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The war by night-shells from British batteries dropping a curtain in front of captured positions as the "pushbegan

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The war by night-the eyes of the British battleships off Saloniki keep close watch on the city while it is dark

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Clearing the Sea of Germans

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poured into Poland in a drive at Warsaw. At the south the Russians were more successful. They overran Galicia and Bukowina, captured Lemberg, Przemysl and Czernowitz, threatened Cracow, and crost the Carpathians to the borders of the great plain of Hungary. But here, too, were reverses. Lack of munitions, which left tens of thousands of Russians to fight with clubbed rifles and sticks and stones, led to disaster and compelled defeat. Przemysl and Lemberg were abandoned and nearly all of Galicia and Bukowina were evacuated. Vast and repeated fluctuations to and fro marked the story of the eastern battle line all thru the year.

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August 13 Germa battle-cruiser

Goeben" and Cruiser Breslau" sold to Turkey to avoid capture in

Mediterranean August 27-German auriliary cruiser

"Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" sunk north of Cape Verde Islands by

British cruiser Highflyer" Norember 10German light cruiser

Emden" destroyed at Cocos Island in Indian Ocean by Australian cruiser Sydney,after having cap

tured twenty-sif merchantmen March 10German auxiliary cruiser

"Prinz Eitel Friedrichput into Hampton Roads after sinking eleven merchantmen, including the American ship William P. Frye." Subsequently interned, Germany consent

ed to pay for the Frye" March 15-German cruiser "Dresden,"

survivor of the Falkland Islands fight, blown up at Juan Fernandez

Island to avoid capture April 11– Last commerce raider, auril

iary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm," put into Hampton Roads and was subsequently interned

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February 19-21-General attack on

forts at entrance to Dardanelles begun by fleet of forty warships, ViceAdmiral Sackville Hamilton Carden in command, including British superdreadnought "Queen Elizabethand

a number of French battleships March 5-Forts near Kilid Bahr

shelled by Queen Elizabeth" firing

across Gallipoli peninsula March 18French battleship Bou

ret,British battleships Irresistible," "Ocean" sunk by floating mines. British battle-cruiser Inflexible," French battleship Garlois" disabled by gunfire. Attack suspended. Occasional bombardment and mine-sweeping in following

weeks. Ten warships reinforce fleet March 28 and intermittently there

after-Russian fleet bombards Bos

porus forts April 25—Anglo-French fleet renews

bombardment to cover landing of

troops on Gallipoli May 12British battleship "Goliath"

torpedoed by Turkish destroyer May 25 and 27--British battleships

Triumph" and Majestic" sunk by

German submarine June Larger warships withdraron

from Dardanelles

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vibrating to and fro in distances measured by yards rather than miles, thru all the weary year.

The chief changes have been at the extreme northwest. Baffled in the direct rush toward Paris, the German armies again and again have striven to turn the left flank of the Allies and to gain the French shore of the British Channel; aiming thus to break the directest line of communication between France and Great Britain, and to secure a base from which to attack and to invade the latter country. For weeks the fiercest fighting of the war was near and on the coast at the FrancoBelgian boundary. On the ground and under the ground, on the sea and under the sca, and in the air, it raged relentlessly; and even the sea itself was let in, to swallow the land and to drown the combatants. But in the end, as at the Marne, the line of last defense held good and the German advance was checked.

Meantime another disaster befell the German plans at the eastern borders. Russia mobilized her armies more slowly than did France, but she did mobilize them and sent them surging across the frontiers into both Austria-Hungary and Germany. By the end of August, when the Germans were pressing toward Paris and needed every man and gun to make that drive successful, the Russians had invaded East Prussia as far as Allenstein and Tannenberg, and were threatening Königsberg, Dantzig and Posen. Then came disaster, when they were routed and driven back with appalling losses, while the Germans

August 28-Off Heligoland, Rear-Ad

miral Sir David Beatty with squadron of British battle-cruisers, light cruisers and destroyers sunk three German light cruisers and two de

stroyers November 1-Off Coronel, Chile, Ger.

squadron-armored cruisers "Scharnhorse," "Gneisenau," thirdclass cruisers "Leipzig," "Dresden," "Nürnberg," Admiral Count von Spee in command-defeated British cruisers Good Hope," "Glasgow," "Monmouthand transport Otranto," Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock in command; sinking "Good

Hope" and "Monmouth" December 8Off Falkland Islands.

British Squadron battle-cruisers Inflexible," "Invincible," battleship "Canopus," armored cruisers "Carnarron," "Cornwall," "Kent," second-class cruisers Glasgow," "Bristol," Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee in commanddefeated Admiral von Spee's squadron, sinking "Leipzig," "Scharnhorst,Gneise

nau" and "Nürnberg" January 24-In North Sea. British

squadron battle-cruisers "Tiger," Lion,Princess Royal," "New Zealand," "Indomitable,Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty in command-pur. sued German raiding squadronbattle-cruisers Derfflinger," Seydlitz," "Moltke,Blücher," Admiral Hibber in command sinking "Blücher"

At the end of the year the Russians have lost nearly all that they gained, while the victorious Teutons have overrun the bulk of Poland, have put an iron ring three-fourths of the way around Warsaw, and are sweeping with little resistance thru the Baltic Provinces toward Riga if not toward Petrograd itself.

Advance on one side means, however, inertia if not peril of disaster on the other; and Germany thus suffers the immense disadvantage of having to fight all her foes at once instead of one at a time, a circumstance which has transformed the whole aspect of the war. As for the auxiliary campaigns, they have been of minor interest. After many violent fluctuations of fortune, the Serbs and Montenegrins at last expelled the Austrian invaders and themselves became the aggressors in Austro-Hungarian territory. Turkey entered the war at Germany's command, but has been handicapped by the impossibility of getting supplies across the barrier of Rumanian and Bulgarian neutrality. She has consequently been chiefly on the defensive, with her strength steadily waning, and with a prospect that the Straits will soon be in the hands of the Allies and be opened as an avenue for Russia's much-needed supplies. Japan wrested from Germany the latter's Chinese holdings; Australia took New Guinea and other islands; and France and Great Britain or their colonies took

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This model of the terrain to be captured was made from aeroplane observation and studied by the soldiers who took Messines Ridge



those which were confidently anticiTHE LOSSES IN THE FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR

pated, and probably a comparably great

change in the attitude of the belligerAs Reported in Official Statistics and Reckoned by the Red Cross ents toward the issues involved. At the and Other Relief Organizations

beginning, exulting in their known

strength and never having' tasted dePrisoners

feat, the Germans, even the foremost Killed

Wounded and Missing Russia

men of light and leading, talked of 800,000 2,000,000

800,000 3,600,000 France

800,000 310,000 1,560,000

nothing less than the annexation of Great Britain

90,000 465,000

Belgium, northern France, Poland, the

45,000 260,000

Baltic Provinces, and the bulk of Great
65,000 113,000


228.000 Britain's colonies, and the exaction of Montenegro



28,000 indemnities which would "bleed white" Italy



19,000 all their antagonists. Now, with their

plan of campaign defeated, and with Totals .1,503,000 3,355,000 1,302,000 6,160,000

their empire surrounded by an iron

ring of foes threatening at once to Germany 500,000 900,000 250,000 1,650,000

starve and to crush it, they speak of an Austria-Hungary 355,000 800,000 200,000 1,355,000

"honorable peace" without annexations
50,000 100,000


or indemnities but on the basis of the
905,000 1,800,000

500,000 3,205,000

status quo ante bellum. That Germany
Grand totals
.2,408,000 5,155,000 1,802,000 9,365,000

can be starved is doubtful. That she
can be beaten thru failure of military

supplies also seems doubtful. That she all of Germany's extensive African pos- Hungary for the advancement of her will in the course of another year suffer sessions save one, which also seems own interests and especially for the re

grave embarrassment if not disaster doomed soon to be taken. Last, Italy en covery of “Italia Irredenta,” in the thru monetary famine—in brief, banktered the war, fighting, however, not Alps and on the Adriatic.

ruptcy--seems far less doubtful if not, against the Teutonic powers in aid of The first year of the war has therefore indeed, quite probable. It is this aspect the Allies but simply against Austria- produced conditions quite different from of the situation and of the outlook which

now causes most concern and the most

zealous desire to press the war with THE FLUCTUATING INVASIONS

some speedy and decisive stroke.

The tone of the Allies, too, has great-

ly changed. The first hot flush of wrath 50

at the violation of Belgium may not 40

have cooled, but the expectation of 30

wreaking spcedy and overwhelming 20

vengeance has been disappointed. There 10

is no more talk of a swift march to Ber0

lin, of the fall of the Hohenzollerns, and ON THE WESTERN FRONT

of the dissolution of the German EmThe figures at the left indicate the area of alien territory conquered, in thousands of

pire. The Allied Powers are, indeed, square miles

bound by a common pledge to make no

peace until all are agreed upon its JAUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JULY

terms. But they are thoughtfully con

sidering the question of how long it will 50

take to march to Berlin if a year of 40

such furious and costly fighting as the 30

world has never seen before has not 20

sufficed to drive the invading Germans 10

out of France and Belgium. ON THE EASTERN FRONT

Great Britain is of all the Allies the

most belligerent in sentiment, tho the These diagrams indicate approrimately the fluctuations of the tides of invasion

least so in action. Also, she has suffered and occupation of territory by the belligerents in the west of Europe--Belgium,

least. She is the least inclined toward France and the Reichsland of Germanyand in the chief eastern seat of war

peace, and insists upon the sine qua non - Poland, Galicia, Bukovina, East Prussia and the Baltic provinces. In the

of the restoration and full indemnifyupper diagram the continuous line shows the area occupied by the Germans in Luremburg, Belgium and northern France, the high-water mark of about 25,000

ing of Belgium, the surrender or desquare miles being at the beginning of the Battle of the Marne in the second struction of the German navy, and the week of September. Since Norember the changes have been inconsiderable. The adoption of such measures as will make dotted line indicates the gains of the French in Alsace and Lorraine, amounting impossible another German attack upon at most to only a few hundred square miles, and eraggerated for the sake of her. It is yet to be seen how heavier clearness on this diagram. Much greater gains on both sides, and greater fluctua

losses and increasing financial burdens tions, appear in the lower diagram. The continuous line shows the advance of

will affect her. the Germans and Austrians in Russian Poland and the Baltic provinces, now

France has been waging a war with higher than ever before and approrimating 40,000 square miles. The dotted line

immeasurably greater losses to herself indicates the occupation by the Russians of German territory in East Prussia

than either of her great allies has suf-
and Silesia and of Austro-Hungarian territory in Galicia, Bukowina and Hun-
gary; reaching a marimum of about 40,000 square miles in April and now fered, but with a fortitude and resolu-
ebbing toward the ranishing point

tion never surpassed by any nation in
history. Her first spontaneous demand


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August 12-Austrians invaded Serbia

August 26--Germans surrendered To August 2Germans took possession and bombarded Belgrade goland to French and British

of Luxemburg in violation of its neuAugust 23--Battle of the Jadar River. September 25-Australians captured

trality, and thus gained unobstructAustrians driven out of Serbia with New Guiana

ed entrance into France great loss

September 28-French and British August 7-Germans entered Liège, tho August 21-Russians penetrated far

seized the German Congo Colony

some of its forts remained unconinto East Prussia, threatening July 9- British Union of South Africa

quered, and passed on thru Belgium Königsberg, Dantzig and Posen completed conquest of German

toicard France August 30.-Russians routed at Allen

Southwest Africa

August 8-French troops occupied stein and Tannenberg and driven November 7-Germans surrendered

Mülhausen and advanced as far as out of East Prussia with tremendTsing-tau to the Japanese

Colmar, in Alsace ous losses

April 21--Armies of the Allies landed August 19--Germans destroyed LouSeptember 2--Russians took the Gali

on Gallipoli Peninsula for conquest

rain cian capital, Lemberg, renaming it

of the Straits

August 20Germans passed thru Lvov May 26-Italians began their invasion

Brussels, unopposed, on their "way September 5-15 - Serbians invaded

of Austria, moving simultaneously

to Paris" Austria-Hungary, captured Semlin

toward Trent, Görz and Trieste

August 21-23-French driven from and threatened Sarajevo July 12--Italian raiders penetrated to

Namur and British from Mons, September 23 Russians captured

within three miles of Trieste

slowly retreating into France before Jaroslav and overran most of Gali

the oncoming Germans cia, threatening Cracow

September 2French Government reOctober 1-Russians crost the Carso positively maintained is open to

tired from Paris to Bordeaur and pathians and threatened Hungary question.

Paris prepared for siege with invasion Austria-Hungary planned at the out

September 6-10-Battle of the Marne, December 2Austrians occupied the

in which the French and British, Serbian capital, Belgrade

set to crush and spoliate Serbia, to December 14 Serbians reoccupied dominate the Balkans, and to gain an

under orders to die rather than re

treat," checked and turned back the Belgrade and assumed the aggressive outlet upon the Aegean Sea. Now she is

Germans at the high water mark of against Austria-Hungary

confessedly ready to assent to anything their invasion of France and drive January 1-5Russians invaded Hun which her greater partner may deem touard Paris gary. occupied Bukowina, and

expedient or necessary; even to the September 16-28-Battle of the Aisne, threatened Transylvania with inra

granting of guarantees to Serbia and in which the Germans held their sion of actual concessions of territory to

ground against the attempt of the February 4-Great German drive at Italy ard nania.

Allies to drive them out of France Warsaw, directed by von HindenRussia entered the war as the de

October 10Germans captured Antburg

werp, completing their conquest of February 10-12--Germans under von fender and champion of all the Slavs.

Belgium, and the remains of the BelHindenburg inflicted crushing de She meant to crush Austria, to shatter gian army retired into France and feat upon the Russians in the Mazu Germany's military power, to annex joined the Allies rian Lakes region, driving them out Galicia and perhaps Silesia and Posen October 15-25—-Five-fold battles of of East Prussia

to her own Poland, and to magnify Ru four nations in western Flanders in March 19.-Russians occupied Memel

mania, Serbia and Bulgaria as her which the first great German drive and threatened Tilsit March 22-After a siege lasting since minor allies. Doubtless that is still her

at Calais and the Channel coast was

baffled September the Russians captured the purpose. But Muscovite ways are not

October 30-Belgians flooded western Galician fortress of Przemysl the ways of western Europe. Her pol

Flanders to drive out Germans April 2-15-Tremendous battles in the icy may not break, but it often bends;

December 30-German aviators bomCarpathians she may not abandon her designs, but

barded Dunkirk April 30-Germans invaded the Baltic she may postpone them. Suffering heavy March 11-British capture Neuve provinces

losses and with declining credit, a read Chapelle after several days' fighting May 3Great German and Austrian iness on her part to temporize is not with heavy losses on both sides victory in Galicin, in consequence of beyond the pale of possibility.

April 22-In great battle near Ypres which the Russians began to retire Italy is fighting for her own hand.

the Germans began the use of May 111-German and Austrian armies She wants to redeem “Italia Irredenta,"

asphyxiating and poisonous gases in began attacks upon Przemysl June 3-Germans and Austrians reto remove the menace of Austria at

warfare, with effective results

June 2Battles in the Labyrinth" took Przemysl from the Russians Lake Garda, and to establish a greater

begun and moved toward Lemberg

influence for herself on the Albanian June 23-Germans and Austrians re shore of the Adriatic. But she is not at

took Lemberg, and soon afterward war with Germany, and she is not bound because it will enable Russia to be far drove the Russians out of most of

to make peace with Austria collectively more readily supplied with the military Galicia and Bukowina with the Allies.

munitions which her backward indusJune 15-Great German drive at War

Turkey, at least in Europe, is proba- trialism makes her unable to provide sau simultaneously from west, north

bly doomed; not so much thru the ag- for herself. and south, and German invasion of Courland threatening Riga

gressions of the Allies as thru the re Rumania, Bulgaria and Greece have fusal of Rumania and Bulgaria to let so long kept out of the struggle that

the military supplies which she needs they may succeed in doing so to the end, was for a restoration of Alsace and pass to her from Germany across their unless they gratuitously inject themLorraine and repayment of the two mil- neutral territory. The fall of Constan- selves into it for the sake of seeking liards wrested from her in 1871. Wheth- tinople and the opening of the Straits a share in the spoils. However that may er the latter part of this demand is still to the Allies will be chiefly important be, there can be little doubt that the set

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