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side, in spite of many costly experi
RUMANIA INTERVENES ments, was able to advance its position SOME OF THE PROMINENT MEN August 29, 1916–Rumania declares war on Aussufficiently to gain any strategic ad DISPLACED DURING THE WAR
tria, Rumanians enter Hungary.
August 31, 1916—Turkey and Bulgaria declare war vantage, but not a day passed without
MONARCHIS either assault or cannonade on some
October 6, 1916—Kronstadt recaptured by AustroPope Pius X (died)
Hungarian forces. part of the long line. The “battle" Francis Joseph of Austria-Hungary
October 23, 1916—Mackensen takes Constanza.
November 21, 1916–Rumanians lose Craiova. of the Aisne became a “campaign” (died)
December 6, 1916–Fall of Bucharest. and finally a "siege"; the trenches
Carol I of Rumania (died)
Of all the campaigns of the past were elaborated from mere ditches
year the most encouraging to the Ceninto fortifications and winter encamp Nicholas II of Russia (deposed)
tral Powers and the most disappointments; the superiority in numbers Constantine of Greece (deposed)
ing to the hopes of the Entente Allies and munitionment passed from the
Emperor Hsuan-Tung of China (de-
was the four months' contest which hands of the Germans to the Allies,
Albert of Belgium (in exile)
ended in the elimination of the Kingbut all these changes made no change Peter of Serbia (in erile)
dom of Rumania from the list of active in the war map. The spring drive Nicholas of Montenegro (in erile)
Wilhelm of Albania (in exile)
belligerents. Rumanian intervention had planned by the French and British was
ever since the beginning of the Great
STATESMEN postponed till July because of the ear
War been one of the main objects of lier German assault on the fortified city
Premier Asquith of Great Britain.
diplomacy. The fact that the Rumanians of Verdun, which required all the re
of Transylvania had many grievances sources of the western Allies to repel. Premier Briand of France
against their Hungarian rulers and the During the first two weeks of July Premier Viviani of France
encouraging example of the Russian the British and French acting in con
Premier Stürgkh of Austria (assas-
successes in Galicia induced Rumania cert had forced back the German line
Premier Tisza of Hungary
to join the Entente Allies and begin an on both sides of the Somme for an Premier Goremykin of Russia
immediate invasion of Transylvania. average distance of nearly four miles, Premier Stürmer of Russia
The armies of Austria-Hungary were but their progress was much slower
Premier Trepoff of Russia
already hard pressed on the Galician, after the Germans rallied their reserves
Foreign Minister Grey of Great Bri
Italian and Balkan fronts, and it was to halt the advance. The Allies strove tain
expected that the intervention of Runot only to push the German line far Foreign Minister von Jagow of Ger
mania, which was said to have the ther to the rear but to widen the zone
many of battle as well. To effect this purpose,
Foreign Minister Zimmermann of Ger
largest and best army in southeastern many
Europe, would decide the fate of the the British hammered constantly at the Foreign Minister Sazonoff of Russia Hapsburg monarchy. By the end of AuGerman entrenchments around Thiep Secretary of State Bryan of the United
gust the Rumanians had overrun
States val in the valley of the Ancre, while the
Minister of War Kitchener of Great
large part of Transylvania and taken French bent the German line south and
the important city of Kronstadt. east near Soyécourt. But in spite of
But at the same time that the Ru
GENERALS every effort winter found the British
Jarshal Joffre of France
manians were spreading their conquests and French still short of the two towns, General Nivelle of France
westward a combined force of Germans, Bapaume and Peronne, which had been General French of Great Britain
Bulgarians and Turks entered the the objectives of the advance along the
General von Moltke of Germany
Dobrudja, a coast land lying between Somme. During the campaign in the
General Rennenkampf of Russia
the Danube and the Black Sea, and Ancre valley the British introduced for
Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia
prest northward until they had taken the first time the use of "tanks,” or
the railroad line which reaches the sea armored automobiles carried on cater
at Constanza. To meet this new peril, pillar tractors.
tions which had been abandoned and the Rumanians had to withdraw their In the spring of 1917 the German bring up their artillery and supplies for army of invasion from Transylvania military authorities decided that they a renewal of the attack. After the Brit- and they were soon confronted by a could no longer afford to maintain their ish and French had dug their new en
double attack; General von Mackensen old positions in the face of another trenchments they repeated with some pushing swiftly thru the Dobrudja and Allied drive. With skill and secrecy the success their former tactics of striking General von Falkenhayn leading a German forces were withdrawn to a at the points where the new German counter-invasion from the west. Caught shorter and better located line of en- position joined the old. At the extreme between these two armies, the Rumantrenchments running just west of St. south of the new German line the ians only saved their army by abandonQuentin, La Fere and Laon. While re French captured Craonne, and east of ing their capital and the whole southern treating the Germans so thoroly devas- Arras the British made a considerable half of their country. Russia sent aid, tated the country that the Allies could advance and within a few days took but for some unexplained reason the not for many days occupy all the posi- more than thirty thousand prisoners. Russian forces arrived too tardily to
“IF YOU WANT TO WIN YOUR BATTLES, TAKE AN' WORK YOUR BLOOMIN' GUNS"
mination of second Russian offensive.
of third offensive.
save the situation. Rumania still holds
revolution farther than the Duma deout against its foes in the northern
sired, and, until the Socialist deputy province of Moldavia, but the rich agri
Kerensky became Minister of War, cultural region of Wallachia, “a land
there was real danger that military of corn and oil," is now supplying the 50
discipline would wholly disappear. Even Central Powers with the grain neces
the inspiration of early victories did sary to forestall a famine and the pe 40
not prevent some regiments from detroleum necessary for motor traction.
serting ther duty when the Germans THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
began their counter-attack. The progNovember 24, 1916–Stürmer resigns Russian pre
ress of the war was further hampered miership. March 11, 1917-Czar declares Duma adjourned.
by the tendency of some parts of RusMarch 12, 1917—Duma declares Czar deposed.
sia, notably Finland and the Ukraine March 15, 1917-Czar abdicates throne. It is a common saying that the Cri
(Little Russia), to proclaim their virmcan War freed the serfs, the Japan 10
tual independence from effective conese War created the Duma, and the
trol by the Petrograd government. Great War overthrew the Romanoff dy
THE THIRD RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE nasty. In each instance the test of war 11 1825 1 g 15 22 29 6 13 20 27 3 101724 1 8 15 September 8, 1916–Brusiloff halts at Halicz; culshowed as nothing else could do how Mar Apr May June July
July 1, 1917—Russians take Koniuchy; beginning autocratic rule had demoralized the
THE SUBMARINE July 10, 1917–Russians occupy Halicz. civil government and impaired the effiThis line indicates the number of British ships
July 19, 1917–Germans begin counter-attack, ciency of the army and so lent weight sunk during the weeks ending on the dates After General Brusiloff's advance in to the demand for reforms. The first
Galicia had been checked by the comgreat Russian offensive, which had The attempt to dismiss the Duma bined armies of Germany and Austriaswept forward to Königsberg and Cra came at a crisis in the food situation. Hungary, the battle line of eastern cow, ended in the loss of all Russian Hunger riots broke out in Petrograd Europe from Riga to the Carpathians Poland and Courland. The second Rus- which the troops refused to suppress. remained unaltered and almost quiessian offensive soon came to a standstill The Duma declared itself the provi- cent until the following July. The winwhile Rumania was overrun and the sional government, and the Czar ter weather would in any case have promised aid from Russia did not ar- promptly resigned the throne to his checked military operations, but it is rive. The transportation system of the brother, the Grand Duke Michael. But certain that the Russians could not country became so badly entangled that the Grand Duke Michael refused to be- have made a very vigorous drive even munitions could not reach the trenches come Czar unless a popular plebiscite if the weather had been favorable, or foodstuffs reach the cities. Added to declared him Russia's choice, and so since they had largely exhausted the all this notorious inefficiency was the the provisional government remained store of ammunition with which they rumor of treason; the pacifistic Czar republican in form. The new govern- began the campaign and were also and the pro-German court were gener- ment imprisoned the Czar and his reac- hampered by the disloyalty and incomally believed, it is impossible to say how tionary advisers, restored the national petence of the civil administration. Afjustly, to have negotiated a separate liberties of Finland, abolished the legal ter the deposition of the Czar the Ruspeace. Popular anger sometimes found discriminations against the Jews, re sian revolutionists were divided into vent, as in the assassination of the re formed the harsh discipline in the two parties on the question of proseactionary court favorite Rasputin and army, freed all the political prisoners cuting the war; some favoring a war in the forced resignation of Premier in Siberia, and called into consultation to the end against German autocracy Stürmer, but the Czar and his advisers a Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' and others a speedy peace “without anrefused to concede anything to popular Delegates. The army not only support- nexations or indemnities." While the clamor and finally ordered the adjourn- ed this sweeping program of reform, Duma and the Council of Workmen's ment of the Duma.
but showed a disposition to carry the and Soldiers' Delegates debated the is
sues of peace and war, the soldiers prisoners were captured. Several Czech by the treason of one of the regiments fraternized with their German foes in regiments deserted bodily to the Rus- confronting them, they drove back the the trenches, and Germany refrained sians at the first opportunity. Pressing Russians on a wide front. Fearing the from breaking the informal truce in the their advantage, the Russian army total collapse of the Russian defense hope of persuading the Russians to made an immense forward sweep south and the loss of all the fruits of the revmake a separate peace.
of the Dniester as far as the Lomnica olution, the Council of Workmen's and On the first day of July the Russian River. But the time consumed in these Soldiers' Delegates approved the choico army under General Brusiloff and War operations enabled the Germans to of War Minister Kerensky as Premier, Minister Kerensky, the Russian “organ- shift their reserves to the eastern front and clothed him with all the powers of izer of victory," began its advance on and block the Russian advance with a dictator. The German drive not only Lemberg. Koniuchy and Halicz soon fresh troops. Directly east of Lemberg wiped out the gains made by the third fell into their hands and thousands of they struck the Russian line and, aided Russian offensive but reconquered most
of the territory won by General Brusi- and Turkey from Germany and Aus- April 6. 1917-Russians and British effect junc
tion in Mesopotamia. loff during the 1916 campaign.
tria-Hungary. To effect this purpose THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN
they occupied the Greek city of Salon The vast outlying territories of AsiAugust 9, 1916–Italians take Gorizia.
ica and gathered there one of the most atic Turkey are the weakest part of August 27, 1916. Italy declares war on Germany: heterogeneous armies that the world the military system of the Central May 12, 1917—Italians make new drive on the
has ever seen. Nearly all of the Allies Powers. They are the farthest from The campaign in the mountains of had contingents on the Salonica front, Prussia, the heart and soul of the allithe Austrian border may be summed but the bulk of the army was English, ance, of all the lands dominated by up by saying that the Austrians have French, Italian and Serbian. During German arms; they are miserably deaccomplished nothing and the Italians the summer and autumn of 1916 the fective in the means of rapid transvery little. This does not mean that the Allies fought their way to the northern formation, and with few exceptions struggle has been less persistent in this boundary of Greece and the central their inhabitants are disloyal to their theater of war than in any other; part of Albania and at last captured Ottoman rulers. It is then small fighting has been almost incessant and the important city of Monastir on the cause for wonder that much of this rethe losses on both sides heavy. But the Serbian side of the frontier. In the gion has fallen into the hands of the difficulties of highland warfare have meantime the Bulgarians occupied the Allied nations. Rather should we
be barred the Italians from their goal of city of Kavala in the extreme north- surprized that the Russians and Trieste, and in the Trentino the oppos- eastern corner of Greece and expelled British have not been able to penetrate ing armies appear to be practically the Greek garrison. On the whole, the yet farther into the interior of the deadlocked. The Italians have suc- Salonica campaign was a disappoint- Turkish domains. ceeded, however, in taking Gorizia, in ment, since the measure of success it The British have accomplished occupying the whole Isonzo valley to achieved was not proportionate to the ther more. They retrieved their defeat the south of this city, and in advancing size of the army which was withdrawn of the previous year at Kut-el-Amara their trenches on the Carso plateau. from other fronts in the expectation of by recapturing the city and continuing
It must be remembered in recording important victories in the Balkan the their advance thru Mesopotamia to the slow progress of the Italian army ater of war. Italy has declared a pro- Bagdad. In the west they repulsed against Austria that during the past tectorate over Albania and effectively a Turkish demonstration against the year Italy has diverted many soldiers occupied the southern and western Suez Canal and organized a counterto join the Allies in Macedonia. The parts of the country.
offensive which followed the historic Italians have taken an active part in
While Greece was furnishing a bat- route of Moses and the Children of IsGrecian affairs, established a protector. tleground for the contending powers, it rael from Egypt to the borders of Palate in Albania and undertaken to a
was also torn by civil war. The parti- estine. Like Moses, however, they seem great extent the policing of the Med- zans of the Cretan statesman Venizelos to be fated to behold the Holy Land iterranean and the Adriatic. The Ital-fought on the side of the Allies at without being able to occupy it. The ian commission in the United States reevery opportunity in spite of the offi- Arabs have fallen away from Turkish
rule altogether and have organized the ported a great development of muni- cial neutrality of King Constantine and
his secretly pro-German sympathies. In independent Kingdom of Hejaz under tions manufacture.
order to revent the Greek King from the protection of the British. THE WAR IN THE BALKANS
extending aid to the Central Powers, On the first day of 1917 the Turkish August 16, 1916–French take positions on the
the Allies acted in the most arbitraryGovernment, with German sanction it August 27, occupy Kavala. september 27, 1916 Venizelos seguint révolutionary fashion, commandeering ships, blocking may be supposed, repudiated all trcat
ports, occupying garrison towns, sup- ies and agreements with Christian pow. October 11, 1916—Allies take over Groek fleet. November 19, 1916—Monastir reoccupied.
porting the Venizelos revolution, and ers by which the Ottoman Empire was June 12, 1917—King Constantine deposed.
finally deposing King Constantine in subject to the supervision of the "conAltho Greece and Albania were neu- favor of his son Alexander. When King cert of Europe.” This action places tral countries, they were the theater of Alexander ascended the throne he made Turkey on an equal diplomatic footing the principal campaign in the Balkans Venizelos again premier and broke off with other members of the society of after the withdrawal of the British ex- diplomatic relations with the Central nations and is probably the only gain pedition against Gallipoli and the con Powers.
that the Ottomans can expect from the quest of Serbia and Montenegro by the
war even in the case of a German tri
THE TURKISH CAMPAIGN Central Powers. The object of the En- February 26. 1917—British tako Kut-el-Amara
umph. If the Entente Allies win the tente Allies was to regain Serbia and March 6, 1917—British reach southern boundary of war they are pledged to the liberation Montenegro and thus sever Bulgaria March 11, 1917—Bagdad falls.
of the non-Turkish peoples of the Otto
movement in Crete.
man Empire, which would confine the and that if terms of peace were formu- should be guaranteed and every nation Turkish dominions to Asia Minor and lated the aims of the two hostile given free commercial access to the sea, place under some rule Arabia, groups of nations might not be found to and that all nations should unite into Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Arme- differ so greatly as had been supposed. a league for their common security. nia and Turkey in Europe. Fear of this The Entente Allies refused to entertain These suggestions were at the time unpossibility has tempted the Turkish rul- the German suggestion of a peace con- favorably received by both sides, altho ers to countenance horrible massacres ference, but they agreed upon a joint they have found a reflection in the of Armenians, Syrians, Jews and reply to President Wilson in which they formula of "peace without annexation Greeks.
stated the objects for which they were or indemnities" adopted by the Council PEACE NEGOTIATIONS continuing the war.
of Russian Workmen and Soldiers December 12, 1916German
The Allies' demands comprized the Delegates after the revolution and by peace overture. December 18, 1916—Wilson requests statement of
abandonment by the Central Powers of the Social Democratic Party in Gerpeace terms from belligerents.
all their conquests during the present many. By a coalition with members of January 10,
peace terms in joint reply to President Wilson. war with indemnities to the invaded na the Center (Clerical) and the Radical January 13, 1917–Germans reply to declaration of Allies but refuse to state terms, Balfour
tions; the restoration of "provinces or parties the Socialists secured from the makes separato
territories wrested in the past from the Reichstag a declaration which, in gen-
"peace without victory."
Slavs, of Rumanians, and of Czecho- early peace based on the map of 1914 man position.
Slovaks”; the “enfranchisement of pop- and repudiated all suggestions of an For more than two and a half years ulations subject to the bloody tyranny economic "war after the war.” Because the warring armies of Europe fought of the Turks”: the reunion of Poland, the Reichstag delayed the vote on the without knowing what measure of and the expulsion of the Ottoman Em war credits, the Kaiser was forced to achievement would be considered a “vic- pire from Europe. These terms appar
from office Chancellor tory" by the governments whose inter- ently still stand as the peace platform Bethmann-Hollweg, who had held office ests they served. Any number of infor- of the Allied nations and to them must thruout the war. The new Chancellor, mal and unofficial peace programs were be added the surrender of German Georg Michaelis, refused to promise the set forth in the public press of Eng- overseas colonies which, altho not men- introduction of parliamentary governland, Germany, France and other coun- tioned in the note, seems to be demand- ment or to make any definite offer of tries, but the statesmen who alone ed by public opinion in Japan, South peace. could speak with authority confined Africa and Australia.
THE AMERICAN INTERVENTION themselves to generalities which might On January 22 President Wilson ad
January 31, 1917—Germany declares now barrod serve to arouse but never to satisfy drest the American Senate and out
zone in European waters and inaugurates ruth. speculation. In December, 1916, the lined his views of the basis of a just February 3, 1917–Ambassador Bernstorff dismissed German Government offered to discuss peace. He believed that peace should from Washington.
February 26, 1917—President asks Congress for peace with the Entente Allies, and come by common consent, not by vic authority to protect merchant ships. President Wilson suggested to both tory; that the rights of nationalities to
March 4, 1917-Congress adjourns without taking groups of belligerents that the time self-government should receive recog April 2, 1917—President asks Congress for
declaration of war against Germany. had come for an interchange of views nition; that the freedom of the seas
April 4, 1917–Senate declares war,
Dicion by G. Bron for the London Sphere Nero York Herald
HOW TO TAKE THE GERMAN TRENCHES This diagrammatic view of British soldiers attacking under cover of barrage fire shows four stages of the advance, tho of course in actual attack it is uninterrupted, the men following just after the “monstrous moving carapace of metal.” As a British soldier describes it: “As soon as our men left the trenches our gunners laid down a barrage in front of them and made a moving wall of shells ahead of them, a frightful thing to follow, but the safest. It was a wonderfully scientific barrage that dropt in front of the advancing English battalion; it curtained the ground
we were sweeping over, and it countered the waiting German batteries beyond the ridge"