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war.

arrivo in America.

April 8, 1917—House of Reprosentativos declaros authority to make war. The Senate by army and in the meantime the effort to April 8, 1917--Austria-Hungary breaks off diplo. a vote of 82 to 6 and the House of do so would curtail our export of war April 22, 1917–British and French war missions Representatives by a majority of 373 munitions upon which England, France

to 50 approved the declaration of war. and Italy largely relied. This was, perThe German reply to the peace

The action of the United States was haps, the most serious miscalculation overtures of the United States came as

soon followed by Cuba's declaration of that Germany made during the course a shock to the American public, which

war and by the severance of diplomatic of the entire war. had believed that peace in Europe was

relations between Germany and Brazil, Congress promptly authorized the near and that in any case the danger Bolivia, Hayti, San Domingo, Panama, Government to borrow $7,000,000,000 that the war would spread to this side Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras. for the prosecution of the war and to of the Atlantic was safely past. More All the other nations of South and loan a large part of this sum to the than once had the German submarine

Central America, in one way or an- Entente Allies. The first $2,000,000,000 warfare against neutral and enemy other, showed strong sympathy with “Liberty Loan” was oversubscribed by merchant ships strained diplomatic re

the American cause and only in Mexico about fifty per cent within a few weeks lations to the breaking point, but when, was there any possibility of action in of the opening of subscriptions. The in May, 1916, Germany pledged not to the interests of Germany.

President appointed Mr. Hoover, the sink passenger ships without warning,

The German Government knew, and man who saved Belgium from starvathis promise, altho conditioned on the even overestimated, the strength of tion, as food administrator and laid eventual modification of the British

Mexican resentment against “the Co- before Congress a far-reaching plan of blockade and violated in certain indi- lossus of the North,” as Latin-American food conservation. To frustrate the subvidual instances, was relied

writers sometimes to

call the United marine blockade the Administration upon enable us to keep out of the war. The States, and the German Foreign Sec- undertook the building of a great merFederal Government was better in- retary, Alfred Zimmermann, counted on

chant fleet of steel and wooden ships formed than the nation at large and the support of Mexico in a war with and placed the work under General the repeated and zealous efforts which the United States. He offered the Mex- Goethals, the builder of the Panama it made to end the war were partly ican Government Texas, New Mexico Canal. A war mission under Mr. Root inspired by a well-justified belief that and Arizona as the spoils of victory was sent to Russia to reorganize the if the war continued much longer Ger- and further suggested that Mexico transportation system of that country many would renew her submarine cam

detach Japan from the Entente Allies and to assure the people that we would paign. On the last day of January the by timely mediation. But the note con- not desert the task we had set ourselves German Government announced the es- taining this suggestion was intercepted until it was accomplished. tablishment of a barred zone in the and its publication had much to do with Not content with throwing the finanNorth Sea, the Mediterranean and the converting the American public to a cial, industrial and agricultural northeastern Atlantic thru which no belief in the necessity of war.

sources of the nation into the war, the ships whatever would be permitted to

United States began, without delay, to pass in safety.

create an army for European service.

men registered for President Wilson at once dismissed

military service.

The men of the country, from twentyJune 15, 1917-Liberty loan oversubscribed. the German Ambassador and refused June 26. 1917–American army contingent reaches

one to thirty years of

age inclusive, to renew diplomatic relations with the

were enrolled as a body from which as German Government. His attempted When the German Government re many soldiers as were necessary could compromize between peace and war, sumed its policy of unrestricted sub- be drafted. While arrangements for the “armed neutrality,” was frustrated by marine warfare it reckoned with the draft were being completed, a part of the obstinacy of a little group of Sen- possibility of American intervention the regular army under General Perators who in the closing hours of the but did not consider that it would shing was conveyed to France and session talked to death the bill author- seriously diminish the chances of vic- volunteers were enlisted in the regular izing the arming of merchantmen. tory. Indeed it was freely predicted army and the National Guard to bring When Germany followed the proclama- that the United States would be more these organizations up to full tion of ruthless submarine warfare by of a help to the Entente Allies as a strength. The National Guard overt acts against American lives and neutral than as a belligerent, ecause transferred from state to Federal conAmerican ships, President Wilson re the war might be ended before this trol and consolidated with the rest of quested from the new Congress the country could raise and equip a large the army.

re

OUR PART IN THE GREAT WAR
June 5, 1917—Ten million

a French port.

war

was

IN THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE WAR

November 18-Turks retreat from Jaffa. Cos

sack army blockades Petrograd. November 24--Secret Russian treaties published. November 27- Italians repulse attacks in upper

Brenta valley.

November 28 Armistice negotiations begun with

August 14, 1917—China declares

war against
Germany and Austria-Hungary.
August 15-Pope sends out appeal for peace,
August 20—Italians make big advance along

Ison iver.
August 26—Kerensky opens Moscow conference.
August 27—President Wilson answers Pope's

peace plea.
September 3—Germans take Riga.
September 6-House of Representatives passes

$11,500.000.000 war bond bill. September 8--Austrians halt Italian drive. September 12-Kerensky assumes command of

Russian army. Argentina dismisses German

Ambassador, Karl von Luxburg.
September 16–Kerensky proclaims Russian re-

public.
September 20--British gain near Ypres.
September 28-Russian Democratic Congress

opens sessions.
Septer er 30-British defeat Turkish army in

Mesopotamia.
October 2-Great Britain declares embargo on

exports to Holland and Scandinavia, October 5-Russian cabinet reorganized. Peru

vian Congress votes to break with Germany. October 6--Uruguay breaks with Germany. October 10-President Wilson proclaims food

licensing system. October 17--American transport “Antilles"

sunk on home voyage, October 24--Austrians and Germans attack

north of Gorizia ; Italians forced to withdraw from practically all territory taken during summer campaign.

October 26--Brazil declares war on Germany,
October 27-Second Liberty Loan oversubscribed.

American soldiers reported in trenches for

first time.
October 28-Austro-German forces take Gorizia

and Cividale. Italians retreat to Udine,
October 30-Hertling succeeds Michaelis as Ger-

man Chancellor.
November 1- German advance against Italy

continues ; Italians retreat across Taglia-
mento river. British occupy Beersheba in

Palestina.
November 2---Germans retreat north of the

Aisne.
November 4—Temporary Polish cabinet takes

office.
November 7-Bolsheviki riots in Petrograd.
November 8-Kerensky flees from Petrograd.

Austro-German army strikes Italian line at

the Livenza river.
November 9-Russian revolutionary movement

spreads to Moscow. General Diaz succeeds

General Cadorna as head of Italian army.
November 12- Lowest week's record of sub-

marine destruction, six British ships sunk.
November 13-French cabinet resigns. Germans

drive Italians across Piave river.
November 15- Georges Clemenceau appointed

new French premier.
November 16—Bolsheviki bombard Moscow.
November 17-British and German cruisers en-

gage in gun duel near Heligoland.

November 29-Lord Lansdowne urges peace ne

gotiations. December 1-Germans repulsed at Cambrai. December 2-Bolsheviki make armistice agree

ment with Germany, releasing German troops on Russian front for service else.

where.
December 7-United States declares war against

Austria-Hungary.
December 8--United States destroyer “Jacob

Jones" reported sunk.
December 10—British capture Jerusalem.
December 16-Bolsheviki make truce with Ger-

many.
December 17-German destroyers raid British

convoy, sinking eleven vessels. United States House of Representatives and Senate

vote for national prohibition. December 20–German “Christmas peace" offer

published. December 22--Peace conference at Brest-Litovsk

between Bolsheviki and Germans. December 27-President Wilson appoints Secre

tary McAdoo director-general of all railroads in the United States.

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A SPECTACULAR BATTLE OVER NO MAN'S LAND. THE ZEPPELIN HAS BEEN STRUCK BY A SHELL FROM THE ALLIED
AEROPLANE, WHICH IS MAKING ITS SAFE ESCAPE, TWO GERMAN OFFICERS WATCH

THE FIGHT FROM A CAVE BEHIND THEIR LINES

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How Verdun looked after being shelled for five months by heavy German fire for "political" and sentimentalreasons

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Lem ODILIG, ONY. H Fighting in the dark-star shells from the German lines at the left and from the Belgians at the right. To the eye they appear as a shooting ball of fire that for a moment lights up the terrain. The camera records them as a streak of light

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