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WAR IN THE THIRD DIMENSION The exciting chase of an Italian warplane after an Austrian invader (on the right). The aeroplane is sentinel in the Italian Alps


International Film The Caproni triplane established a novo record in aeroplane power. It can maintain a speed of eighty miles an hour and carry over four thousand pounds---which may include fuel for a six hours' flight, a crew of three people, three guns and 2750 pounds of bombs


Kadel & Herbert
Above the battle. An airman's photograph of one of the big gas attacks in Flanders when the Allies swept forward on a six-mile front



T may be, in solemn truth, that this

except America—a curious spectacle war will have to be won in the air.

surely: America, the younger brother, No longer can infantry advances be

giving the means of destruction to the made on large scale without protec

older nations while sitting back with tion of curtains of fire. And curtains of

no thought of a Great Affliction on the fire must be controlled from the air. It

morrow. may be following no more than the

And now we are in the midst of the irresistible and terrible logic of this

third year of the Great Affliction and thought, then, if we accept the report

there are two offspring of ours that rethat the Allies have at times been

quire attention: the submarine and the driven out of the air, that American

aeroplane. eagles-American aeroplanes—must win

The submarine is our menace. the war; that America will have to fur

The aeroplane is our hope. nish to her allies not three or four

The aeroplane has grown, as it were, thousand aeroplanes but perhaps tens

very rapidly to maturity. Only seven of thousands.

years ago, in the hangars at the first Let us ponder that fact well.

great aero meet in America, the Wright Let us note that the eyes of an army

brothers—quiet men addicted forever are in its aeroplanes, and that the day

to tinkering and adjusting their enof speculation about the worth of the

gines and planes—Glen Curtis, Claude bird to which America gave birth is

Grahame-White, Ralph Johnstone, and past. Aeroplanes have been demon

others, used to sit back, smoke and strated to be more important in war

make assertions about the use of aerothan almost any of the fifty factors

planes in war. These assertions, for the that have wrought the tremendous

most part, read like the stuff of dreams. change from three or four possible com

But these dreams have come to realbinations in war-man with club versus

ization. man without club, etc.—to the tremen

“Give me one air scout in preference dous number of over twenty-five hun

to a battalion of cavalry,” General dred. We Americans, quite unwittingly,

Pershing said in Mexico. And another are guilty of ingenuity that has turned

officer asserted: “Cavalry now belongs warfare from a fight into a science and International Film

to the auxiliaries—the infantry and the kept burning all these years, steadily in A SUBMARINE DONE FOR?

artillery on land and the aeroplane the ascendency, the damning fever of telegraph, and another the telephone, aloft constitute the fighting forces arms. We have done vastly more than another perfected the device for taking now." all the rest of the world put together up the recoil on the howitzer and an- But perhaps some of us need proof to complicate war and to throw the rel- other invented the aeroplane. And the of the vital part played in modern war atively kind old man-to-man fight into result has been that, in the world of by the aeroplane? innocuous desuetude. An American de- armament, the study of possible com- Let us look, then, at a description of vised the ironclad, for instance. An binations between military factors had, that part—description by a brilliant American devised the revolver, and an- before the Great War burst into flames, English aviation officer. other the submarine, and another the grown apace in all the great nations Major Rees of the British Aviation

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s of periana a berende, or per paret ad porod ard pozred! We The

2. W e 5 esta 12 ta y come OT because it can serd troops. ci coarse: but long 14 Wri 2. *** fr 24 Trose of EFZ Erzu last befcre te er send enough troops to I v e E Come on e Inzere boars, but an Eate Derdepede charges in a battle


25 that long. You can re bere r ices of troops are enLE,

ET2 ET. AE ser. I terk 215,31 10 months to gazed, te can send aerop ases, squad1926023 TIL Periz05 ere zere I doz: Zirk ary ariator rs of tben! We can't send them to*ter

* * 8126Dre than Ex months. Trat re- morrow, Dor de Dent day-our long cres a large personnel”

camosbess, 02 loza ard persisting

refusal irtizarily to take a disagree. *74 are a ter um. 154 OSE ray see from all this the tre- able station as it is ard to ward off

berdo25 2543 rrade of our good the Great Oeder, has its toll now. American Eag smide aerop are:

But we can seni them soon. *A terrier te bare for Ard the Gerrars are using it!

I went to a member of the Aircraft PASZTE: 2 0 .1: 26 Term Ca the European beside fronts there Board-a man ligh in position-one yir , s y nestime, tas been a most cortir 1925 Ezhtirg for of those admirable American manufacSI

** Una parterzas of the supremacy (the air because each turers who are saring the nation in an og en WW I WSTK is de k ** ibat to win the doniration this emergency. I asked him flatly how ore 7 bal Toe 2 4 are best of the air is to ride the Atles down, on lorg-hon long is the essence of everys t grauer unes oze kard, ard on the o:her to rule for thing now it would take his organi

the nonce ail Germania, France mighzation to get under way. “We can get ber 17, we are reor2e Dot exist today if her aviators had been under way at once," he said emphatic2015 u

n e toute are 2 irierior. (The French horor the aviators ally. If there is one thing that we hry may re; viers are e use for that. Every French patriot loves Americars stard for it is quantity!

those aviators. In France those who For Americans, when the designing Av. 22we bare metal czy mae used to do homage used to bow and ard the engineering work is done, outna to drop pavers, for 250 when whisper “My prince.” Now they bow put is easy. And this output will be T a are ter made ard co- and whisper “My aviator!") Which is swift and sure. We can get out forty

225 are on e s. The work only semi-official! But it was asserted thousand engines, twenty thousand Wim Herunt par a of trompeirian- cialy, by one of the members of the planes before next spring. Give us the try or are.ry-3 be gr6ds. 1in- French mission to America that if money and we can get out that many Party run 07 o armarition they Joffre had not employed the American by next spring and increase the output sigual , and the ar atnr .za's back Eage on the Marne "the Huns might steadily, but we can't do that if we US $29.. If a dezemert meets a have marched into Paris."

don't start till months from now. We ret, SÅ machine the aviator sends Says a celebrated French officer: must start noir." boek word 1977, .. This work is done “The French had only a hundred ma- "Then why don't you?" I demanded. very esse to the ground. Much of the chines when the Germans stabbed at He threw out his hands. “We haven'! work, in 'art, rust be done e ose to the Paris. The Germans had built railroads the money," he said. zor. Pembira, for instance. We near the Belgian frontier so as to enknow that every time we drop a bomb able them to bring a large number of THERE is evidence that the Aircraft on a rai way track it means eight troops in a very short time. The French Board is ready for its stupendous hours' work for the Germars. We want headquarters knew this. We knew that task in the manner in which it has v do more of this. We can't now-we the Germans were planning to invade utilized and coördinated coöperation all can't spare the machines, for most of Belgium, but we thought that the along the line and in the manner in them are engaged in reconnaissance main attack would come thru Alsace, which it is providing for aviation trainwork, which is roat necessary. Bomb which-Heaven help us !-we shall have ing. Three of nine camps appropriated ing is done by suadrons, and, since one back again! So only three French army for are rapidly being made in readiness. is hardy ever in the air at all without corps were sent to Belgium, and Joffre And already, waiting for them to be anti-aircraft gurfire breaking near, the hurried the rest and all reserves east finished, in dozens of colleges the most caxosities are high"_the casualties ward.

alert men of the land-college athletes among the aviators are fourth, it is “It was the French aviators that preferably — are learning the rudiNaid officially, in point of percentage, flew with the word that tremendous ments, in special concentrated courses, in the English army,

masses of troops were pouring thru of military training, of machine gun Often," Major Rees went on, “yol Belgium. The aviators brought that handling, astronomy (aviators must we machines coming back with wires word in time. They saved France from know that, for they often have to steer streaming out behind them, or some annihilation.

by the stars), of navigation, waiting other part just hanging to the rest, or, “And again at the battle of the for those camps to be got ready to perhaps the engine has had a cylinder Somme. At Verdun the aviators had receive them, after which camp traincrippled. Nearly every machine is hit been saved for the Somme. That was ing they will see further training womewhere on every trip. If you look right. And then, for three weeks, dur- abroad. at the airdrome behind the lines you ing that great battle, the Allies, as a In land warfare aeroplanes are used will find one-half the machines can fly, result, held domination in the air. The in a thousand ways. England is prothe other half are being repaired. If result was that our artillery fire was viding for fifteen thousand during the we can repair the machine in two days conducted splendidly.

coming year-evidence enough of their we do wo), otherwise we send it back to “The German beast was blinded. The usefulness. the depot. eyes of his artillery were out.”

In sea warfare they are almost as “All this goes on day by day, Sunday3

important, altho used in numbers conand all. We start at work at 2:30 in N OW let us Americans consider the siderably smaller. The “America"_the the morning and continue until after TV situation! Let us ascertain whether giant seaplane that was scheduled to sunset. The last patrol stays up to spot in this article I have written mere cross the Atlantic just when the war the enemy flashes. In the twilight, one enthusiasm of a kind that in the days of broke out-demonstrated some of the can see the flashes much easier.

the first aero meets in America stirred uses of the seaplane soon after it was “We send over our lines every day a imagination more than anything else! set to scout work in British waters. thousand machines. The average time Let us note that we can without doubt Once it swooped down and crippled the is two hours a day. A machine hardly send over thousands of troops, but will periscope of a submarine. Twice, soon ever continues in service fifty hours. they arrive too late? Will they be afterward, it saw, from its perch on Either it is shot up or has to have new poured down a bottomless sluice and high, submarines under water. It

watched, circling about, calling its It has had the coöperation of the Na- 3000 machines in the first year and friends the water craft, till they came tional Advisory Committee for Aerc- 4000 or 5000 in the two succeeding up and “finished the job.”

nautics—which has been at work for years, on the basis of keeping 1000 ma Enough has been written to make over two years--and the aid of not a chines in the air, on which basis we sha!) clear—if any one longer doubts—the few technical institutions such as Mas- necd two extra engines for every mamilitary uses of the aeroplane. It is no sachusetts Institute of Technology and chine. Engines wear out and need overexaggeration to say that just as a man many of the facilities of Cornell. Al- hauling constantly." without a club has little chance with together, thus, important steps toward These problems all are complex, but a man who has a club—about as little standardization of army-navy aero- they are now in the background and the chance as a man with bow and arrow planes have been taken. The thirty odd question of supplying more than 3000 has against a man with a revolver—so aeroplane manufacturers in America, machines in the first year is coming it has become convincingly clear to who have been making machines of more and more pertinently into the forethose in close touch with the military nearly as many models, coöperated ad- ground. “Three thousand machines,” situation abroad that an army without mirably with the National Advisory said a Government official, “are not aeroplanes is, in no small degree, at the Committee at the beginning and are co- enough.” mercy of an army equipt with them. operating with the council now. More- Such assertions have become more France has thousands of aeroplanes. over, the whole aeroplane industry is and more prevalent and have, of course, England has more. We in America particularly mobile and plastic because had their effect on Chairman Coffin. His have hardly any. Yet, considering our it is new and enthusiastic. It is hard to point of view is, very briefly, this: "If infinite coast an:] border line, we should believe, in fact, how many of the men the Government wants more machines have most of all.

engaged in it and how many technical it simply needs to supply the money and But the point isn't what we should men engaged primarily with other func- say so. We'll get them !" have—the point is what we must have tions have given their time and efforts And America, it is believed, is going to keep the Germans from winning the and funds toward working out army- to need them! America—so the convicwar!

navy aeroplane problems—problems of tion is everywhere gaining strengthAnd three thousand machines are instruments such as those involved in must, and can, match her eagles against not enough! Not nearly enough. making altimeters, drift meters, tachom any brood of flying machines that there

Week by week, however, especially eters, other meters; problems of find- are. We don't all realize that we have since the foreign missions came to ing a substitute for the surface cloth got to provide ourselves with the effiAmerica, there has been growing in heretofore imported from Ireland and cient means for all possible combinaWashington a general conviction that England; problems of providing a sub- tions that may arise in this war; we the war can be won with aeroplanes. stitute for weather-dried spruce, the must remember that the aeroplane enThe Aero Club of America has been for ideal wood for aeroplanes—a substitute ters as a common factor into more posyears arguing eloquently for the devel- of high specific density, even a metal, sible combinations against an enemy opment of our aerial resources. General that can be got ready for extensive man- than any other war factor. We can proSquier and the Signal Corps in Wash- ufacture in much less time than the duce aeroplanes almost without numington have done wonders toward lay- year or two years required to season ber; and there is need of them almost ing out the lines that Howard Coffin, of spruce in the open air. All technical without number. It is certain that we the Council of National Defense, with problems, practically, have been met shall need many for defense; it is certhe members of the committee of which and solved. Even engine difficulties have tain that we shall want more and more he is chairman, is ready to utilize in been overcome nearly altogether, and for offense. They are—these Amerigetting together an aerial fleet. The the engine problem is an important one. can eagles—characteristically American council is given the task of mobilizing “The needs of the army and navy," said “birds,” fit emissaries to prompt the the phases of industry necessary to the J. F. Victory, of the Advisory Commit. boche that we are on the job. building of 3000 planes the first year. tee, in May, "are now estimated to be Washington


© Underwood & Underwood

FRENCH AVIATORS WHO WILL HELP THE AMERICAN EAGLE LEARN TO USE ITS WINGS These aviators, sent from France to instruct American airmen, are inspecting a New York aviation training station in company with American officers and aeronautic men. They are, from left to right: Lt. de Mandrot; Henry Woodhouse, governor of the Aero Club of America: Lt. Marquisan; Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, U. S. N.: Lt. Montriol; Allan R. Hawley, president of the Aero Club of America; Capt. Fitzgerald : Lt. Ducas :

Lt. Rader, of the U. S. Air Service: Lt. Mairesse: Lt. Nasser; and Lt. Lemaire

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