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Copyright Underwood

AN AVIATION BASE BEHIND THE FRENCH LINES AT VERDUN This photograph was taken by an aviator 1500 feet high and directly over the camp. It shows with remarkable clearness the French army aeroplanes drawn up before their hangars, and behind these the soldiers' tents and several groups of motor trucks. On the upper and under side of each

wing of the French biplanes is painted a red, white and blue circle for identification during Aight. German machines show a black cross

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comes increasingly important as the

government who formerly had to “supmonths dragon. Parliament has just

THE WAR OF RACES

port themselves.” Most of them are bebeen asked to provide $2,550,000,000 The chief races taking part in the ing supported more expensively than

Great War are: more, making a total of $14,160,000,000

ever before and in so far as this means Afridis

Kurds appropriated during the past two years.

better food, clothing and sanitary care Albanians

Lithuanians
These credits have been granted with-

Algerians
Magyars

it is not to be regretted. Altho they are out opposition and almost without de Annamites

Mahrattas

from an economic standpoint to be conbate and the government has not been Armenians

Malagasy

sidered as idle, yet this also is not an Arabs

Maoris required even to specify the various

unprecedented strain upon the commuAustrians

Montenegrins uses for which the money was to be ap

Bantus
Mongols

nity. In 1908, according to Kier Hardie, plied. Never before in the history of the Belgians

Pathans

labor member of Parliament, there world has any government had such Boers

Persians

were 2,250,000 men out of work in Engenormous sums placed at its disposal

British
Poles

land and Scotland, three-fourths of Bulgars

Portuguese without restriction.

Circassians
Rumanians

them skilled artizans. Now there are It must not be hastily assumed that Croatians

Russians

more people working and they are workthese billions spent are altogether wast Czechs

Ruthenians

ing harder than ever before. Unemployed. In the first place a billion and a

Egyptians
Senegalese

ment is wiped out and wages in some Finns

Serbs quarter of England's expenditure con

French
Sikhs

industries more than doubled. The cost sists of money advanced to her allies Garhwalis

Slovaks

of living has risen but not so much as and her oversea dominions. These are Georgians

Slovenes

the wage rate. The poorer classes are loans which presumably will be repaid

Germans
Syrians

spending money more lavishly than forGurkhas

Tartars with interest unless the Allies

Italians
Tonkinese

merly. Imitation jewelry is in great ruined.

Japanese
Turks

demand and all sorts of cheap amuseThen, too, the appropriations of Par Jeios

West Indians

ments are extensively patronized. The liament include all of the running ex

consumption of alcoholic liquor in the penses of the government, now higher

United Kingdom has risen to the unthan usual because the government has sumed either fruitlessly or in the de- precedented hight of $900,000,000 a taken on more functions. The ordinary struction of lives and property, yet we

year, a hundred million more than it expenditure of the British Government must avoid the common fallacy of re

was before the war, notwithstanding before the war was about one billion garding the expenditures of the bel

the fact that a large proportion of the dollars. Of this some $380,000,000 a ligerent governments as so much wealth year went for army and navy and of lost to the world, in excess of the nor

men are in the army where they get course were “wasted” in the same sense mal consumption of peaceful times. In only their ration of rum. So far it is as the larger sums now spent for the large part it represents a transfer of chiefly the wealthy and well-to-do who purpose. But altho soldiering in peace expenditure from individuals to the have begun the practise of economy and or war must be classed among the un government. It means, for instance, that this under compulsion, since the burden productive occupations and the money there are some two million young Eng increased taxation has in many cases expended for explosives is speedily con lishmen in France supported by the cut their income in two.

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A TRIAL BALANCE OF THE GREAT WAR AFTER THREE YEARS

BY PRESTON SLOSSON
August, 1917 Allied and neutral world by a three

chant fleet now building. With F the three years of the Great years' blockade, have not

the other Allies the greatest War, that of 1916-17 has been yet run short of any neces

danger is not insufficiency of most eventful. During

food, but the difficulty of secur

ing adequate railroad transporportant campaigns included the

tation. The loss of merchant German conquest of the greater

tonnage is unknown, as the Britpart of Belgium and of a corner

ish Government, which is the of France, the Battle of the

greatest sufferer from the GerMarne, the Russian advance in

man submarine activity, pubGalicia and East Prussia and

lishes only statistics of the numthe beginning of the Russian re

ber of vessels sunk and does not treat thru Poland. The German

mention particular ships. Varicolonies were all annexed, with

ous estimates place the total dethe exception of German East

struction at from 500,000 to upAfrica, and futile attempts were

ward of 1,000,000 tons a month. made at Gallipoli and in Meso

Probably six or seven hundred potamia to break the military

thousand is about correct. strength of Turkey. During the second year a deadlock in the

THE belligerent nations are west, and disastrous for the

enduring the financial drain Allies elsewhere, Russia

on their resources even expelled from Poland, Courland

successfully than the economic and the greater part of Ga

effect of the naval blockades. licia, and Serbia and Monte

The great loans which are yearnegro fell before the advancing

ly floated are still as

a rule armies of the Central Powers.

oversubscribed within few Italy, France and Great Brit

weeks of their issue, and the ain could accomplish nothing

crushing burden of war taxabut resistance, and the only fa

tion is still willingly borne by vorable omen for the Allied

the taxpayers. The warring nacause was the German failure

tions have not even resorted to before Verdun. The third year

the reckless printing of unrewas marked by four events of

deemable paper money which in outstanding importance: the

previous great wars has been Russian revolution, the inter

the usual expedient of governvention of America, the aban

ments in financial distress. Of donment by Germany of a large

course the economic strain is part of her conquests in France,

not unfelt. Quite apart from and the renewal of ruthless

the heavy taxes; the steady insubmarine warfare on a most menacing sity of war. The German counter crease in prices, the growing scarcity scale. Three of these events were fa- blockade of the Allies has so disap- of capital for industrial enterprizes and vorable to the cause of the Entente pointed the hopes of the German peo- the rising rates of interest bring home Allies, but the fourth was hailed by ple that its relative failure is consid- the huge cost of the war to the public. Germany as a prelude to an early vic- ered chiefly responsible for the pres- Estimates differ as to the cost of the tory. The story of the third year of ent political crisis within the Empire. war, but it seems likely that the direct the Great War has been divided into the sinking of merchant ships by sub- cost to the governments concerned for individual campaigns, preceded by a marines continues far more rapidly the whole three years must be placed at general summary of the war consid- than the vessels can be replaced, but over $90,000,000,000, or an average of ered as a test of endurance and of the not rapidly enough to create a food considerably more than $82,000,000 a “staying power” of the two belligerent crisis in England this year, and by 1918 day. This estimate makes no allowance groups.

the British hope to have a much larger for the United States, which has still THE TEST OF ENDURANCE

area under cultivation and to have the to spend the greater part of its first DURING the third year of the Great assistance of the new American mer- year's war budget, por for the neutral

had erent that victory would incline to that

armaments to protect their neutrality.

THE COUNTRIES THAT HAVE BROKEN side which could afford to suffer long

As time goes on, the cost of war tends

WITH GERMANY est the strain which war imposed upon

to increase with the larger forces put the armies and the civilian population.

Belgium
Japan

into the field, the growing interest on The possibility of a decisive victory in British Empire Liberia

national loans, and the enlargement of the field was not excluded, but the meth

Bolivia
Montenegro

munitions factories. A day's war today ods of trench warfare and the facili Brazil

Nicaragua

costs the world two or three times what ties afforded by the aeroplane for de

China
Panama

it did in the autumn of 1914. The Entecting the maneuvers of the other side Cuba

Portugal

tente Allies, as might be expected from made such victories impossible except

France
Rumania

their greater numbers and vaster agagainst an enemy whose numbers, sup

Greece
Russia

gregate wealth, are spending two dolplies or military spirit had been seri Guatemala San Domingo lars to every dollar spent by the Cenously diminished before the battle. On Hayti

Serbia

tral Powers. Great Britain alone is the other hand, it was no less evident

Honduras
Siam

spending some $35,000,000 a day, but that economic exhaustion would not of

Italy

U. S. of America this figures includes loans to her allies. itself end the war unless supported by Names italicized are of countries Besides economic pressure and finanvigorous military action. The Central

actually at war.

cial loss there is a third element in belPowers, cut off from trade with the

ligerent endurance, the loss in man

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ITALY

AUTOCRACY DEFIES THE WORLD The black portion of this map shows the territory now dominated by the Central Powers. The line-shading indicates territory held by the Allies ; and the dotted countries are those which have severed diplomatic relations with Germany, but are not actually at war. The white parts of the

map indicate all that is left of neutrality power. This is not a mere question of ing among the Entente Allies is fully oning the French contingent at Salonpopulation, for it is doubtful if the two-thirds greater than the losses ica, seems to have reached her maxipopulation of any of the larger bellig- of the Central Powers. Russia has mum military strength; but England erent nations, with the possible excep- lost the most heavily, both in cas- still has many hundreds of thousands tion of France, can show an absolute ualties on the field and in number of men in training; Italy has employed decrease during the last three years. of prisoners taken; Germany and only a part of her military effectives, But in this war the cost in lives falls France come next in respect to casual- and the United States and Russia are almost wholly upon the physically fit ties, the German losses probably some- practically inexhaustible sources of man young men, who alone can endure the what the greater, but neither nas had power, provided that these nations can hardships of incessant trench warfare. so many prisoners captured by the solve the difficulties of transport and Moreover the battle lines are stretched enemy as Austria-Hungary, whose cas- supply. Germany and her allies are still over so many hundreds of miles that ualties have been comparatively light. keeping large reserves behind the bateither side can compel a general re- France, with about two and a half mil- tle line to reinforce each new German treat if it can so reduce the number of lion men on the western front, not reck- offensive or ward off cach new hostile enemy effectives as to pre

attack. It is apparent that vent the sending of re

if the war is to be decided serves to strengthen any

by the number of casualpart of the line which may

ties alone, many months of be selected for attack. The

battle lie ahead of us and number of killed can only

the final blow may be be gucssed at, but it seems FRANCE

struck by the American to be somewhere near the

RUSSIA

army when it is increased five million mark. A much

to the proportions of the smaller number, perhaps

gigantic military estabonly one and a half mil

lishments of continental lion, have been so serious

Europe. ly wounded as to be use

THE ALLIED OFFENSIVE IN less thercafter at or be

THE WEST hind the front. The total

July 1, 1916—Somme valley of. number of wounded is

July 26,

occupy about three times as great as the number killed, but

September 4, 1916-French cap.

ture Soyécourt. the majority of those who

September 26, 1916—Combles ard survive recover sufficiently

Thiepval taken by Allies. O

October 24, 1916–French regain under the excellent care

lost ground before Verdun.

November 13, 1916—British open afforded by modern mili

BRITISH EMPIRE tary hospitals to see serv

March 17, 1917—Baupaume cap. ice again in the trenches,

MONTEM UNITED STATES

tured; beginning of general and many others can be

April 9, 1917—Canadians storm

Vimy ridge near Arras. used to replace uninjured

The entrenched war men in civil employment

frontier which extends and so release them for

from the Swiss boundary the trenches. The death

to the

has list from disease is nota

for bly small in the present

nearly three years been FOR PURPOSES OF COMPARISON war and can be considered

the scene of the greatest, In this chart showing the territory and population of the belligerents each important only in the

dot stands for five million people and the size of the circles indicates the bloodiest and longest con

total territory now in possession of the countries named without considBalkan and Turkish cam

tinuous military action in ering the gains or losses in Europe during the war. The Central Powers paigns. The number of

are shaded. The Allied Powers have about thirty times the territory and human history. Until the

more than six times the population as well as the advantage of being killed, wounded and miss

summer of 1916 neither able to draw supplies from the outside world

:::

RUMANLA

BULGARIA

JAPAN

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

TURKEY

PORTUGAL

fensive started.

1916–British Pozières.

GERMANY

SERBIA

offensive on the Ancre.

German retreat.

NEGRO

BELGIUM

ocean

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