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All of the German colonies have been conquered except a narrowing strip in the middle of German East Africa. The black area is that now held

by the Central Powers; the shaded belongs to the Entente Allies. Neutral countries are left white






August, 1916

BY EDWIN E. SLOSSON at the same time as the British in ArER another year of warfare

tois and Champagne, but with in which the area of conflict

better success. That, in brief, was the

COUNTRIES IN CONFLICT has widened, the number

history of 1915.

Territory in possession of gaged are more numerous, the losses

In 1916 it was expected that an

Allied Powers have increased and the expense has

Anglo-French offensive would open the

31,332,000 square miles multiplied enormously, the issue of the

Territory now in possession of Cen

campaign in the spring, but the Gerconflict still remains in doubt and there tral Powers

mans forestalled it by a furious attack is no more evidence of a speedy peace

1,245,000 square miles

upon Verdun, the corner fortress of than there was on August 1, 1914, or

Superiority of Allies over Central France. Since February 21 the fight

Powers in area more than
August 1, 1915. In men and money the

ing has been incessant here, and half

25 to 1 odds in favor of the Allies are greater

a million men have been sacrificed but

PEOPLE IN CONFLICT than ever and so their ultimate victory

the French still hold to the ruined town seems inevitable if they keep up the

Population of territory now in pos and its inner circle of forts.

session of Allied Powers fight, but on the other hand, all the cam

Finally at 7:30 in the morning of the

paigns of the past year in Europe have Population of territory now in pos-

first day of July, 1916, the Anglogone to the advantage of Germany and session of Central Powers

French offensive was launched. The her allies and their powers of resistance


attack was directed at the German lines show no evidence yet of being ex Superiority of Allies over Central

on both sides of the Somme opposite hausted

Powers in population nearly

Peronne, a battlefield familiar to' every

5 to 1 Since the Great War is being fought

reader of Scott's “Quentin Durward.” on fields whose operations are quite dis

At the end of a month the French and

The battle line in France and Beltinct it will be most convenient to con

British have each advanced three or gium remains substantially where it sider the various campaigns separately, was drawn in the fall of 1914, altho chronicler must stay his hand and not

four miles—but here the cautious giving in each case a few memorable more than a million men have been sacdates and a brief summary of the re rificed in the effort to shove it one way virgin fortress, Peronne la Pucelle.

attempt to forecast the fate of the
or the other. Determined and long pre-

Whatever may be thought of future
pared attacks have been made upon it


three times by the British, three times prospects, the campaign in France at August 3, 1914Germans enter Belgium.

by the French, and twice by the Ger- the end of the second year must be August 7.-Germans take Liége.

mans, but nowhere yet has the line pronounced a deadlock if not a staleAugust 23-25– French defeated at Charleroi and budged more than five miles or so from

British at Mons,
Septeni ber 6-10—Germans defeated on the Marne. where it was first fixed. In the spring of

September 14-28-Germans make a stand on the
1915 the British took the village of

August 26-31, 1914-Russians defeated at Tannen-
October 9—Germans take Antwerp.
Neuve Chapelle at a cost of 12,000 men,

berg, East Prussia: limit of Russian advance March 10-14, 1915—British attack at Neuve Cha.

westward into Germany. pelle but gain little ground.

and in the fall they took the village of May 1, 1915-Russians driven back from Duna jec April 22-May 9—Germans attack at Ypres but

River, Galicia;

Russian advance gain little ground. Loos at a cost of 50,000 men. The Ger

westward into Austria. May 9-14French and British attack in Artois mans made a desperate attempt with August 5, 1915—Germans take Warsaw, capital but gain little ground.

of Poland.
September 25-27—British attack at Loos and the aid of gas to smash their way thru September 16-19, 1915—Germans take Pinsk and

French in Champagne, but gain little ground.
February 21, 1916 Germans begin attack upon
the low land of Flanders to Calais, but

Vilna; limit of German advance eastward in.

to Russia.
Verdun that still continues.

e British, French and Belgians held June 1. 1916–Russian drive begins.
July 1-French and British begin attack on the
Somme that still continues.
the line about Ypres. The French struck

June 17. 1916–Russians take Czernovitz, capital

of Bukovina,



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The eastern front presents a great In the north the Germans were still fame, was placed in charge of the contrast to the western. Instead of a more successful. One year after the war northern army group and General line practically stationary for a year began Prince Leopold of Bavaria en Brusiloff in charge of the southern. On and a half, the contending armies have tered Warsaw in triumph. A dozen fort June 1 the Russian offensive started in swept back and forth over a strip near resses fell in quick succession. All Po the south and in the two months since ly three hundred miles wide and eight land was conquered and also Russian has attained a considerable success. The hundred miles long. Some cities have territory for two hundred miles north Russians have reconquered the crownchanged hands two or three times, and of it and a hundred miles east of it. land of Bukovina and reached the Carno country has been more thoroly dev The Baltic province of Courland, large pathians beyond. The Austrians in astated. The Russians on their retreat ly inhabited by Germans, fell into Ger Galicia and the Germans just north of adopted the same tactics as they did man hands except the port of Riga, it have both been driven back fifty against Napoleon, and destroyed fac which, protected by its swamps, resist miles from their winter front. The Rustories, stores and crops so far as they ed capture. By the fall of 1915 the sians claim the capture of over 300,000 were able to. Three million refugees fled Germans held a line running almost prisoners in the last two months. into the interior of Russia, causing straight south from the Dvina River to As it stands at the end of the second great distress and embarrassment, but the Rumanian border and at least a year of war the Germans hold over incidentally breaking down the Pale third shorter than their old Russian 100,000 square miles of Russian terriwhich has hitherto restricted the Jews frontier. This line remained stationary tory and the Russians hold about 10,000 to the western provinces. until the following June.

square miles of Austrian territory. The war began by a swift advance of The Russian armies were badly de

THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN the Russians into East Prussia, but this moralized. They had lost heavily in May 23, 1915—Italy declares war on Austria.

May 15, 1916—Austrians advance from Trentino. was checked by the victory of General casualties and prisoners. They were out

June 20, 1916—Italians drive Austrians back tovon Hindenburg on the historic field of of ammunition and the transportation ward Trentino. Tannenberg. Thus the Germans took system had broken down. The Grand The entrance of Italy into the war did the offensive and penetrated Poland Duke Nicholas, who as commander-in not make so much difference as the almost to Warsaw, but here they were chief was, rightly or wrongly, held re Allies had hoped. The boundary line, stopped in midwinter.

sponsible for the disaster, was removed which was drawn in 1866 so as to give Then the Russians turned their atten to the Caucasus and the Czar himself Austria a strategic advantage, proved tion to the Austrian front, where they assumed nominal command of the Rus to be all that was expected of it. The

more successful. Lemberg, the sian forces. During the winter the ar Austrians were able to hold their froncapital of Galicia, and Przemysl, its mies were completely reorganized and tier, protected as it was on the one side chief fortress, were captured, and the equipped for a new campaign. Muni by the Tyrolese Alps and on the other spring of 1915 found the Russian ar tions were received in large quantities by the Isonzo River, with three or four mies in possession of the mountain wall from Japan and the United States by hundred thousand men against a million of the Carpathians, looking down upon way of the Siberian railroad. British, or more troops at the command of Genthe Hungarian plains to the south. French, Belgian and Japanese contin- eral Cadorna. The Italians have not

But the German general, Mackensen, gents were sent to take charge of ar taken any town of importance, and until
with a large army of Austrian and Ger mored motor cars, aeroplanes and other recently the fighting has mostly been
man troops, swept the Russians back expert services. In exchange Russia confined to a strip of four or five miles
three hundred miles during May and sent six detachments of her surplus inside the Austrian border.
June, and so recovered all of Bukovina troops, unequipped, to France.

But in the middle of last May the and Galicia except one corner.

General Kuropatkin, of Manchurian Austrians undertook an offensive move

ment from the Trentino and had advanced about ten miles into the Venetian Valley when the Russian drive began, and they were obliged to with

draw their troops to their mountain North

So, after

than twenty-two Sea

months of war, the Austrians and Italians stand about where they started, except for the heavy losses both have sustaired.




July 28, 1914-Austria declares war upon Serbia.
August 23, 1914–First Austrian invasion repulsed.
December 10, 1914—Second Austrian invasion re-

September 20, 1915—Bulgaria mobilizes.
September 23. 1915—Greece mobilizes.
October 5. 1915—French and British troops land

at Salonica.
October 8, 1915—Austrians take Belgrade.
November 5. 1915—Bulgars take Nish.
November 30. 1915—Conquest of Serbia completed.
January 14 1916-Austrians enter Cettinje, capi.

tal of Montenegro.
Serbia, about which the war began,
was the first country to be completely
conquered. The armies that Austria
sent into Serbia in the summer and
winter of 1914 met with such humiliat-
ing defeats thai no further attempts
were made until the fall of 1915. By
that time the spectacular success of the
Germans in Russia and the failure of
the Allies to make any impression upon
the German lines in France had in-
clined the Balkan states toward the
Central Powers. Both sides made gen-
erous offers of enemy territory to Bul-
garia, Greece and Rumania and both
had hopes up to the last moment of

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The region over which the war-wave has swept are given in black. Neutral countries are white.

The Central Powers are distinguished from the Entente Allies by different shading

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winning over one or all of them. But

BLACK when it came to the show-down it Constantinople

RUSSIA turned out that Rumania was determined to remain neutral, that Bulgaria would espouse the cause of the Central

T Powers and that Greece was divided. King Constantine, whose wife is sister to the Kaiser, was pro-German in his sympathies, but Venizelos, his prime minister, was pro-Ally. The King won

Teheran the political battle and declared Greece neutral, but that did not prevent the British and French troops from using Greek territory for their military and naval operations.

MEDITERRANEAN The Bulgarian troops entered Serbia


Bagdad from the eastern side at the same time that the Austrian and German troops entered from the northern side. While

JerusalemA:R A B:1 A

BRITISH) the Teutons took Belgrade, the old cap

INREV0:2:13 ital of Serbia, the Bulgars took Nish, the new capital. The Serbs, caught be(BRITISH


GULF tween the two armies and receiving no aid from outside, were defeated on the plain of Kossovo, where the Turks had

THE PARTITION OF TURKEY conquered them five hundred years be

Asiatic Turkey has been attacked from all four sides. The attempt of the British and French to

force the Dardanelles and take Constantinople was frustrated, but on the east the Russians fore. The aged King Peter escaped in a have conquered the greater part of Armenia as well as overrun northern Persia. The British peasant's cart and such of his troops have occupied southern Persia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and declared a protectorate over

Egypt. The British expedition sent up the Tigris to take Bagdad was defeated and captured. were not captured or killed took

Most of the Arab tribes are said to be in revolt against Oitoman rule refuge in Greece and Albania.

The tiny kingdom of Montenegro same privilege, have occupied Greek The Dardanelles campaign accomshared the fate of the allied and kindred territory to the east of Salonica. plished nothing, except, perhaps, to Serbia. The supposedly impregnable

The Balkan campaign, then, has gone frustrate Turkish attack upon Mount Lovcen, which dominates the altogether against the Allies. The Cen Egypt. Bay of Cattaro, was taken by the Austral Powers have won Bulgaria as an THE MESOPOTAMIAN CAMPAIGN

November 1914—British take Basra, near head of trians with surprizing ease, and King ally and have occupied Serbia, Monte

Persian Gulf. Nicholas went into exile in France. negro and Albania.

January, 1915—Expedition starts up Tigris.

November 22, 1915—British advance checked at Albania, which five months before the


Ctesiphon, 18 miles below Bagdad. war had been set up by the powers as

December 3, 1915—British expedition retires to February 19, 1915—British warships shell Turkish Kut-el-Amara and is there besieged. an independent nation under a Prus forts.

April 29. 1916British expedition surrenders at March 18, 1915—Three warships lost in Darda Kut-el-Amara. sian prince, is now divided among her nelles; fleet withdrawn. neighbors. The Austrians are in pos

April 25, 1915—Australasian troops landed Early in the war the British took

Gallipoli. session of the northern part and the

possession of the Persian and Turkish August 6, 1915—Second landing made at Suvla,

Gallipoli. Bulgars of the eastern; the Italians

territory about the Persian Gulf, and December 19, 1916—Troops withdrawn from Gal. hold Avlona on the western coast and lipoli.

in 1915 expeditions were sent up the the Greeks have seized the Epirote The attempt to force the Darda Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Tiprovinces on the south. nelles and take Constantinople was ill

gris expedition had almost reached The British Government, surprized advised and ill-managed. First a fleet

Bagdad when it encountered a supeand chagrined at Bulgaria's joining the of British and French warships, includ

rior force of Turks and was forced to

withdraw ing the largest battleship ever

hundred miles downenemy, thought it too late to intervene

conin the Balkans, but General Joffre ran structed, was sent out to accomplish

stream. Here it was caught in a bend over to London, and by his eloquence the feat alone. After a month spent in

in the river at Kut-el-Amara and was and earnestness persuaded the cabinet bombarding the Turkish forts guarding

so closely invested that only aeroplanes to join with him in the rescue of Ser the strait had failed to reduce them,

could reach it. After holding out for bia. But by the time the French and the fleet rashly entered the Dardanelles,

nearly five months, the expedition, conBritish troops got there the country where two British and one French bat

sisting then of only 10,000 British and was conquered, so they withdrew to tleships were promptly sunk by float

Indian troops, surrendered to the Turks. Salonica which they have ever since ing mines.

The failure of the Mesopotamian occupied in spite of the protests of the

Then it was decided to try troops,

campaign, tho it involved insignificant Greek Government at this violation of but a month was spent in making the

numbers compared with the European neutrality. The Allied fleet blockaded necessary preparations for landing, and

operations, had a serious effect upon the Greek coast and so forced the Greek by that time the Turks, under German

British prestige in the East. Government to evacuate the Salonica engineers, had fortified the Gallipoli

THE CAUCASIAN CAMPAIGN district and finally to demobilize the peninsula. The Australian and New

February 15 1916-Russians take Erzerum.

April 18, 1916—Russians take Trebizond. Greek army. The Bulgars, claiming the Zealand Army Corps was landed on the July 26, 1916-Russians take Erzingan.

western shore of the peninsula, called The only definite success outside of

for that reason Anzac Cove, but they Africa so far achieved by any of the TERRITORIAL GAINS

were never able to fight their way in nine Allies is the Russian conquest of The end of the second year of the war finds the belligerent powers hold

land far enough to reach the ridge Armenia. The Grand Duke Nicholas, ing the following territories not pre

commanding the strait. Another con transferred to the Caucasus, began riously included among their possez tingent landed at Suvla Bay, a little from there the invasion of Turkey besions :

farther up the coast, was also forced to fore the winter was over. The opposiArea

Square miles Population

keep to the shelter of the beach. Late tion was feeble and the fortresses of Great Britain...2,510.000 22.000.000 in the year the enterprize was aban- Erzerum and Trebizond, renowned Russia

412.000 5,350,000 doned and the troops withdrawn. The from old for their ability to stand a Germany 127.000 29,000,000 British losses

117,549 killed, siege, surrendered as soon as they were France

112,600 1,800,000 Austria 31,500 3,400,000

wounded and missing. There were also reached. But the Russian occupation of Bulgaria 17,000 2,270,000 96,683 hospital cases of disease, an un this region was not soon enough to save usual feature in the present war.

the Armenians. The Turks, knowing





man East Africa.

that the Armenians would welcome the

CHANGES IN THE MAP advance of the Russians, determined


Publishers of geographies are holdupon their removal, and during the The leading belligerents were at the ing back on new editions because it is winter a million or more Armenians,

end of the second year spending money

anticipated that there will be many

at the following rates per diem: Syrians and Greeks were massacred or

alterations to be made in national

Great Britain deported. Northern Persia, which, ac

$30,000,000 Germany


boundaries however the war may turn cording to the Anglo-Russian agree


15,500,000 out. A map of the world made now ment of 1907, was recognized as the Russia

16,000,000 would show that since August, 1914, an Russian "sphere of influence," has now


12,000,000 Italy

area almost equal to the whole of Eu

8,000,000 passed under Russian control in spite


1,500,000 rope has changed hands at least temof the resistance of the Persian Nation


1,500,000 porarily. On page 21 we summarize the alists aided by the Germans and Turks. Belgium

1,500,000 chief of these changes. The figures Unless, then, the results of this cam


- $108,000,000

given are, of course, only approximate paign are nullified in Europe, the Rus

for the area actually held by the armies sian Empire will incorporate northern

is not definitely determinable and the Persia and northeastern Turkey.

the Allies. A few sea-rovers like the
"Emden” and the “Möwe” have been population is still more uncertain be-

cause millions of people who were in THE AFRICAN CAMPAIGN

for a time at large. The submarine the war zones have fled to other counAugust 26, 1914—British and French conquer To. “Deutschland," loaded with dyes, ap- tries or else have perished by war, mas

July 9. 1915—General Botha of Union of South peared at Baltimore. But German ship-

sacre, privation and plague.
February 18, 1918–British and French conquer ping has been virtually shut off from

From the table it will be seen that
the sea, and German commerce by any the lion's share of the spoils has gone
March 9, 1916-General Smuts of the Union of
South Africa enters upon the conquest of Ger. channelhas been cut down almost to

to Great Britain. With the assistance extinction. Without declaring a block of the Japanese and Australians she The German colonies in Africa have ade, because, as Premier Asquith said, took possession of all of the German an area more than four times that of "the government are not going to allow islands in the Pacific and with the asthe Fatherland, but there probably were their efforts to be strangled in a net

sistance of the French and Boers she not more than 25,000 Germans in them work of judicial niceties,” the British has conquered all of the German colowhen the war broke out. Cut off from Government inspects the cargo and nies in Africa except German East Germany, from one another, and from mails of all ships bound for European Africa, of which the central portion is the outside would by the British com- ports, whatever their flag or desmand of the coast, it was inevitable that tination, and no goods are allowed to and Kamerun, French and British

still unsubdued. In the conquest of Togo they should succumb. The only wonder pass if suspected of being intended for troops coöperated, so I have calculated is that these four isolated groups should Germany. The United States, in mainbe able to hold out as long as they tenance of its historic principle that tween the two powers, altho it is quite

these colonies as divided equally behave against enemies on every


“free ships make free goods,” has pro- likely that France will be given a much Two of the colonies, Togo_and Kam- tested against the illegality and strin- larger share in the final settlement. erun, were cleaned up by British and gency of the British procedure, but Egypt, Sudan and Cyprus, which beFrench troops. The other two were left without avail.

fore the war belonged nominally to to the Union of South Africa. The Boer

The sinking of passenger vessels like Turkey, altho under the administrative generals, Botha and Smuts, who six- the “Lusitania” aroused such indigna- control of England, are now listed as teen years ago were fighting against tion in neutral countries that the party part of the British Empire. The souththe British, undertook to annex Ger- in Germany which was opposed to such ern half of Persia has now virtually man Southwest Africa to the British tactics secured the ascendency, and the passed under British rule, as well as Empire. The job was so well done that United States was assured that the

a considerable part of Arabia. The General Smuts was set at the same task German submarines would not in the troops that were sent up the Tigris and in German East Africa. The region future attack unarmed merchantmen Euphrates have control of the vilayet about Mount Kilimanjaro is already in without fair warning. But this promise of Busra. his possession, and with Belgians inwas made upon the condition that Eng

To the French I have tentatively asvading the colony from the west and land's blockade practises be brought signed half of the German colonies of Portuguese from the south, the handful within the scope of international law,

Togo and Kamerun. In Alsace the of Germans in the interior cannot be so it is possible that the submarine French still hold a strip a few miles expected to resist much longer.

raids may be resumed at any time that wide and about forty-five miles long on With their capitulation will vanish Germany is willing to incur the dis the German side of the border. the colonial empire that the German pleasure of the United States.

Germany has Luxemburg, nearly all Government has labored ever since 1884

The dreadnoughts and battle-cruisers

of Belgium and a large slice of France. to construct. of the two fleets came into conflict for

On the Russian side the German troops the first time near the mouth of the

are in possession of all Poland, almost August 5, 1914–Beatty sinks three German cruis- Skagerrak and off the coast of Jutland

all of Courland and a large part of the ers in the bight of Helgoland.

on the afternoon of the last day of May. November 1, 1914–Cradock's squadron defeated

governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno off Coronel, Chili, by Von Spee's squadron. The result is indecisive from the stand

and Volhynia.
1914–Sturdee destroys Von Spee's
squadron near Falkland Islands.
point of naval power. The British losses

Austrian, Bulgarian and German
January 24, 1915—German squadron defeated at
were about twice those of the Germans,

troops joined in the Balkan campaign. Dogger Bank.

but since the British navy is about twice How the territory gained in it will be February 7, 1915—Germans declare March 11, 1915-British Order-in-Council estab. as strong, the ratio is not materially

divided no man knows. The figures given lishes cordon control shutting off all goods changed.

in the table on the preceding page are going to or from Germany. May 7, 1915—"Lusitania" sunk.

based upon the assumption that Austria May 4, 1916-Germany agrees not to sink liners

THE NATIONS AT WAR IN 1916 for the present has possession of the without warning. May 31, 1916–Greatest naval battle of history

northern half of Serbia and Albania fought off Jutland.

and the whole of Montenegro, and that June 5, 1916—"Hampshire" sunk with Kitchener

Great Britain Germany

Bulgaria has the balance of Serbia. June 29. 1916—England renounces the Declaration



The story of the war on the sea may


According to David Lloyd George the be summed up in few words: After

Japan two years the British supremacy re


war will be won by "silver bullets." Serbia

Since England is the country with the mains unshaken. The German subma

Montenegro rines have inflicted heavy losses upon

greatest store of this sort of ammuniPortugal

tion her part in the burden of war bethe naval and mercantile shipping of


December 8.



a bout British Isles.

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on board.


of London.


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This remarkable photograph of the destruction of the aeroplane in which Flight Lieutenant R. C. Ferrick of the British Aviation Corps was making observations over the enemy lines was taken by a photographer in the German trenches after the aeroplane had been struck by a shell from a German anti-aircraft gun and had burst into flames it was falling

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