end the German tide ebbed from its great foes separately and crush them
jestic” at Dardanelles after voyage high-water mark, never to regain it. in succession. She was herself ready “to
of four thousand miles from Wil The French and British prest forward, the last shoe-button," while not one of
hoping to transform repulse into hope.
June 17-Italian submarine sunk by her adversaries was even measurably
less rout. But they had not calculated
Austrian submarine --- first such prepared for war. She therefore aimed
German thoroness. As if anticipating
erent in history to strike first at the least unprepared,
July 2--German battleship “Pom just such operations, the Germans had and planned to leave the most unready mern" sunk by British submarine at already prepared behind them elaborate to be dealt with last. Therefore she tore Bay of Dantzig, 900 miles from defensive works upon which they could up her treaty with Belgium as a "scrap British base
fall back and to these they did fall back of paper” and violated the neutrality
July 18-Italian cruiser “Giuseppe and there turned at bay. A vast but inand integrity of that country in order
Garibaldi” sunk by Austrian sub decisive battle followed, on the Aisne, to launch her first tremendous blow at
marine near Ragusa
and then the combatants settled down France on an undefended frontier. Thus
to a grim rivalry in long endurance. she hoped to dictate peace at Paris and ing, could give her serious trouble at The battle line which was drawn at the to eliminate France from the problem the east. Next she would transfer her west at the end of the first six weeks before Russia, unready and slow-mov- vast and victorious armies, rich with of war has changed but little, merely