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The war by night-shells from British batteries dropping a curtain in front of captured positions as the "pushbegan

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The war by night-the eyes of the British battleships off Saloniki keep close watch on the city while it is dark

THE WAR BY SE A

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Clearing the Sea of Germans August 13 - German battle-cruiser

Goebenand Cruiser Breslausold to Turkey to avoid capture in

Mediterranean August 27-German auriliary cruiser

"Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse" sunk north of Cape Verde Islands by

British cruiser Highflyer" Norember 10-German light cruiser

Emden" destroyed at Cocos Island in Indian Ocean by Australian cruiser Sydney," after having cap

tured twenty-sid merchantmen March 10German auxiliary cruiser

Prinz Eitel Friedrichput into Hampton Roads after sinking eleven merchantmen, including the American ship William P. Frye." Subsequently interned, Germany consent

ed to pay for the Frye" March 15German cruiser Dresden,"

survivor of the Falkland Islands fight, blown up at Juan Fernandez

Island to avoid capture April 11Last commerce raider, auxil

iary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm," put into Hampton Roads and was subsequently interned

poured into Poland in a drive at Warsaw. At the south the Russians were more successful. They overran Galicia and Bukowina, captured Lemberg, Przemysl and Czernowitz, threatened Cracow, and crost the Carpathians to the borders of the great plain of Hungary. But here, too, were reverses. Lack of munitions, which left tens of thousands of Russians to fight with clubbed rifles and sticks and stones, led to disaster and compelled defeat. Przemysl and Lemberg were abandoned and nearly all of Galicia and Bukowina were evacuated. Vast and repeated fluctuations to and fro marked the story of the eastern battle line all thru the year.

THE WAR BY SE A

February 19-21-General attack on

forts at entrance to Dardanelles begun by fleet of forty warships, ViceAdmiral Sackville Hamilton Carden in command, including British superdreadnought "Queen Elizabethand

a number of French battleships March 5-Forts near Kilid Bahr

shelled by Queen Elizabethfiring

acros8 Gallipoli peninsula March 18-French battleship Bou

ret,British battleships Irresistible," "Ocean" sunk by floating mines. British battle-cruiserInflerible," French battleship "Garloisdisabled by gunfire. Attack suspended. Occasional bombardment and mine-sweeping in following

weeks. Ten warships reinforce fleet March 28 and intermittently there

after-Russian fleet bombards Bos

porus forts April 25,- Anglo-French fleet renews

bombardment to cover landing of

troops on Gallipoli May 12British battleship Goliath

torpedoed by Turkish destroyer May 25 and 27--British battleships

Triumphand Majesticsunk by

German submarine June Larger warships withdraron

from Dardanelles

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vibrating to and fro in distances measured by yards rather than miles, thru all the weary year.

The chief changes have been at the extreme northwest. Baffled in the direct rush toward Paris, the German armies again and again have striven to turn the left flank of the Allies and to gain the French shore of the British Channel; aiming thus to break the directest line of communication between France and Great Britain, and to secure a base from which to attack and to invade the latter country. For weeks the fiercest fighting of the war was near and on the coast at the FrancoBelgian boundary. On the ground and under the ground, on the sea and under the sca, and in the air, it raged relentlessly; and even the sea itself was let in, to swallow the land and to drown the combatants. But in the end, as at the Marne, the line of last defense held good and the German advance was checked.

Meantime another disaster befell the German plans at the eastern borders. Russia mobilized her armies more slowly than did France, but she did mobilize them and sent them surging across the frontiers into both Austria-Hungary and Germany. By the end of August, when the Germans were pressing toward Paris and needed every man and gun to make that drive successful, the Russians had invaded East Prussia as far as Allenstein and Tannenberg, and were threatening Königsberg, Dantzig and Posen. Then came disaster, when they were routed and driven back with appalling losses, while the Germans

August 28-Off Heligoland, Rear-Ad

miral Sir David Beatty with squadron of British battle-cruisers, light cruisers and destroyers sunk three German light cruisers and two de

stroyers November 1--Off Coronel, Chile, Ger

man squadron-armored cruisers "Scharnhorse," "Gneisenau," thirdclass cruisers "Leipzig,Dresden," “Nürnberg,Admiral Count von Spee in command-defeated British cruisers Good Hope," "Glasgow," "Monmouthand transport "Otranto," Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock in command; sinking "Good

Hope" and "MonmouthDecember 8-Off Falkland Islands.

British Squadron battle-cruisers "Inflerible," "Invincible," battleship "Canopus," armored cruisers "Carnarron," "Cornwall," "Kent," second-class cruisers Glasgow," "Bristol," Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee in command-defeated Admiral von Spee's squadron, sinking Leipzig,Scharnhorst,Gneise

nau" and "Nürnberg" January 24-In North Sea. British

squadron - battle-cruisers "Tiger," "Lion," "Princess Royal," "New Zealand," "Indomitable,Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty in command-pursued German raiding squadron--battle-cruisers Derfflinger,Seydlitz," "Moltke," "Blücher," Admiral Hibber in command sinking Blücher"

At the end of the year the Russians have lost nearly all that they gained, while the victorious Teutons have overrun the bulk of Poland, have put an iron ring three-fourths of the way around Warsaw, and are sweeping with little resistance thru the Baltic Provinces toward Riga if not toward Petrograd itself.

Advance on one side means, however, inertia if not peril of disaster on the other; and Germany thus suffers the immense disadvantage of having to fight all her foes at once instead of one at a time, a circumstance which has transformed the whole aspect of the war. As for the auxiliary campaigns, they have been of minor interest. After many violent fluctuations of fortune, the Serbs and Montenegrins at last expelled the Austrian invaders and themselves became the aggressors in Austro-Hungarian territory. Turkey entered the war at Germany's command, but has been handicapped by the impossibility of getting supplies across the barrier of Rumanian and Bulgarian neutrality. She has consequently been chiefly on the defensive, with her strength steadily waning, and with a prospect that the Straits will soon be in the hands of the Allies and be opened as an avenue for Russia's much-needed supplies. Japan wrested from Germany the latter's Chinese holdings; Australia took New Guinea and other islands; and France and Great Britain or their colonies took

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Central Nows

REHEARSING A BATTLE This model of the terrain to be captured was made from aeroplane observation and studied by the soldiers who took Messines Ridge

Serbia

........

those which were confidently anticiTHE LOSSES IN THE FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR pated, and probably a comparably great

change in the attitude of the belligerAs Reported in Official Statistics and Reckoned by the Red Cross ents toward the issues involved. At the and Other Relief Organizations

beginning, exulting in their known

strength and never having' tasted dePrisoners

feat, the Germans, even the foremost Killed Wounded and Missing

Total Russia ..............

men of light and leading, talked of 800,000 2,000,000

800,000 3,600,000 France ........

450,000
800,000
310,000 1,560,000

nothing less than the annexation of Great Britain .... 125,000

250,000

90,000
465,000

Belgium, northern France, Poland, the Belgium .........

50,000
165,000
45,000
260,000

Baltic Provinces, and the bulk of Great
65,000
113,000

50,000

228,000 Britain's colonies, and the exaction of Montenegro .

8,000
15,000
5,000

28,000 indemnities which would "bleed white" Italy ....... ... 5,000

12,000

2,000

19,000 all their antagonists. Now, with their

plan of campaign defeated, and with Totals ....... .....1,503,000 3,355,000 1,302,000 6,160,000

their empire surrounded by an iron

ring of foes threatening at once to Germany ............ 500,000 900,000

250,000 1,650,000

starve and to crush it, they speak of an Austria-Hungary ..... 355,000 800,000

200,000 1,355,000 Turkey

“honorable peace" without annexations 50,000 100,000 50,000

200,000

or indemnities but on the basis of the Totals ...... 905,000 1,800,000 500,000 3,205,000

status quo ante bellum. That Germany Grand totals .........2,408,000 5,155,000 1,802,000 9,365,000 can be starved is doubtful. That she

can be beaten thru failure of military

supplies also seems doubtful. That she all of Germany's extensive African pos- Hungary for the advancement of her will in the course of another year suffer sessions save one, which also seems own interests and especially for the re grave embarrassment if not disaster doomed soon to be taken. Last, Italy en- covery of “Italia Irredenta.” in the thru monetary famine-in brief, banktered the war, fighting, however, not Alps and on the Adriatic.

ruptcy--seems far less doubtful if not, against the Teutonic powers in aid of The first year of the war has therefore indeed, quite probable. It is this aspect the Allies but simply against Austria- produced conditions quite different from

of the situation and of the outlook which now causes most concern and the most

zealous desire to press the war with THE FLUCTU ATING INVASIONS

some speedy and decisive stroke.

The tone of the Allies, too, has greatAUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JULY ly changed. The first hot flush of wrath

at the violation of Belgium may not have cooled, but the expectation of wreaking spcedy and overwhelming

vengeance has been disappointed. There DEJNAUJANTITOLAT

is no more talk of a swift march to Ber

lin, of the fall of the Hohenzollerns, and ON THE WESTERN FRONT

of the dissolution of the German EmThe figures at the left indicate the area of alien territory conquered, in thousands of

pire. The Allied Powers are, indeed, square miles

bound by a common pledge to make no peace until all are agreed upon its

terms. But they are thoughtfully conJAUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JULY |||||||||||||||||||||||||

sidering the question of how long it will take to march to Berlin if a year of such furious and costly fighting as the world has never seen before has not sufficed to drive the invading Germans

out of France and Belgium. ON THE EASTERN FRONT

Great Britain is of all the Allies the

most belligerent in sentiment, tho the These diagrams indicate approrimately the fluctuations of the tides of invasion

least so in action. Also, she has suffered and occupation of territory by the belligerents in the west of Europe--Belgium,

least. She is the least inclined toward France and the Reichsland of Germanyand in the chief eastern seat of war

peace, and insists upon the sine qua non - Poland, Galicia, Bukovina, East Prussia and the Baltic provinces. In the

of the restoration and full indemnifyupper diagram the continuous line shows the area occupied by the Germans in Luremburg, Belgium and northern France, the high-water mark of about 25,000

ing of Belgium, the surrender or desquare miles being at the beginning of the Battle of the Marne in the second struction of the German navy, and the week of September. Since Norember the changes have been inconsiderable. The adoption of such measures as will make dotted line indicates the gains of the French in Alsace and Lorraine, amounting impossible another German attack upon at most to only a few hundred square miles, and e.raggerated for the sake of her. It is yet to be seen how heavier clearness on this diagram. Much greater gains on both sides, and greater fluctua

losses and increasing financial burdens tions, appear in the lower diagram. T'he continuous line shows the advance of

will affect her. the Germans and Austrians in Russian Poland and the Baltic provinces, now

France has been waging a war with higher than ever before and approrimating 40.000 square miles. The dotted line

immeasurably greater losses to herself indicates the occupation by the Russians of German territory in East Prussia

than either of her great allies has sufand Silesia and of Austro-Hungarian territory in Galicia, Bukowina and Hun

fered, but with a fortitude and resolugary; reaching a maximum of about 40,000 square miles in April and now ebbing toward the vanishing point

tion never surpassed by any nation in history. Her first spontaneous demand

LO

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August 12—-Austrians invaded Serbia August 26--Germans surrendered To August 2Germans took possession and bombarded Belgrade goland to French and British

of Luremburg in violation of its neuAugust 23--Battle of the Jadar River. September 25-Australians captured

trality, and thus gained unobstructAustrians driven out of Serbia with New Guiana

ed entrance into France great loss

September 28-French and British August 17Germans entered Liège, tho August 24-Russians penetrated far

seized the German Congo Colony

some of its forts remained unconinto East Prussia, threatening July 9- British Union of South Africa

quered, and passed on thru Belgium Königsberg, Dantzig and Posen completed conquest of German

toucard France August 30.-Russians routed at Allen

Southwest Africa

August 8-French troops occupied stein and Tannenberg and driven November -Germans surrendered

Mülhansen and advanced as far as out of East Prussia with tremendTsing-tau to the Japanese

Colmar, in Alsace ous losses

April 21--Armies of the Allies landed August 19--Germans destroyed LouSeptember 2--Russians took the Gali

on Gallipoli Peninsula for conquest

rain cian capital, Lemberg, renaming it

of the Straits

August 20Germans passed thru Lvov May 26-Italians began their invasion

Brussels, unopposed, on their "way September 5-15.- Serbians invaded

of Austria, moving simultaneously

to Paris" Austria-Hungary, captured Semlin

toward Trent, Görz and Trieste

August 21-23-French driven from and threatened Sarajevo July 12--Italian raiders penetrated to

Namur and British from Mons, September 23 -- Russians captured within three miles of Trieste

slowly retreating into France before Jaroslav and overran most of Gali

the oncoming Germans cia, threatening Cracow

September 2French Government reOctober 1-Russians crost the Car

so positively maintained is open to tired from Paris to Bordeaur and pathians and threatened Hungary question.

Paris prepared for siege with invasion

September 6-10-Battle of the Marne, Austria-Hungary planned at the outDecember 2-Austrians occupied the

in which the French and British. set to crush and spoliate Serbia, to Serbian capital, Belgrade

under orders to die rather than reDecember 14- Serbians reoccupied dominate the Balkans, and to gain an

treat," checked and turned back the Belgrade and assumed the aggressive outlet upon the Aegean Sea. Now she is

Germans at the high water mark of against Austria-Hungary

confessedly ready to assent to anything their invasion of France and drive January 1-5Russians invaded Hun which her greater partner may deem toward Paris gary. occupied Bukowina, and

expedient or necessary; even to the September 16-28-Battle of the Aisne, threatened Transylvania with inta

granting of guarantees to Serbia and in which the Germans held their sion of actual concessions of territory to

ground against the attempt of the February 4Great German drive at Italy ard Rumania.

Allies to drive them out of France Warsaw, directed by von Hinden

October 10Germans captured Antburg Russia entered the war as the de

werp, completing their conquest of February 10-12--Germans under von fender and champion of all the Slavs.

Belgium, and the remains of the BelHindenburg inflicted crushing de She meant to crush Austria, to shatter

gian army retired into France and feat upon the Russians in the Mazu Germany's military power, to annex

joined the Allies rian Lakes region, driving them out Galicia and perhaps Silesia and Posen October 15-25-Five-fold battles of of East Prussia

to her own Poland, and to magnify Ru four nations in western Flanders in March 19.-Russians occupied Memel

mania, Serbia and Bulgaria as her which the first great German drive and threatened Tilsit minor allies. Doubtless that is still her

at Calais and the Channel coast was March 22-After a siege lasting since purpose. But Muscovite ways are not

baffled September the Russians captured the

October 30Belgians flooded western Galician fortress of Przemysl the ways of western Europe. Her pol

Flanders to drive out Germans April 2-15-Tremendous battles in the icy may not break, but it often bends;

December 30German aviators bomCarpathians she may not abandon her designs, but

barded Dunkirk April 30Germans invaded the Baltic she may postpone them. Suffering heavy March 11-British capture Neuve provinces

losses and with declining credit, a read Chapelle after several days' fighting May 3Great German and Austrian

iness on her part to temporize is not with heavy losses on both sides victory in Galicia, in consequence of beyond the pale of possibility.

April 22-In great battle near Ypres which the Russians began to retire

Italy is fighting for her own hand. the Germans began the use of May 14--German and Austrian armies She wants to redeem “Italia Irredenta,"

asphyxiating and poisonous gases in began attacks upon Przemysł

warfare, with effective results to remove the menace of Austria at June 3_-Germans and Austrians re

June 2-Battles in the "Labyrinth" took Przemysl from the Russians Lake Garda, and to establish a greater

begun and moved toward Lemberg

influence for herself on the Albanian June 23-Germans and Austrians re shore of the Adriatic. But she is not at

took Lemberg, and soon afterward war with Germany, and she is not bound because it will enable Russia to be far drove the Russians out of most of to make peace with Austria collectively more readily supplied with the military Galicia and Bukowina with the Allies.

munitions which her backward indusJune 15Great German drive at War

Turkey, at least in Europe, is proba- trialism makes her unable to provide savo simultaneously from west, north

bly doomed; not so much thru the ag- for herself. and south, and German invasion of Courland threatening Riga

gressions of the Allies as thru the re- Rumania, Bulgaria and Greece have fusal of Rumania and Bulgaria to let so long kept out of the struggle that

the military supplies which she needs they may succeed in doing so to the end, was for a restoration of Alsace and pass to her from Germany across their unless they gratuitously inject themLorraine and repayment of the two mil- neutral territory. The fall of Constan- selves into it for the sake of seeking liards wrested from her in 1871. Wheth- tinople and the opening of the Straits a share in the spoils. However that may er the latter part of this demand is still to the Allies will be chiefly important be, there can be little doubt that the set

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