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WAR IN THE THIRD DIMENSION The exciting chase of an Italian warplane after an Austrian invader (on the right). The aeroplane is sentinel in the Italian Alps


International Film The Caproni triplane established a ncu record in aeroplane power. It can maintain a speed of eighty miles an hour and carry over four thousand pounds---which may include fuel for a six hours' flight, a crew of three people, three guns and 2750 pounds of bombs

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Above the battle. An airman's photograph of one of the big gas attacks in Flanders when the Allies swept forward on a six-mile front





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T may be, in solemn truth, that this

except America—a curious spectacle war will have to be won in the air.

surely: America, the younger brother, No longer can infantry advances be

giving the means of destruction to the made on large scale without protec

older nations while sitting back with tion of curtains of fire. And curtains of

no thought of a Great Affliction on the fire must be controlled from the air. It

morrow. may be following no more than the

And now we are in the midst of the irresistible and terrible logic of this

third year of the Great Affliction and thought, then, if we accept the report

there are two offspring of ours that rethat the Allies have at times been

quire attention: the submarine and the driven out of the air, that American

aeroplane. eagles-American aeroplanes—must win

The submarine is our menace. the war; that America will have to fur

The aeroplane is our hope. nish to her allies not three or four

The aeroplane has grown, as it were, thousand aeroplanes but perhaps tens

very rapidly to maturity. Only seven of thousands.

years ago, in the hangars at the first Let us ponder that fact well.

great aero meet in America, the Wright Let us note that the eyes of an army

brothers—quiet men addicted forever are in its aeroplanes, and that the day

to tinkering and adjusting their enof speculation about the worth of the

gines and planes—Glen Curtis, Claude bird to which America gave birth is

Grahame-White, Ralph Johnstone, and past. Aeroplanes have been demon

others, used to sit back, smoke and strated to be more important in war

make assertions about the use of aerothan almost any of the fifty factors

planes in war. These assertions, for the that have wrought the tremendous

most part, read like the stuff of dreams. change from three or four possible com

But these dreams have come to realbinations in war-man with club versus

ization. man without club, etc.—to the tremen

“Give me one air scout in preference dous number of over twenty-five hun

to a

battalion of cavalry,” General dred. We Americans, quite unwittingly,

Pershing said in Mexico. And another are guilty of ingenuity that has turned

officer asserted: "Cavalry now belongs warfare from a fight into a science and

to the auxiliaries—the infantry and the kept burning all these years, steadily in


artillery on land and the aeroplane the ascendency, the damning fever of telegraph, and another the telephone, aloft constitute the fighting forces arms. We have done vastly more than another perfected the device for taking now.” all the rest of the world put together up the recoil on the howitzer and an But perhaps some of us need proof to complicate war and to throw the rel- other invented the aeroplane. And the of the vital part played in modern war atively kind old man-to-man fight into result has been that, in the world of by the aeroplane? innocuous desuetude. An American de- armament, the study of possible com

Let us look, then, at a description of vised the ironclad, for instance. An binations between military factors had, that part—description by a brilliant American devised the revolver, and an- before the Great War burst into flames, English aviation officer. other the submarine, and another the grown apace in all the great nations Major Rees of the British Aviation


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4. 'K EL terin e para o pera a size, or per poored asi porsi ad peared! We Toda ter as 25 vite para santri se ne om buzzse it eas sod trocos, ci coarse: but long (FAI Wro 2.*** trz, a 24 me of HE FEE. Ezzire las before se a serd enough troops to

race percepe charges in a battle En 28 tha: lozz. You can Ese where mors of troops are enIK LE. HETZE ENT Sheher, I test 272 79 mmes to azei, se can seed aerop'ases, squadm 12.623 vrk Persaps er ty zene. I dat zizkars ar aor 03 of tben! We can't send them to*** r we * Find Yt 25% more than morns. That re Borrow, Dor de Dert dar-our long ares a large perurtel"

assess, our big and persisting

refusal irezactly to take a disagree2.21 TO to

berdoz 168 rrage of our good the Great Oxes der, has its toll now. Azerian uza- de aerop.are!

Bat we can sedi them soon.
Ard the Gerrars are using it!

I went to a member of the Aircraft

On the European barrje fronts there Board-a an tigh in position-one yra sirove the ts time, t) Las been a most cortic1925 Ezhting for of those admirable American manufae

zu M2 etat 2s of the spreary ( the air because each turers who are saring the nation in a osny V8 * 23 TUTE Ede kans that to win the dorization this emergency. I asked him flatly how

of the air is to ride the Aes down, on long_hove long is the essence of everyoze kard, ard on the other to rule for thing Dow_it would take his organi

the nonce ail Germania, France migh: zation to get under way. “We can get " Siri 12, w t2te Tai- Dot exist tray if her aviators had been under way at once," he said emphatie

9. "W. Smes toere are o inferior, (The French bonor the aviators ally. "If there is one thing that we er ma ur wre, fiers are e me for that. Every French patriot loves Americans stand for it is quantity!

tcose aviators. In France those who For Americans, when the designing "Audien we bave special day 12 Deed to do homage used to bow and ard the engineering work is done, oute to crop paars, for 250 when whisper "My prince!" Now they bow put is easy. And this output will be

are team nee ad en and whisper “y aviator!") Which is swift and sure. We can get out forty 121728 are on L. They work only semi

ocial! But it was asserted thousand engines, twenty thousand Wil Hurent yara i tremirian- cialy, by one of the members of the planes before next spring. Give us the toy ur ear.r; the suds. 1in- French mission to America that if money and we can get out that many

or of arriti they Joffre had not employed the American by next spring and increase the output malap, ard the ar aur eza's back Eage on the Marne "the Huns might steadily, but we can't do that if we V spia. If 2 detainert meets a have marehed into Paris."

don't start till months from now. We Text A machine zub, the aviator sends Says a celebrated French officer: must start now." berk word an, it. T. work is done The French had only a hundred ma. “Then why don't you?" I demanded. sery éste to the ground. Much of the chines when the Germans stabbed at He threw out his hands. “We haven't work, in ot, 1787 bu dune e ose to the Paris. The Germans had built railroads the money," he said. ground. Benting, for instance. We near the Belgian frontier so as to ena T)

HERE is evidence that the Aircraft a rai way track it means eight troops in a very short time. The French Board is ready for its stupendous hours' work for the Germars. We want headquarters knew this. We knew that task in the manner in which it has vo do more of this. We can't now-we the Germans were planning to invade utilized and coördinated coöperation all can't spare the machines, for most of Belgium, but we thought that the along the line and in the manner in them are engaged in reconnaissance main attack would come thru Alsace, which it is providing for aviation trainwork, which is not nesersary. Bomb- which—Heaven help us!—we shall have ing. Three of nine camps appropriated ing is done by squadrons, and, since one back again! So only three French army for are rapidly being made in readiness. in hardy ever in the air at all without corps were sent to Belgium, and Joffre And already, waiting for them to be anti-aircraft gunfire breaking near, the hurried the rest and all reserves east- finished, in dozens of colleges the most casualties are high"_the casualties ward.

alert men of the land-college athletes among the aviators are fourth, it is “It was the French aviators that preferably — are learning the rudikaid officially, in point of percentage, flew with the word that tremendous ments, in special concentrated courses, in the English army.

masses of troops were pouring thru of military training, of machine gun "Often," Major Rees went on, “you Belgium. The aviators brought that handling, astronomy (aviators must we machines coming back with wires word in time. They saved France from know that, for they often have to steer streaming out behind them, or some annihilation.

by the stars), of navigation, waiting other part just hanging to the rest, or, “And again at the battle of the for those camps to be got ready to perhaps the engine has had a cylinder Somme. At Verdun the aviators had receive them, after which camp traincrippled. Nearly every machine is hit been saved for the Somme. That was ing they will see further training somewhere on every trip. If you look right. And then, for three weeks, dur- abroad. at the airdrome behind the lines you ing that great battle, the Allies, as a

In land warfare aeroplanes are used will find one-half the machines can fly, result, held domination in the air. The in a thousand ways. England is prothe other half are being repaired. If result was that our artillery fire was viding for fifteen thousand during the we can repair the machine in two days conducted splendidly.

coming year-evidence enough of their we do w), otherwise we send it back to “The German beast was blinded. The usefulness. the depot. eyes of his artillery were out.”

In sea warfare they are almost as All this goes on day by day, Sunday:

important, altho used in numbers conand all. We start at work at 2:30 in


ow let us Americans consider the siderably smaller. The “America"—the the morning and continue until after situation! Let us ascertain whether giant seaplane that was scheduled to sunset. The last patrol stays up to spoi in this article I have written mere cross the Atlantic just when the war the enemy flashes. In the twilight, one enthusiasm of a kind that in the days of broke out—demonstrated some of the can see the flashes much easier.

the first aero meets in America stirred uses of the seaplane soon after it was We send over our lines every day a imagination more than anything else! set to scout work in British waters. thousand machines. The average time Let us note that we can without doubt Once it swooped down and crippled the ix two hours a day. A machine hard!y send over thousands of troops, but will periscope of a submarine. Twice, soon ever continues in service fifty hours. they arrive too late? Will they be afterward, it saw, from its perch on Either it is shot up or has to have new poured down a bottomless sluice and high, submarines under water. It

watched, circling about, calling its It has had the coöperation of the Na- 3000 machines in the first year and friends the water craft, till they came tional Advisory Committee for Aerc- 4000 or 5000 in the two succeeding up and “finished the job."

nautics—which has been at work for years, on the basis of keeping 1000 ma Enough has been written to make over two years--and the aid of not a chines in the air, on which basis we sha!) clear—if any one longer doubts—the few technical institutions such as Mas- need two extra engines for every mamilitary uses of the aeroplane. It is no sachusetts Institute of Technology and chine. Engines wear out and need overexaggeration to say that just as a man many of the facilities of Cornell. Al- hauling constantly." without a club has little chance with together, thus, important steps toward These problems all are complex, but a man who has a club—about as little standardization of army-navy aero- they are now in the background and the chance as a man with bow and arrow planes have been taken. The thirty odd question of supplying more than 3000 has against a man with a revolver—so aeroplane manufacturers in America, machines in the first year is coming it has become convincingly clear to who have been making machines of more and more pertinently into the forethose in close touch with the military nearly as many models, coöperated ad- ground. “Three thousand machines,” situation abroad that an army without mirably with the National Advisory said a Government official, “are not aeroplanes is, in no small degree, at the Committee at the beginning and are co- enough." mercy of an army equipt with them. operating with the council now. Mor Such assertion have become more France has thousands of aeroplanes. over, the whole aeroplane industry is and more prevalent and have, of course, England has more. We in America particularly mobile and plastic because had their effect on Chairman Coffin. His have hardly any. Yet, considering our it is new and enthusiastic. It is hard to point of view is, very briefly, this: "If infinite coast and border line, we should believe, in fact, how many of the men the Government wants more machines have most of all.

engaged in it and how many technical it simply needs to supply the money and But the point isn't what we should men engaged primarily with other func- say so. We'll get them !" have—the point is what we must have tions have given their time and efforts And America, it is believed, is going to keep the Germans from winning the and funds toward working out army- to need them! America—so the convicwar!

navy aeroplane problems—problems of tion is everywhere gaining strengthAnd three thousand machines are instruments such as those involved in must, and can, match her eagles against not enough! Not nearly enough.

making altimeters, drift meters, tachom- any brood of flying machines that there Week by week, however, especially eters, other meters; problems of find- are. We don't all realize that we have since the foreign missions came to ing a substitute for the surface cloth got to provide ourselves with the effiAmerica, there has been growing in heretofore imported from Ireland and cient means for all possible combinaWashington a general conviction that England; problems of providing a sub- tions that may arise in this war; we the war can be won with aeroplanes. stitute for weather-dried spruce, the must remember that the aeroplane enThe Aero Club of America has been for ideal wood for aeroplanes—a substitute ters as a common factor into more posyears arguing eloquently for the devel- of high specific density, even a metal, sible combinations against an enemy opment of our aerial resources. General that can be got ready for extensive man than any other war factor. We can proSquier and the Signal Corps in Wash- ufacture in much less time than the duce aeroplanes almost without numington have done wonders toward lay- year or two years required to season ber; and there is need of them almost ing out the lines that Howard Coffin, of spruce in the open air. All technical without number. It is certain that we the Council of National Defense, with problems, practically, have been met shall need many for defense; it is certhe members of the committee of which and solved. Even engine difficulties have tain that we shall want more and more he is chairman, is ready to utilize in been overcome nearly altogether, and for offense. They are—these Amerigetting together an aerial fleet. The the engine problem is an important one. can eagles—characteristically American council is given the task of mobilizing “The needs of the army and navy,” said “birds,” fit emissaries to prompt the the phases of industry necessary to the J. F. Victory, of the Advisory Commit- boche that we are on the job. building of 3000 planes the first year. tee, in May, "are now estimated to be Washington

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© Underwood & Underwood

These aviators, sent from France to instruct American airmen, are inspecting a New York aviation training station in company with American
officers and aeronautic men. They are, from left to right: Lt. de Mandrot; Henry Woodhouse, governor of the Aero Club of America ; Lt. Marquisan;
Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, U. S. N.; Lt. Montriol; Allan R. Hawley, president of the Aero Club of America; Capt. Fitzgerald ; Lt. Ducas;

Lt. Rader, of the U. S. Air Service; Lt. Mairesse ; Lt. Nasser; and Lt. Lemaire

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